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1 522 1 850 



Sub-Lieutenant R.N.V.R., M. A. (Cantab.), F.E.G.S. 








In the following pages I have tried to give an account of 
the long series of naval wars which took place in the Baltic 
during the sailing-ship epoch. The principal feature of these 
wars was their exclusiveness, and the way in which they were 
for the most part decided without involving the fleets of the 
Western Powers. It is true that in the seventeenth century 
the Dutch played some part in Baltic affairs, and that the 
inclusion of the Baltic Powers in the Napoleonic struggle 
naturally brought them into contact with England; but in a 
general way. the history of naval warfare in the Baltic can be 
looked on as a distinct section, and can best be treated as such. 

I have dealt with the subject in detail from the year 1563 
to the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815, and have, for the 
sake of completeness, sketched in outline the course of events 
between 1522 and 1563 and between 1815 and 1850. Through- 
out I have endeavoured to give as much detailed information 
as possible, but have purposely refrained from any discussion 
of the reasons or lessons of the various operations. This is 
where my treatment of the subject differs from that of Vice- 
Admiral Kirchoff in his " Seemacht in der Ostsee." He deals 
with the greater part of the period more or less from the point 
of view adopted by Captain Mahan in his works on general 
naval history, while I have tried to follow more in the footsteps 
of James, and give facts without comment. 

Most of the information contained in this book has been pub- 
lished before in one form or another, but its collation and 
combination has involved a considerable amount of work, and 
has necessitated the study of a large number of authorities in 
at least six different languages. A list of the more important 
works which I have used will be found at the end of the book. 
A certain amount of information comes, however, from unpub- 
lished sources in the Dutch, Danish, and Swedish archives, and 
here I must express my thanks to Mr. Van E/iemsdyk, chief of 
the Dutch archives, and to his assistant, Mr. Ross, for their 
help in supplementing the somewhat meagre accounts of Dutch 
operations in the Baltic to be found in the standard histories, 
and also to Mr. Tunberg. of the Provincial archives at Upsala, 
for help with the Swedish records. 

I have found some difficulty with regard to the spelling of 
proper names. I have spelt names of places and people 


in a general way, as they are spelt in the countries to which 
they belong; but in the case of a few large towns I have 
thought it best to retain the ordinary English spelling. The 
spelling of ship names has been difficult for several reasons. 
First comes the fact that in the earlier periods there were 
often several ways of spelling one name, and in these cases I 
have made no attempt at uniformity, but have left the reader 
to exercise his judgment. Secondly comes the Scandi- 
navian practice of joining the definite article en or et to the 
end of the substantive to which it belongs. To keep this 
article would lead to referring to a ship as the " the Rose," for 
example, and I have accordingly removed it, but in the case of 
obsolete names it is difficult to be sure of doing this correctly ; 
I can only hope that Swedish and Danish readers will recognise 
the difficulty and overlook the errors. The third difficulty lay 
in the transliteration of Russian names to the Latin alphabet, 
but I have tried to do this in such a way that it is more or less 
obvious what letters the Russian word contained in its original 

The book undoubtedly contains many imperfections, but I 
hope that it contains few actual mistakes, and I know that it 
gives a fuller account of the period than has yet been 
attempted; perhaps in the amount and (I hope) the accuracy 
of the matter the reader will find cause to forgive the manner 
in which it is presented. 




. . 1522-1560 

. . PAGE 1 


.. 1563-1570 

.. 4 

II. . . 

. . 1570-1610 


III. . . 

. . 1611-1643 

. . 29 


. . 1643-1645 


V. .. 

. . 1652-1667 

.. 71 

VI. . . 

. . 1668-1679 



. . 1680-1709 


VIII. . . 

'. . 1709-1714 

.. ,, 142 

IX. . . 

.. 1715-1719 

.. ,, 162 

X. .. 




. . 1722 1755 



. . 1755-1788 



.. 1788-1790 

. 241 


. . 1791-1802 


XV. . . 

.. 1803-1815 



. . 1815-1850 

.. 350 


Nos. I. to X. 

. . (Ships Lost) . . 

. . PAGE 353 

No. XI. . . 

(The Coast Flotillas) 

. . 375 





Naval Actions 

and Operations 

. . PAGE 381 

Naval Officers 

. . 

.. 383 





I. .. 

facing page 54 


II. .. 



III. .. 

,, 120 


IV. .. 


V. .. 



VI. .. 



VII. . . 

, ,,181 


VIII. . . 


IX. .. 




f 1 

XL .. 


1 > 

XII. . . 

,, 272 


XIII. . . 

,, ,,277 


XIV. . . 



XV. .. 

,, 285 

XVI. .. 

, H 291 


XVII. . . 




In 139T, by the " Union of Kalmar," the three kingdoms 
of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden were united under Margaret. 
This Union, though by no means popular, lasted in name for 
over a century. Shaken, and even broken, several times, it 
again became a fact in 1457 under Christian I., but on his 
death the Swedes broke away once more. In 1520 Sweden was 
reconquered by Christian II. of Denmark and Norway, only 
to be lost again almost at once on the rise of Gustaf Yasa. 
Two years later Christian II. was deposed in Denmark also 
and succeeded by his uncle, Frederik I. At this time Goth- 
land was held for Denmark by Severin Norrby, the former 
admiral of Christian II., and served him as a base for piratical 
operations. Attacked by Gustaf, King of Sweden, Norrby 
acknowledged Frederik as King on condition of being recog- 
nised as governor of Gothland, but suddenly in 1525 he invaded 
Skane (or Scania), the southern part of Sweden, then a 
province of Denmark, in the name of the exiled Christian II. 
Aided by Gustaf and the Liibeckers, Frederik I. soon defeated 
him, but though depriving him of Gothland, made him 
Governor of two towns in Blekinge, another Danish province 
in Southern Sweden. Norrby could not, however, refrain from 
piracy, and in 1526, joined by a famous freebooter, Klement, 
he had a fleet of ten ships, but was completely defeated by a 
combined Swedish-Lubeck fleet, and forced to fly for safety to 

In 1531 the exiled King Christian II. left the Netherlands 
with a fleet of twenty-five ships to reassert his claims. Ten of 
these ships were lost in the North Sea, but Christian landed 
in Norway, and was again received as King. Next spring a 
combined Danish and Liibeck fleet was sent against him, and 
trusting to a promise of safe-conduct, he came to Copenhagen 
to treat with Frederik, only to be taken captive and sent as 
prisoner to the fortress of Sonderborg in Als, an island on the 
coast of Holstein. 

Frederik died in 1533, and confusion once more broke loose 
in Denmark and Norway. No successor had been chosen, and 
for some time the choice lay between Christian Duke of 
Holstein, Frederik's eldest son, and his younger brother Hans, 
but at this moment Liibeck decided to support the claims of 
Christian II., and put forward Christopher Count of Olden- 



burg as his champion. The real object of this move was 
undoubtedly to make Denmark a mere dependency of Lubeck, 
so as to be able to exclude foreign trade, especially that of the 
"*"" Dutch, from the Baltic. Faced by this danger the Danes 
chose Duke Christian as King, but in the meantime Count 
Christopher had attacked Holstein, taking several towns, and 
then leaving Lubeck in June, 1534, with a fleet of twenty-one 
ships, had quickly become master of Skane, Sjaelland (or 
Zealand), and most of the other Danish islands. At this 
moment Christian III. was chosen King, and took up his task. 
This was made easier by the fact that Lubeck had become 
involved in war with Sweden. King Gustaf had a squadron of 
ten ships ready to help the Danes, but for the moment there 
was no base from which to use them. Further the northern 
part of Jylland (or Jutland), including the town of Aalborg, 
was conquered for Count Christopher by Klement, the former 
associate of Norrby. Christian III. succeeded, however, in 
forcing Lubeck to neutrality as far as concerned Holstein, and 
at the end of the year he defeated and captured Klement, and 
reoccupied the whole of Jylland, though, on the other hand, 
the island of Fyen was taken by the Count. 

Early next year, 1535, the enemies of Lubeck collected a 
considerable fleet. In pursuance of treaty obligations Duke 
Albrecht of Prussia supplied a small squadron, and a number 
of small ships were equipped in Jylland, but the real strength 
of the allied fleet depended on the Swedish contingent of eleven 
vessels. Early in May the Swedish ships reached Gothland, 
and were joined by the Prussians and Danes; in theory the 
Prussian squadron consisted of ten ships and the Danish of 
eleven, reinforced later to eighteen, but at first only six 
Prussians and three Danes materialised. However, the result- 
ing fleet of twenty ships under Peder Skram, a Danish admiral, 
with his flag in the largest Swedish ship, the Stora Krafvel, 
was enough to defeat a squadron of nine hostile ships off Born- 
holm early in June. The defeated enemy fled to Copenhagen, 
but Skram proceeded to Travemunde, the port of Lubeck, 
where he captured a warship and several merchantmen. He 
then sailed to Fyen', and defeated a second Lubeck fleet of ten 
ships, driving them ashore, and capturing all save one small 
vessel, which was burnt. Fyen had meanwhile been retaken 
by Christian III.'s troops, and Skram was now able to recapture 
Langeland, harry the other islands, and finally, in July, 
blockade Copenhagen and Malmo. At the same time Chris- 
tian III. had approached Copenhagen by land, and the Swedes, 
after taking Halmatad, Varberg, and Helsingborg, were able 
to besiege Malmo and Landskrona on the eastern shore of the 

1534-1563. 3 

For the moment fortune was on the side of the two Kings, 
but in November another fleet of eighteen ships arrived from 
Lubeck. The allied fleet was not strong enough to blockade 
the ships in Copenhagen, and at the same time attack this new 
enemy, and the Liibeckers were able to land a large quantity 
of stores for the besieged garrison. Landskrona was, however, 
taken, and used as winter-quarters for the allied fleet, while in 
January, 1536, the fortress of Kronborg (Elsinore), in Sjael- 
land, was also captured. A month later a Peace was con- 
cluded between Christian III. and Lubeck, whereby the latter 
renounced the attempt to support Christian II. ; but this 
brought about the withdrawal of the Swedish fleet, since King 
Gustaf considered that Christian III. had no right to conclude 
a separate agreement. Skram, however, got to sea with a force 
of fourteen Danish and ten Prussian ships, captured several 
merchantmen, and assisted in the sieges of Malmo and Copen- 
hagen. Count Christopher and Duke Albrecht of Mecklen- 
burg, who had to a great extent displaced him as the leader of 
the party of Christian II., hoped for help from the Emperor, 
and Charles V. went as far as to order a Dutch fleet to relieve 
Copenhagen, but the Dutch, afraid of the result if Copenhagen 
passed into the power of Lubeck, did not hurry the equipment 
of this fleet, and eventually the outbreak of war with France 
gave the Emperor plenty to do elsewhere. At last, in April, 
Malmo surrendered, and at the end of July Copenhagen fol- 
lowed suit. Duke Albrecht and Count Christopher were 
granted a safe conduct out of the country. This put an end to 
the war, though it was not until next year that Peace was 
concluded between Sweden and Lubeck, while about the same 
time Denmark and the Empire agreed to an armistice for three 

Still, in 1538, it was considered necessary to equip a fleet to 
act in conjunction with the Prussians in preventing any attack 
by the Dutch. In 1542 a fleet of twenty-six Danish ships was 
in the North Sea, and in 1543, on the resumption of hostilities 
with the Empire, no less than forty ships were sent to guard 
against a Dutch attack. Next year Peace was definitely 
signed ; but now the Duke of Mecklenburg became active again, 
and it was necessary for both Denmark and Sweden to have 
fleets in the Baltic to watch him. In 1554 and 1555, a con- 
siderable Danish fleet cruised in the North Sea to suppress 
French privateers, and, in the latter year, the Swedish fleet 
was commissioned to meet a Russian attack on Finland, but no 
other naval events of importance took place before the outbreak 
in 1563 of the war known as the " Northern Seven Years' War." 

B 2 



King Gustaf I. of Sweden had died in July, 1560, and had 
been succeeded by his son Erik XIV. The new King was 
twenty years old, one year younger than Frederik II., who 
had come to the Danish throne on the death of his father Chris- 
tian III., on New Year's Day, 1559. These two young 
monarchs soon found excuses for a quarrel. No alteration had 
been made in the Danish Royal Arms, consequent on the with- 
drawal of Sweden from the Union in 1523, and they consisted 
still of the Three Crowns. As a counter-demonstration Erik 
XIV. added the Danish and Norwegian arms to his own, and 
thus provided one good reason for difficulties between the two 

Following on this, operations against pirates in the Gulf 
of Finland led, in 1562, to the seizure of Revel by Sweden 
from Magnus Duke of Esthonia, brother of Frederik II. 
Furthermore, finding that on his seizure of Revel the trade of 
that port was diverted to Narva, Erik XIV. sent a small fleet 
to blockade the latter town and announced that all trade with 
"Russia must be carried on through Revel. This fleet captured 
a considerable number of ships; the majority were from 
Lubeck, and these were confiscated, but the Danish vessels were 
merely warned and released. 

The final excuse for war came in 1563. Erik XIV., after 
trying in vain to arrange a marriage for himself, firstly with 
Queen Elizabeth of England, and then with Mary Queen of 
Scots, turned now to Princess Kristina of Hesse. The idea of 
this match was exceedingly distasteful to Frederik II., and 
he took the extreme measure of arresting the Swedish Ambas- 
sadors to the Court of Hesse on their way through Denmark. 
At once both sides began active preparations for war, and at 
the same time Erik XIV., seeing that it would be impossible 
for the Princess to come to Sweden through Denmark, decided 
to send a fleet to Rostock to fetch her. 

On May 24th Jakob Bagge left Stockholm with twelve ships,* 
and on the 30th the first fighting took place. Frederik II. 

* Elefant 65 ; Svan 82 ; Hector 87 ; Christopher 58 ; Engel 49 ; Forgylta 
Lejon ; Hvita Talk ; Calmar Bark 48 ; Wasterwiks Bark 35 ; Hok ; Stal 
Boi/ort ; Nykopin^s Bark 32. 

Tornquist i. 30. Guns Tornquist i. Ap. B. (1566), except Elefant, which is 
from Zettersten i. 412 n. Some Swedish accounts give their fleet as nineteen 
ships (Westling 18 n.) ; while the Danish story gives it as twenty-two. 



had given orders to stop all trade with Swedish ports, and on 
May 21st Jacob Brockenhuus had left Copenhagen for the 
Baltic with eight ships,* while four ships were sent to the North 
Sea. The Danes were at anchor off Bornholm when the Swedish 
fleet was sighted. As a sign that he did not intend hostilities 
Brockenhuus left the greater part of his fleet at anchor and 
proceeded with the Hercules 81, Hector 38, and Hjort 46 to- 
wards the Swedes to ascertain their intentions. On coming 
within range he fired three shots as a challenge, and, either by 
accident or design, one of these passed through the fore top- 
sail of the Swedish flagship. Bagge at once opened fire, the 
Danes were surrounded, the Hercules, Brockenhuus' flagship, 
lost her mainmast, and after four hours the three Danish ships 
had to surrender. t The rest of the Danish fleet returned to 
Copenhagen, while Bagge continued his voyage to Warne- 
miinde; he arrived there on June 3rd, but as before, the 
Swedish King's matrimonial plans fell through, and after wait- 
ing in vain for some time the fleet returned home, reaching 
Stockholm on June 24th. 

Meanwhile, in the Gulf of Finland, two small Swedish squad- 
rons were continuing the blockade of all ports save Revel, 
and the consequent capture of a number of ships from Liibeck 
naturally led to war. Liibeck declared war on Sweden on July 
9th. and on the 21st Frederik II. followed suit. 

On August 5th the Danish fleet put to sea. It consisted of 
twenty-seven warships, with a number of small craft, and was 
joined by six ships from Liibeck. It was commanded by Peder 
Skram, who had led the combined Danish, Swedish, and Ger- 
man fleet in the war of 1535. He was seventy- two years old, but 
was forced from his retirement to take charge of the Danish fleet 
once more. After a visit to the German coast to drive Swedish 
corsairs from the trade routes Skram proceeded towards Goth- 
land. About the same time, on September 3rd, Bagge got to 
sea with the Swedish fleet of twenty-seven ships. % The Danish 
fleet carried out an unsuccessful landing in Oland, and the 
Swedes a simultaneous and equally fruitless attempt on Goth- 
land. On September 10th the two fleets sighted one another, 
and next day an action took place north of Gothland. Only 
thirteen of the Swedish ships were engaged, but the action was 
quite indecisive; darkness separated the fleets, and they re- 

* Garde Eft. i. 53. Some Swedish accounts say 12, and some eleven (Westling 

t According to the Swedes, the Danish Achilles and C hristopher were damaged, 
but Danish accounts do not mention their having been engaged. 

J Tornquist says only eighteen ships (i. 32), but some authorities give it in the 
action of September llth as about forty ships. Some may have joined from 
Finland (Westling 45 n.). 


turned to their respective bases at Elfsnabben, outside Stock- 
holm, and at Copenhagen, to refit. Bille, the Danish Vice- 
Admiral, was killed. The Swedes did not appear at sea again 
this year, but Skram stayed out until forced home by the 
approach of winter. 

Neither side was satisfied. Frederik II. removed Skram 
from the command of the fleet and sent him to take charge of 
the Castle of Lalholin, in Halland. Here he beat off attacks 
by the Swedes in 1565 and 1568, and eventually died on his 
farm in 1581 at the age of ninety. ErikXIV., on the other hand, 
kept Bagge in command, but deprived him and all his flag- 
officers of one year's pay, and did everything possible to show 
his dissatisfaction. Meanwhile the Danish army had succeeded 
in capturing Elfsborg, a fortress and dockyard on the Gota Elf 
just below the present site of Gothenburg. The town had been 
burnt by its inhabitants, and the fortress surrendered on Sep- 
tember 4th. Two ships under construction were captured by 
the Danes, fitted out, and added to the Danish fleet as the 
Svenske Jomfru and Krabatt. 

Next year, 1564, Herlof Trolle was appointed to com- 
mand the Danish fleet. He left Copenhagen with twenty-six 
ships on May 8th, sailed finally from Drager on the llth, and 
was joined off Bornholm by nine Liibeck vessels under Knebel. 
Trolle arranged twenty-seven of his ships (21 Danes and 6 
Ltibeckers) in a somewhat elaborate formation in three lines; 
the centre was an ordinary line-ahead led by the flagship For- 
tuna, but the other lines were, roughly speaking, bow and 
quarter lines, with their leading ships on either quarter of the 
flagship. The heavier ships were in the centre, and the result 
was a wedge-shaped body with the flagship at its point. The 
six Liibeck ships were put towards the rear, but with two 
Danish ships astern of them in each line. Five Danish small 
craft, with the three smallest Lubeckers and the merchant brig 
Achilles, were told off as scouts. 

The allied fleet was off Gothland on May 24th, and met the 
Swedes between that island and Oland on the 30th. The 
Swedish fleet, which was again under Bagge, had left Dalaro, 
near Stockholm, two days before; it consisted of twenty- 
three ships,* but no details of its arrangement are to be found. 
Still, when the action began at about 3 p.m. on May 30th both 
fleets were scattered and in disorder. The Swedish flagship 
Mars 173, t supported by only two other ships, was attacked by 

* Zottorsten (i. 415 and n.) contradicts the usual statement that it was 35 
ships strong (Tornquist i. 34), but it is worth noticing that Trolle estimated it at 
38 (Garde. Hist. i. 62). Possibly it left Delaro with 23 ships and was joined by 
others at sea. 

t Called also the Makalos and the Jvtehatar. She was a new ship, just 
completed at Kalmar, and was the biggest ship in the Baltic, if not in the world. 

1564. 7 

Trolle in the Fortuna, also with only two immediate supporters ; 
the Mars had rigged out booms which made boarding impos- 
sible, but the Fortuna was driven out of action with the loss of 
her mainyard and a Liibeck ship, the Lange Bark, which had 
joined in the action, was sunk with all hands. The fight ended 
as night came on, but began again next morning. At first the 
wind was easterly ; the Swedes were to windward, but still scat- 
tered, and the Mars 173, Elefant 65, Finska Svan 82, and 
Svenska Hektor 87 were a good deal to leeward of the rest of 
their fleet. Trolle attacked, as on the previous day, with the 
Fortuna, Byens Leffue 56, and Arck, and, fortunately, the wind 
shifted to N.W., putting the Liibeck ships, which were pre- 
viously to leeward, in a position to join in the action and 
preventing help from reaching the Mars and her consorts. 

As before, the Fortuna was driven out of action and the other 
two Danish ships badly damaged, but the Liibeckers now came 
up and joined in the fight. The Liibeck flagship Engel, 
followed by the Fuchs, boarded the Mars on the weather side, 
while the Byens Leffue did the same astern. At this moment 
the Mars took fire, but whether before or after surrendering is 
uncertain; the flames spread fast, and she blew up, with most 
of her crew and some three hundred of the enemy. Bagge, 
his second in command, Arved Trolle, and about a hundred 
men were saved and taken as prisoners to the Engel and Byens 
Loffue. Fleming in the Elefant took charge of the Swedish 
fleet, and withdrew to Elfsnabben,* while the Allies went to 
Bornholm for repairs. 

They were ready again by June 12th, and cruised for a 
month in the Western Baltic, using Bornholm as a base. On 
July llth they sailed southwards from Bornholm to look for 
the Swedish fleet, which had put to sea again on the 4th under 
Fleming. On the 14th the Swedes reached Bornholm, and 
anchored in the position formerly occupied by the Allies, with 
the result that a fleet of Liibeck merchantmen arriving on the 
15th from Narva sailed straight into the enemy's hands and 
were captured. f 

A minor action took place on July 12th off Warnemiinde, the 
port of Rostock. Three Danish ships, the Byens Loffue 56, 
Morion 47, and David 42 attacked the Swedish guardship Hvita 
Folk. After defending himself against these heavy odds from 
daybreak till noon Bjornson, the Swedish captain, blew up his 
ship rather than surrender, and perished with all but two of 

* Apart from those lost in the Mars the Swedish fleet had only 101 killed and 
wounded (Westling 60 n.). 

f Tornquist (i. 40) says 18 ships were taken and three burnt. Zettersten 
(i. 416) agrees that the fleet consisted of 21 ships. He gives 22 names of captured 
ships in a footnote, but says some of these may have been taken in the Gulf of 
Finland. Garde, on the other hand (Hist. i. 65), only mentions 14 ships. West- 
ling (68 n.) gives various estimates. 


his men. The Allies apparently remained near the German 
coast for some time, since the Swedes, who reached the northern 
end of Oland on July 18th, saw nothing of them, in spite of a 
short cruise at the end of July and beginning of August. 

At last, early in August, Fleming proposed to send his bigger 
ships home, but when Erik XIV. heard of this he not only sent 
strict orders to the contrary, but also sent Klas Horn, the 
commander of the army in Smaland, to supersede him. 

Horn joined the fleet north of Oland on August 12th, and the 
same day the Allies were sighted. The Danish and Swedish 
accounts are difficult to reconcile, but apparently what hap- 
pened was somewhat as follows* : The Allies were first 
sighted in the morning of August 12th coming from the south 
with a strong south-westerly wind. Horn weighed anchor, 
and ran towards Gothland, where he re-formed his fleet. Mean- 
while the allied fleet came to anchor off the northern end of 
Oland and landed men" to ravage the neighbourhood. In the 
afternoon the wind shifted to the north, enabling the Swedes 
to attack. Trolle therefore got under way and accepted battle, 
standing in towards the northern end of Kalmar Sound. Dark- 
ness put an end to the fighting, and the fleets parted. Next 
morning the Allies were anchored off the south-east coast of 
Oland, and at first intended to give battle at anchor, but on a 
shift of wind in the afternoon promising them some advantage 
they weighed, and a second running fight began. At nightfall 
Trolle steered towards Gothland, with the enemy between him 
and the Swedish coast. During the night three Danish ships 
were captured. The Svenske Jomfru, together with the three 
ships wnich had been in action with the Hvita Folk a month 
before, coming to rejoin the Danish main body, ran into the 
Swedish fleet instead through mistaking a signal of three shots 
made by Horn to his own ships for the corresponding Danish 
signal. The SvensJce Jomfru managed to escape, but the other 
three, the Byens Leffue 56, Morian 47, and David 42 were 
captured. Next morning the Swedes, with their prizes, went 
into Kalmar Sound, where the Elefant 65 ran aground and, 
though refloated, sank on the 16th while under repair. The 
Allies remained at sea until the end of September, when the 
Danish fleet returned to Copenhagen, but the Swedes did not 
leave Kalmar Sound until September 27th, when Horn sailed 
for Stockholm, leaving a few ships at Kalmar under Fleming. 

A few other naval events had taken place in 1564. A Swedish 
squadron of fourteen ships had been stationed in the Gulf of 

Tornquist says the action took place on the 12th and 13th. Garde, basing 
his account on Trolle's report, says the 14th. Zettersten appears to indicate 
that it began on the 12th, but calls the second day the 14th. At any rate, it 
seem* that the Danish version relates only to the second day's fighting. 

1564-1565. 9 

Finland, and, besides taking a large number of merchantmen, 
had captured two Danish warships, the Flygande Serpent 8 
and the Skotske Pink 56. On the other hand, three Danish 
ships, the Due, Svan, and Engel, under Admiral Erik Mirnk, 
had assisted at the recapture of Stenvigholm near Trondhjem 
at the end of May. 

The first blow in 1565 was struck by the Swedes. 
Horn, who had left Stockholm on May 3rd and Dalaro on the 
15th, arrived off the New Deep, the eastern end of the strait 
between Rugen and the mainland, on May 21st. His fleet con- 
sisted of 48 ships, with 1,688 guns and 4,034 men. In the 
New Deep he found four Danish ships,* under Peder Huitfeld, 
blockading the eastern approach to Stralsund, and sent in eight 
or nine of his ships next day to attack them. Huitfeld saw 
there was no chance of escape, so ran his ships ashore, removed 
as much as possible of their armament and equipment, and set 
them on fire. The question of neutrality was solved by the 
Swedes' abstaining from attacking on condition that he gave all 
the guns into the charge of the Duke of Pomerania to be kept 
until the end of the war. In the same waters were the Danish 
small craft Enkhusiske Jungfrau and Danske Falk, with three 
Lubeckers, the Syrig, Lybsche Trotz, and the pink Fuchs. The 
four first-named ships were handed over to the Duke of 
Pomerania, but the Fuchs was captured and carried off by the 
Swedes in defiance of all neutral rights. 

Following on this, Horn proceeded northwards. Off Fal- 
sterbo he found the Lubeck contingent waiting for the Danes, 
but on his approach they fled to Copenhagen. t Lack of know- 
ledge of the channel prevented him following further than 
Drager, where he arrived on May 27th and remained three days, 
during which period he took several merchantmen. { Hearing 
that a very large ship was completing at Travemiinde, the 
mouth of the Lubeck river, he took his whole fleet thither, but 
the Lubeckers managed to lighten her enough to haul her in- 
shore out of effective range. Meanwhile the Danes had been 
putting the finishing touches to their preparations. On June 
1st Trolle left Copenhagen with twenty-eight Danish and 
Lubeck ships. Five more Lubeckers joined off Femern, and 
on June 4th the Swedish fleet was sighted off Buchow, on the 
coast of Mecklenburg, north of Wismar. 

* Arck, Nactergal, Bj0rn, Hamborger Jeger (Garde Eft. i. 57). 

t Their flagship the Engel had been accidentally burnt since their sailing 
from Travemiinde on May 18th. (Tornquist i. 44. Westling 99.) 

J He is said to have taken four large Danish merchantmen and one from 
Danzig, besides levying toll on no less than 250 Dutch ships homeward bound 
from Danzig. (Tornquist i. 45. Zettersten i. 418). Garde, however (Hist. i. 71), 
shows the improbability of these figures. 

Westling's figures (99) are : Danes, 13 ; Lubeckers, 12. 


The Allies were to windward, and ran down to attack, while 
the Swedes hauled to the wind to meet them ; the action began 
soon after midday. Trolle, in his flagship, the new vessel 
JegerTnesther 90, attacked the Finska Syan 32 and drove her 
away to leeward, while J0rgen Brahe, in the Merkurius, was 
engaged with the Swedish flagship St. Erik 90, and Erik Rud 
in the Svenske Jomfru with Per Bagge in the Svenska Hektor 
87. The JegerTnesther attacked in turn the Herkules 81, Engel 
49, and Pelikan, but the booms which all the Swedish ships had 
rigged out all round prevented boarding. Finally she came to 
the quarter of the Troilus 44, and managed to get a grapnel fast 
in the enemy's mizzen rigging, but here again a boom prevented 
the ships getting to close quarters. Still the JegerTnesther was 
so much bigger than the Troilus that her weight acting on the 
end of this boom and on the grapnel, gave the smaller ship 
such a list that the lower deck ports came under water. Never- 
theless, Shenk, her captain, refused to think of surrender, and 
after a short time, by cutting away the mizzen rigging the 
Troilus got free, though with the loss of her mizzen mast. In 
this part of the action Trolle was wounded severely in the arm 
and the leg. As the afternoon went on the wind dropped, and 
at last, when night stopped the action, there was a flat calm, so 
that the Swedes had to tow their ships clear of the enemy to be 
safe from boarding. All through the next day the calm con- 
tinued, but on the 6th a breeze sprang up. The Swedes went 
to Bornholm, and Trolle took his fleet back to Kjoge Bay. Here 
he landed on June 8th, but though his wounds, if treated at 
once would not have been dangerous, the exertions of the last 
four days had aggravated them, and now it was too late to rest. 
He died on June 25th, at the early age of forty-nine, and three 
days later Jergen Brahe, his second in command, died also 
from an attack of fever. 

The fleet was now put under the orders of Otto Rud, who 
made every effort to get it fit for sea once more. Meanwhile 
the Swedish fleet, now forty-eight ships strong, had appeared 
off Falsterbo on June 17th, carried out a landing in Meen on 
the 25th, and sailed to Rugen, where several ships from Fin- 
land joined on July 3rd. Leaving Rugen, Horn sailed north- 
wards, and on July 7th, between Bornholm and Rugen, he met 
the allied fleet, which had sailed from Copenhagen on the 2nd. 
Apparently the Allies had thirty-six ships, including fourteen 
Ltibeckers, and the Swedes forty-nine.* As before, the Allies 
came down with the wind, and began the action at 12.30 p.m. 
Otto Rud, in the Jegermesther 90, laid himself alongside the 

* Several versions give the Allies as 22 Danes and 14 Lubeckera (Munthe iv. 
68. Westling 100 n.). Garde (Hist. i. 75) says the Swedes were the stronger by 
thirteen ships. 

1565. 11 

Swedish flagship St. Erik 90, the Danske Christopher, under 
Nils Trolle, and the Svenske Jomfru, under Erik "Rud, attacked 
Horn's next astern the Finska Svan 82, while the Lubeck flag- 
ship Josua attacked the David 42, which, with the Troilus 44, 
was supporting the Svenska Hektor 87. The Grip came to 
assist the David, whereupon a third Lubecker, much larger than 
she, sailed into her and sank her, but sustained such injuries 
that she also sank while in action with the Troilus. This left 
the Troilus free, and she therefore took up a position on the 
disengaged side of the Danske Christopher. The position was 
now as follows : the Danske Christopher lay between two 
Swedes, the Troilus and the Finska Svan; while on the bow of 
the last-named was the Danish flagship Jegermesther engaged 
on her other side with the St. Erik, and with the Bose Lejon* 
56, raking her from aft. Finally the Danske Christopher sank, 
but before this both the St. Erik and Finska Svan were badly 
damaged, and in the latter Sten Sture the Swedish Vice- Ad- 
miral and his captain, Baner, were killed. Nils Trolle, in the 
Danske Christopher, had been wounded and was lost with the 
ship, but a good many of her crew saved themselves by board- 
ing the small Swedish ship St. Goran, capturing her, and thus 
escaping. Fire broke out in the Swedish Gyllende Lejon,^ 
and before she was completely burnt she scattered the two 
fleets in such a way that the Jegermesther was left unsupported. 
Surrounded by enemies, she fought on, but at length, with all 
save 100 of a crew of 1,100 killed or wounded, and with his 
ship badly damaged in hull and rigging, Otto Rud, himself 
slightly wounded, was forced to surrender at 9.30 p.m. 

Swedish accounts say that the Danish ship Svan was sunk 
and two others captured, but probably the Danish version is 
correct here.^ In the same way, the Danes claim to have sunk 
two more Swedish vessels, which were, as a matter of fact, in 
commission next year. Taking the admitted losses, the Allies 
had two ships sunk, the Danske Christopher and a Lubeck ship, 
and one captured, the Jegermesther 90. The Swedes also lost 
three ships, the Grip, sunk; the Gyllende Lejon, burnt; and 
the St. Goran, taken; but these were smaller and less import- 
ant than those lost by the Allies. The loss in men was heavy; 
on the Swedish side the figures given are 362 killed and 523 
severely wounded, but besides this the three ships lost had a 
combined complement of 485, and most of these must have been 
killed, drowned, or taken prisoner. The loss of the Allies was 

* Ex Danish By ens L0ffue. 

t Or Forgylda Lejon. 

% All captured Danish ships were returned at the end of the war, and there is 
no trace of these two (Garde Hist. i. 91). The Svan is in the list for 1566 (Garde 
Eft. i. 60). 

Svenska Hektor 87 and Calmar Bark 48. 


probably greater. According to their own account 1,100 men 
were killed or captured in the Jegermesther, while the two 
ships sunk must have represented a loss of at least 1,000 between 
them. Furthermore, the Swedes had taken the Danish flag- 
ship and sunk the second in command, so that there is no doubt 
of their ri^ht to consider the battle as a victory, though by no 
means decisive. As usual, both sides withdrew to their respec- 
tive bases. The Allies went to Copenhagen and the Swedes 
sailed for Dalaro, arriving there on July 14th. They were re- 
ceived with great rejoicing, and a " triumph " was organised 
in which the Danish prisoners had to take part. Otto Hud 
died in October from the plague then raging in Sweden. 

On August 8th Horn was ordered to put to sea again with the 
whole fleet. He left Dalaro on the 20th, but head winds kept 
him at Elfsnabben till September 5th. He then sailed to Born- 
holm and drove ten or twelve sail of the Allies into the Sound 
on the 12th, but was forced by stress of weather to anchor off 
Bornholm. He made an unsuccessful attempt to land in the 
island, and then, hearing that the Allies were laying up their 
ships, he withdrew to Kalmar, leaving a few ships at Born- 
holm. He remained at Kalmar from September 19th to Octo- 
ber 25th, when he sailed for Stockholm, and arrived there on 
November 1st. Meanwhile the allied fleet was apparently at 
sea under Erik Rud, but did nothing of interest. As before, 
there had been a Swedish fleet in the Gulf of Finland, consist- 
ing this year of thirteen ships, under Lars Larsson in the 
Enhorning 41. Their chief prizes were Dutch ships carrying 
salt. Per Larsson was sent late in the year to the German coast 
with a few ships, and finally wintered at Kalmar. 

Again, in 1566 the Swedish fleet was ready first. No less 
than sixty-seven or sixty-eight ships were commissioned,* but 
it is doubtful if all these went to sea. Horn left Stockholm 
on April 28th, but waited nearly a month at Elf snabben, where 
he is said to have had forty-one ships. He put to sea on May 

* List of the Swedish Fleet, 1566. St. Erik 90, Herkules 81, Stockholms Ejort 
53, Danska Marian 44, Kalmar Bark 48, Forgylta Dufva 48, St. Christopher 
58, Rosa 25, Troilus 44, David 43, Enhorning 41, Rdbock 39, Danska Hektor 38, 
Rehn 38, Lilla Christopher 27, Lotsmans Pincka 16, Bla Mdne 24, Stdlndb 19, 
Muericord 10, Sjohund 6, Krejare 8, Vgla, Finska Hok, Svenska Hektor 87, 
Stan 82, Bjorn 38, Hjort 50, Roda Hund 44, Bramare 46, Lilla Svan 50, 
Engelska Pincka 23, Lilia 44, Lilla Hjort 40, Roda Orippa 37, Mdne 38, 
Westerviks Bark 32, Nykbpings Bark 32, Neck 28, Skotska Pincka 56, Lilla 
Orippa 21, TSss 22, Nykoping Skepp 10, Lilla Neck 21, Hamborgare Bojort 6, 
Stora Rdbojort, Neptunus, Jegermesther 84, Bdse Lejon 56, Svenska Marian 54, 
Tranheje 75, Engel 49, Bruno, Lejon 45, Memnon 46, Jonas von Emden 
45, Hollands Oalej 43, Rdda Lejon 38, Prydse 34, Elg 33, Vendekab 
32, Elfsborgs Bark 30, Lilla Pincka 25, Samson 27, Lilla Svan 21, Flygande 
Drake 14, Flygande Sarpent 8, Lilla Ko 12, Lilla Jonas 4, Maria, and Snaphane. 
(Graah, Ap. A.). A list given by Unger (Ap. 4. p. 288-9) is very similar to this. 

1565-1566. 13 

23rd, was off the southern end of Oland from June 1st to 5th, 
and anchored off Bornholm on the 10th. A fortnight later he 
weighed anchor and arrived off Drager on June 26th with 
forty-six ships. As in the previous year, he is said to have 
taken toll from a large number of merchantmen, but on the 
29th he was disturbed. The allied fleet of thirty-six ships,* 
under Hans Lauritson, took advantage of a fair wind and put 
to sea. Horn at once withdrew from the narrow waters, but 
six of his ships went aground. t Lauritson failed to seize the 
opportunity, and waited while his Yice- Admiral Jens Christen- 
son restowed the ballast of the Hannibal, which had shifted 
enough to endanger the ship. This allowed the Swedish ships 
to get afloat again, and now the wind backed to S.W., making 
it impossible for the Allies to weather Falsterbo Point. Tney 
therefore anchored, but a large number of merchantmen which 
had sailed with the fleet from Copenhagen went on and were 
captured. + 

Horn now thought it best to return to Dalaro with his prizes 
and dropped anchor there on July 6th. After taking in stores 
he put to sea again on the 15th and anchored next day off the 
Jungfru Islands, at the northern end of Kalmar Sound. He 
remained here till the 25th, when he weighed, and steered past 
the northern end of Oland. The same day Lauritson, who had 
been cruising in the Eastern Baltic with the allied fleet, also 
approached Oland. The wind was S.W., and the Allies to 
windward, so Horn put back to the mouth of Kalmar Sound 
and anchored there, while the Allies anchored for the night off 
Badevik, on the east coast of Oland. Next morning the wind 
was more southerly. Lauritson sent some small craft to re- 
connoitre, and both fleets weighed anchor. At about 9 a.m. a 
partial action began, but, as usual, it appears to have been 
more or less a series of isolated ship-to-ship combats. The 
Merkurius was badly damaged by the Swedish flagship St. 
Erik 90, which also engaged the Liibeck flagship Morian\ and 
the Danish flagship Samson. The Swedish ship Herkules 81 
was surrounded by the Allies, but relieved by the Svan 82, Bose 
Lejon 56, and Engel 49. The Danish ship Achilles lost her 
captain, Christopher Mogensen. Eventually the Allies with- 

* All accounts agree that he had thirty-six ships. The list for this year (Garde 
Eft. i. 59-61) gives thirty-nine ships, so presumably three joined later. Eleven 
were Liibeckers (Westling 128). 

t No Swedish account mentions this. According to Munthe (iv. 89) Horn put 
to sea on the 27th, two days before the Allies. 

+ Tornquist (i. 54) says 200 salt-ships were taken, but Zettersten says that 
of several hundred merchantmen taken the majority were released on paying 
toll, while 50 salt-ships were kept as prizes. 

Called in the Swedish account (Tornquist i. 56) Styrschweden, the ship which 
had been attacked at Travemiinde in 1565. 


drew towards Gothland followed by the Swedes. As night fell 
the Swedes hauled off from Gothland to keep in deeper water, 
but the Allies anchored off Visby, where they buried Mogensen 
next day. During the 28th the wind shifted to the north and 
blew a gale, with disastrous results for the allied fleet. The 
Danes lost eleven ships, including their three largest, while the 
Lubeckers lost both their flagships and another large vessel. 

The following is a list of the ships lost : 

Danish: Samson, 1,100 men; Hannibal, 943 men; Merku- 
rius, 700 men; Engel, 300 men; Flores, 200 men; Solen, 250 
men; Heyenhald, 200 men; Papegoye, 200 men; Griff e, ^00 
men; EngelsJce Fortuna, and Hertug Olufs Pincke. Lubeck: 
Morian, 1,000 men; Josua, 600 men; Havfru, 300 men. 

The only survivors from these ships were the Vice-Admiral 
of the Lubeck squadron, Jonas Lamferbeck, two Danish cap- 
tains, and seventy-nine men. The Swedes who had been under 
way were more fortunate, for, though many of their ships were 
damaged, more especially the larger vessels, they all managed 
to weather the gale in safety and eventually reached Elfsnab- 
ben on August 6th. 

No further actions took place at sea this year. The smaller 
and less damaged Swedish ships were sent out again under Per 
Larsspn, but the Allies, who had returned to Copenhagen after 
the disaster, remained in harbour, and Larsson only managed 
to take a few merchantmen. King Erik XIV. had intended to 
commence operations in the North Sea, and with this object 
had ordered six ships to be detached from the main fleet to sail 
through the Belt to Varberg,* there to join the local privateers, 
but this plan fell through, and an order to Larsson later in the 
year to send three of his ships to Varberg seems to have had no 
more result. Horn's original instructions contained a clause 
about sending seven ships to the Gulf of Finland after defeating 
the enemy. These conditions were not fulfilled, but there was 
a small squadron in those waters, and three ships wintered in 
Revel. Klas Horn, the Admiral who had done so much for 
Sweden in the last three campaigns, died of plague on Septem- 
ber 9th, 1566, while serving witn the Army. 

The last years of the war were not marked by any 
important naval events. During 1567 the Swedes had their 
usual squadron in the Gulf of Finland, but the main fleet did 
little. It was not ready to leave Elfsnabben until July 12th, 
when Per Bagge, Horn's successor, sailed for Bornholm with 
forty-seven ships. He arrived on the 25th, and did consider- 
able damage ashore, but was off the northern end of Oland on 
August 4th. A gale on the llth drove him into Kalmar 
Sound for safety, and by the end of August he was back at 
In Halland, forty miles south of Gothenburg. Taken from the Danes in 1565. 

1566-1569. 15 

Elfsnabben. The King sent him out again at once, but he met 
no enemy, and returned to Stockholm for the winter on Septem- 
ber 26th. As a matter of fact a small fleet of Danes and 
Liibeckers had been in the Baltic at the same time as Bagge. 
Twelve ships under Bilde were at sea during August, and 
though five of these were laid up at the end of the month, the 
remaining four Danes and three Liibeckers stayed out till 

Some slight activity was shown in the North Sea and Katte- 
gat. The Swedish army marched on Christiania, but the 
attack was frustrated by reinforcements brought by the Danish 
ships in the North Sea. At the same time Peder Huitfeld 
blockaded Varberg, and prevented Per Larsson from putting 
to sea with the three Swedish vessels there. The eight ships 
in the Gulf of Finland were laid up at Viborg in November, 
but as late as December four ships were sent out from Stock- 
holm to act against privateers and pirates. 

Only small detachments of the Swedish fleet put to sea 
in 1568. The usual squadron in the Gulf of Finland was 
raised this year to seventeen ships under Per Larsson, who 
drove off twelve Danzig corsairs from Revel, and captured 
several of them. After this he assisted in the capture of 
Sonneburg in Osel at the end of July, and returned home in 
October, leaving seven or eight ships to winter at Yiborg. 
Three Danish ships attacked Yarberg in April, captured a 
small Swedish warship and five merchantmen, and burnt a 
chartered English warship and several other merchantmen. 
A considerable fleet of Danish and Liibeck ships was at sea in 
the Baltic under Peder Munk, but it met no enemy, and was 
laid up in August suffering from sickness. 

Meanwhile affairs in Sweden were coming to a crisis. The 
cruelty and obstinacy of Erik XIY. had long made him hated, 
and now he put the finishing touch to his people's resentment 
by marrying his mistress and having her crowned Queen. A 
rebellion ensued. Johan Duke of Finland landed in Sweden 
to depose his brother, and on September 29th Erik XIY. 
abdicated. Johan III., the new King, at once made offers of 
peace, but misunderstandings followed, and the war went on 
for some time yet. 

In 1569 ten ships were sent from Stockholm in June to 
join six small vessels from Kalmar and cruise near Born- 
holm. They returned to Dalaro in August without having 
met the enemy, but news of their presence had hurried the 
Danes to sea. Joined by six Liibeck ships Peder Munk was 
sent into the Baltic with the Danish fleet in June. He pro- 
ceeded to Bevel, where there were this year thirteen Swedish 
ships, and here he captured fifty merchantmen besides the 


Swedish warship SkotsJca Pincka 56,* and four Polish corsairs, 
which were foolish enough to open fire on his fleet. He was 
back a^ain at Copenhagen at the end of August. It was pro- 
posed in Sweden in tne autumn to combine the two small 
fleets in commission, and send them to Bornholm, but nothing 
came of the idea. 

Still early in 1570 the eight ships in the Gulf of Fin- 
land were recalled to help to make up a large fleet. On 
July 7th Klas Fleming left Elfsnabben at the head of a fleet 
of forty-one warships and a few transports, with his flag in the 
new ship Roda Drake of 100 guns. On the 16th he reached 
Bornholm, and soon met a squadron of fourteen Danish ships 
under Francke.t The Danes, of course, retreated; but one of 
their ships, the Bjern, was captured. The rest got safely to 
Copenhagen. Fleming remained near Bornholm for ten days 
and captured several merchantmen. He then intended to 
attack Gothland, but lack of provisions forced him to return to 
Dalaro early in August, leaving his smaller ships at Kalmar. 

After the withdrawal of the E/evel squadron the Russians 
had begun siege operations against that town, and it became 
necessary to send relief. Seven ships from Kalmar, which had 
been cruising on the German coast, were, therefore, sent to 
Revel in September, and with detachments from the main fleet 
the force in those waters finally reached the number of nineteen 
ships under Henrik Arvedsson in the Finska Mewnon 46. The 
fleet wintered at Abo and Viborg. The Danish fleet returned 
to the Baltic and took a number of merchantmen, but met no 
other enemy, and on December 13th Peace was concluded at 
Stettin after a congress lasting nearly six months. 

The main conditions of the Treaty of Peace were as follows : 
All territorial gains were given up. Sweden paid an in- 
demnity of 300,000 Riksdalers, gave up all claims on Danish 
territory in the Scandinavian peninsula, and returned the 
eight Danish warships which had been captured. $ Denmark 
also, got back the ships and guns interned in Pomerania. In 
his turn Frederik II. gave back the Fliegende Geist, but kept 
the two ships SvensJce Jomfru and Krabatt, which had been 
captured at Elfsborg. Both Kings were to be allowed to wear 
the Three Crowns in their arms, but not to adopt any other 
part of the arms of their neighbour. The treaty also included 

* Ex Danish. Taken in 1564. 

t He had left Copenhagen with the following fourteen ships (Garde Eft. i. 62) : 
Ldffue, Mage, Galeien i Veaters0en, Bj0rn, Dantke Jomfru, Bolle, Renholt, 
Bulle, Fux, Strudtz, Svale, Isack, Mariflor, Drossel. One ship had been lost in 
the gale, but he had taken the small Swedish warship Fliegende Oeist (Garde 
Hist i. 89). 

* Jegermesther 84, Herkules 81, Byens Loffue 56, David 42, Hector 38, Hjart 
46, Morian 47, and Bj0rn. As a matter of fact, the Hector had been sunk by 
the Swedes and could not be returned (Zettersten i. 361. Garde Hist. i. 91 n.). 

1570-1590. 17 





After the Peace of Stettin Denmark and Sweden were not 
again enemies for forty years. Denmark, in fact, had this 
period of complete peace, but Sweden was not so fortunate. 
Even before the end of the first war with Denmark difficulties 
had arisen with Russia, and the period during which Denmark 
was resting was for Sweden a time of almost constant warfare. 

The first move on the part of the Russians had been 
to invade Esthonia and besiege Revel, but the arrival of a 
considerable Swedish fleet with reinforcements and supplies, in 
the autumn of 1570, had enabled the town to continue its 
resistance, and in March, 1571, the Russians withdrew. Now 
the Swedes attacked in their turn, and advanced into Russian 
territory in conjunction with the Poles, supported by the fleet, 
whose duty it was to ensure communications with Sweden, and 
at the same time prevent the trade of Narva from giving help 
to Russia. In the course of this duty another collision with 
Liibeck occurred. 

In June, 1574, Fleming, commanding the Swedish 
fleet of nineteen ships, met a fleet of merchantmen, convoyed 
by Liibeck warships. The commander of the convoying ships 
opened fire, presumably in defence of his convoy, and an action 
followed, in which the Swedes took three small warships and 
fifteen merchantmen,* and drove the rest back to Narva, but 
apparently no further steps were taken in the matter. 

At last, in September, 1581, Narva was taken by the 
Swedes, and two years later an armistice was arranged. This 
was at first to last three years, but its term was eventually 
extended to seven. 

During this interval occurred the death of Stephen Batory, 
King of Poland, and in his place was elected Sigismund, son 
of Johan III. of Sweden, and nephew, on his mother's side, 
of Sigismund II. of Poland. This took place in 1587, and the 
new King, Sigismund III., sailed from Kalmar to Danzig with 
a considerable fleet to fake possession of his throne. 

In 1590 the Russians assumed the offensive, and besieged 
Narva, but with free communication with Sweden by sea, 

* Eleven Liibeckers and four others. 


the town was able to defy their efforts. The Swedish land 
forces were supported by flotillas on the large lakes of Ladoga" 1 " 
and Peipus. Finally, in 1593, another armistice was arranged 
for two years, and on its expiration a treaty of Peace was con- 
cluded. The whole of Esthonia, the province of Narva, was 
ceded to Sweden, but Kexholm, on Lake Ladoga, taken by the 
Swedes in 1580, was given back to Russia. 

Meanwhile, both in Denmark and Sweden, new Kings had 
come to the throne. Frederik II. of Denmark had died in 
1588, and been succeeded by his eleven-year-old son, 
Christian IV., while Johan III., King of Sweden, died in 1592, 
and Sigismund III. of Poland became, therefore, King of 
Sweden also. From the first the union with Poland was 
unpopular in Sweden, especially from a religious standpoint. 
Sweden was a Protestant country, but Sigismund was an ardent 
Catholic, and it was feared that he might use his Polish 
forces in an attempt to reconquer Sweden for Rome. Duke 
Karl, brother of the late King, did his best to take advantage 
of this suspicion to become the recognised leader of the Swedish 
nation, and in such circumstances an appeal to arms was in- 
evitable sooner or later. 

Sigismund had to be brought to Sweden, and naturally a 
Swedish fleet ought to bring him, but at this time the Swedish 
navy was in a very bad state. Practically all the serviceable 
ships were in Finland under Fleming, and it was decided to use 
this squadron for the purpose. Early in 1583 Sigismund wrote 
to Fleming to bring His fleet to Danzig, but at the same time 
Duke Karl ordered him first to Dalaro, that he might appear 
to come from Sweden, and might be joined by the few sea- 
worthy ships there. Fleming was, however, a staunch 
adherent of Sigismund, and having no intention of putting 
himself and his ships in the Duke's power, he ignored these 
latter orders, and sailed direct to Danzig, at the end of July, 
with twenty-seven vessels. One ship and a galley were sent 
from Stockholm,* but on Sigismund's arrival at Danzig early 
in August he found no Swedish ship fit to receive him and his 
-, suite, and had to charter twenty Dutch ships for the passage. 
On September 6th the fleet put to sea, but was at once 
scattered by heavy weather, and when Sigismund's ship 
reached Elfsnabben on the 18th, only Fleming's flagship and 
one other vessel were in company. Sigismund landed at 
Stockholm on September 30th, and found himself at once 
involved in difficulties with his new subjects, who, headed by 
Duke Karl, insisted on his guaranteeing to respect their Pro- 

* Tornquist says thirteen ships were sent from Sweden, but Zettersten 
contradicts this. 

1590-1598. 19 

testantism as an essential condition of his coronation. He 
resisted for some months, but finally had to give way, at all 
events in appearance, and in February, 1594 he was crowned 
by a Protestant Bishop. In July he returned to Poland with a 
fleet consisting of the same Dutch ships as in the previous 
year, together with Fleming's fleet and fifteen vessels from 
Danzig, which had brought to Sweden a force of 1,000 Polish 
troops. This fleet left Stockholm on July 14th, but head 
winds kept it at Elfsnabben till August 4th, and it was not 
until August 10th that it reached Danzig. Fleming now took 
his ships back to Finland to be out of the way of the Duke. 
The crisis soon came. In 1595 Duke Karl concluded 

?eace with Russia without consulting Sigismund, and early in 
597 appealing from the nobles to the people, he obtained 
enough support to proceed to active measures. Aided by a 
small squadron under Scheel, he took Kalmar from Sigismund's 
supporters, and was soon undisputed ruler of Sweden. Still, in 
July there were hopes of agreement, and Scheel was sent with 
eight ships to fetch Sigismund from Danzig, but the negotia- 
tions failed and the fleet returned empty-handed. Meanwhile 
there had been attempts at revolt in Finland, and in one of 
these in May Fleming had been shot. This encouraged Duke 
Karl to attack Sigismund's territories here also, and on the 
return of Scheel from Danzig preparations were made for an 
expedition to Finland. On August 16th the Duke left Stock- 
holm with every available ship, on the 28th he was at Kastel- 
holm in the Aland Islands, and on September 6th, on his 
arrival at Abo, the town surrendered to him, together with some 
of the ships of the Finnish squadron. The Duke, however, 
unwilling to proceed to extremities, took no further steps and 
returned to Sweden at the end of October. 

Next year Sigismund assumed the offensive. Arvid 
Stalarm, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Finland, had 
retaken Abo and sailed thence on July 10th, 1598, with a fleet 
of fourteen ships and fifty small craft, carrying some three 
thousand men. Arriving in the Aland Islands, he met a small 
section of the Swedish fleet from Nykoping under Peder Stolpe, 
who had been there since June 27th. Stalarm tried to open 
negotiations, but Stolpe was recalled to join the other Swedish 
ships at Elfsnabben, and being thus left unwatched he sailed 
westwards and landed at Groneborg, near Stockholm, on July 
25th. He was, however, repulsed, and had to re-embark and 
withdraw to Kastelholm, but followed thither by the entire 
Swedish fleet he was defeated and driven back to Finland, 
leaving three hundred prisoners in the enemy's hands. At the 
same time Sigismund himself made an attack; he chartered 
and equipped about one hundred merchantmen at Danzig, em- 



barked an army of 5,000 men, and put to sea on July 20th. On 
the 30th he landed his troops where the town of Christianopel 
now stands, and two days later Kalmar surrendered to him. He 
now moved north, but his fleet was scattered by a gale, and 
when he landed at Stegeborg, east of Soderkoping, on August 
22nd, he was accompanied by only four ships, though Sten 
Baner, his admiral, joined him on the 30th with twenty-four 
more.* Still even this small portion of his original fleet was 
quite enough to make him master of the adjacent waters for the 
moment, out on September 19th the main Swedish fleet 
arrived. Two days later Stegeborg was retaken by the Swedes, 
and Sigismund's fleetf surrendered, apparently without a blow, 
while on the 25th the battle of Stangebro, near Linkoping, put 
an end to his plans on land. 

Now, however, an agreement was made between the King 
and the Duke whereby Sigismund should, on condition of dis- 
banding his forces, be allowed to proceed to Stockholm, which 
had gone over to his side. For this purpose some or all of the 
captured ships were restored to himj and a detachment of 
fourteen Swedish vessels told off to act as convoy. Sigismund 
embarked his army, but instead of going to Stockholm as 
arranged he went to Kalmar, strengthened its garrison, and 
left again for Danzig on October 25th.|| His intention was to 
return next year at the head of sufficient forces to reconquer 
his Northern Kingdom, but this plan was never executed, and 
as a matter of fact he never set foot in Sweden again. With 
the aid of the fleet Duke Karl soon recovered Stockholm, and 
then began operations against Kalmar, Sigismund's last foot- 
hold in Sweden. A fleet of seventeen shipsll was at sea under 
Scheel, and several of those were sent under Captain Hans Pers- 
son to blockade Kalmar and co-operate with the besieging army. 

In February, 1599, the town was taken, but the garrison 
retired to the castle, and held out there for some months 
more. Persson was killed in the attack, and was succeeded in 
command of the squadron by Captain Stale, who in April 
frustrated an attempt at relief by six ships laden with provisions 

* These are Tornquist's figures (i. 73). Zettersten (i. 441) says he had 
nineteen ships at first, and was joined by several others later. 

t Tornquist says it consisted of forty ships. Zettersten gives no number but 
says it included the two ships Hvita Orn and Engelska Drake, 

+. Tornquist says sixteen ships were returned, including the Hvita Orn. 
Zettersten merely says " The captured ships were returned." 

Under Captain Ameling in the Finska Svan (Zettersten i. 442). 

|| The Hvita Orn and another ship were wrecked in Kalmar Sound. The 
second ship was salved by the Swedes and renamed Trekronor (Zettersten i. 
454 n.). 

IT Some of these were as follows : Finaka Engel (flagship), Bid Falk, Drake 
Pelikan, Svemka Bjorn, Sankt Erik, Engelsman. Svarta Ryttare, Enhornino 
(Zettersten i. 443). 

1598-1599. 21 

and stores, taking one of them and driving the rest back to sea. 
Expecting a renewal of these efforts Duke Karl sent a small fleet 
under Gyllenhjelm to Kalmar at the end of April, but King 
Sigismund's next move came too late. The citadel of Kalmar 
fell on May 12th, while it was not until June that a fleet left 
Danzig to relieve it under Admiral Maidel, and he, therefore, 
finding himself too late, returned to Danzig, though without 
meeting Gyllenhj elm's fleet, which was then cruising in the 
neighbourhood of Gothland. 

In the meantime all pretence of recognising Sigismund as 
King of Sweden was abandoned, and Duke Karl was appointed 
Regent in May, 1599. His first action as such was to organise 
an expedition against Finland and the Aland Islands, where 
Kastelholm had been retaken by Sigismund's forces during the 
winter. Stolpe, the second in command of the main Swedish 
fleet, was sent thither in May with a flotilla of small craft, but 
his force was insufficient, and at tlie end of June Scheel had to 
be sent with the larger vessels to supersede him. In August 
Kastelholm was taken, and in September Abo in Finland 
shared its fate, while the Duke himself, transported by a 
detachment of the fleet, landed with an army near Helsingfors 
and captured that town on September 6th. Here he took some 
of the King's ships, but four of the best were saved by Arved 
Vildeman, the senior naval officer of the Finnish fleet, who 
escaped with them to Eevel, in spite of the presence of Duke 
Karl's own fleet and of the fact that a detachment from Gyllen- 
hjelm's squadron was cruising under Captain Gottberg between 
these two ports. From Helsingfors the Duke proceeded to 
Viborg, transported as before by a considerable squadron, 
which had been reinforced since the fall of Abo by several 
ships from Scheel's fleet, and was now under Stolpe. Assisted 
by this squadron, he captured Viborg at the end of September 
and then returned to Stockholm, visiting Abo on the way, 
while Stolpe with the fleet sailed to Narva, which surrendered 
on demand, and laid up his ships there for the winter. A 
small squadron had been sent out from Elfsborg early in the 
year, and had cruised in the North Sea and Kattegat during 
May, June, and July, and in the autumn Sigismund sent a 
fleet to attempt the capture of this important town. Admiral 
Gyllenstjerna was sent with eight ships from Danzig, but his 
biggest ship* was wrecked, and he took the rest to Liibeck 
without accomplishing anything. 

In 1600 Duke Karl began to carry the war into the 
enemy's country. Up to now he had confined his efforts to 
freeing Swedish territory from Sigismund's rule, but now that 

* She had forty-eight guns (Schlegeln ii. 279). 


this was accomplished and that Sweden had definitely refused 
to recognise Sigismund as King the Duke decided to attack 
him on Polish territory. The various divisions of the fleet 
were all commissioned early in the year io assist in the execu- 
tion of this plan and incidentally to frustrate any attempt on 
the part of Liibeck to assist King Sigismund. In the previous 
year, when Gottberg had been sent to the Gulf of Finland 
with part of the Western fleet, Gyllenhjelm had been replaced 
in the command of the remainder by Captain Bjelkenstjerna. 
During the early stages of the movement on Finland Bjelken- 
stjerna had remained with his ships at Elfsnabben, but in 
September he had been sent to sea on receipt of the news that 
twelve ships were ready for sea in Danzig. These may very 
possibly have been Gyllenstjerna's fleet for the attack on Elfs- 
borg, but Bjelkenstjerna met none of them, and returned to 
Elfsnabben, where he wintered with five ships. In 1600 he 
was appointed admiral of the fleet to be equipped in Sweden, 
and was joined by Gottberg, who had wintered at Nykoping 
with his detachment, and by other ships from Stockholm.* 
During June Bjelkenstjerna cruised in the Western Baltic, but 
in July he was ordered to bring five ships to Elfsnabben, 
leaving Gottberg in Kalmar Sound with the rest. On July 31st, 
reinforced by ships from Stockholm, Bjelkenstjerna left Elfs- 
nabben with the Duke and his army, and on August 9th landed 
them at Revel, which had come over to the winning side, 
together with the rest of Esthonia. A few ships were detached 
and sent to reconnoitre off Pernau and Riga, while Bjelken- 
stjerna, with the greater part of the fleet now went to Barosund 
in Finland. He was joined there by Gottberg, from Kalmar, 
and remained there for the rest of the year, while Scheel, again 
in command of the fleet in Finland, left Barosund on his 
arrival, and replaced him off Revel. The Duke now moved on 
Pernau, and, assisted by Scheel's fleet, took it after a short 
siege, whereupon Scheel returned to Finland for the winter, 
leaving only a few small craft on the enemy's coast. t 

After the fall of Pernau Riga became the object of the 
Swedish attack, and in 1601 the entire fleet was employed in 
supporting the besieging army. The small craft at Pernau 
were sent there under Captain Cliton in the Lybska Forgylda 
Hjort, and these were soon followed by four ships from Elfs- 
borg under Admiral Kijl in the Elfsborgs Hektor. These ships 
had reached Kalmar in September, 1600, and after wintering 
there arrived off Riga at the end of June, 1601. At the same 

* Bjelkenstjerna's flagship was the new ship Vasa 50. Gottberg was in the 
t The 
this year. 


Rutenkrant (Zettersten i. 446). 
t The Narva squadron under Stolpe was reinforced, but did no active work 

1600-1604. 23 

time Scheel's fleet was equipped, and after a visit to Pernau 
he came to Riga on August 2nd with a force of twenty ships 
besides galleys and the small craft, but his vessels were in a 
bad state, and on the 19th he was ordered to send his galleys 
back to Finland and take the two larger vessels to Sweden to 
refit. Bjelkenstjerna's fleet at Barosund was also fitted out, 
but did not reach Pernau till July, and was sent early in 
August to Kalmar to transport German mercenaries to Sweden. 
Still, a force of thirty-five small vessels was left off Riga till 
October, when Kijl with his ships went to Kalmar and Cliton 
to Stockholm. The Duke, however, had decided to raise the 
siege, and after strengthening his garrison in the various cap- 
tured towns he sailed to Abo, whence he returned to Stockholm 
by land. 

In spite of the abandoning of the siege of Riga the blockade 
was kept up from the sea for the next few years. In 1602 
Bjelkenstjerna arrived there from Stockholm with seven ships 
at the end of April, and stayed there three months before 
returning to Elfsnabben. Cliton arrived from Finland at the 
same time. These two squadrons together proceeded in August 
to blockade Libau and Yindau, but soon returned. In Septem- 
ber Cliton, who had been to Pernau, relieved Gottberg off 
Riga, and he returned to Stockholm for a refit, after which 
he put to sea again to transport provisions and reinforcements 
to the seat of war, with orders to winter at Kalmar. Kijl 
had left Kalmar in April for Riga with six ships, but three of 
these had been wrecked on Gothland, and after his return to 
Kalmar an illness, which eventually proved fatal, had pre- 
vented him from carrying out his orders to sail to Riga with 
the remaining ships. 

Three fleets were at sea in 1603. Bjelkenstjerna, with fifteen 
large ships, went on three cruises to Danzig and Riga, while 
Sofring Jonsson, with two ships from Elfsborg joined by two 
small craft from Stockholm, remained off Riga till October, 
and Gottberg, with three ships from Stockholm, was also off 
Riga from July to October. 

Next year Axel Ryning, Admiral of the Fleet, was ap- 
pointed to command the main fleet* with orders to cruise 
between Oland and Danzig, and to capture all ships from 
Lubeck. At the same time two squadrons were sent to Riga. 
The first, under Admiral Gyllenstjerna, consisting of twelve 
ships from Kalmar, was off Riga from April to July, and took 
nineteen merchantmen during this time. Early in July 

* His flagship was the Trekronor 39, a Polish ship wrecked in Kalmar Sound 
in 1598, but salved and fitted out by the Swedes. Gottberg, his second in com- 
mand, was in the new ship Apple 50. Other ships were the Lejon, Hannibal, 
Drake, and Sankt Erik (Zettersten i. 454). 


Gyllenstjerna was recalled, and reached Stockholm at the end 
of the month with his prizes, leaving his second in command, 
Sofring Jonsson, at Elfsnabben with the six smallest ships. 
The second squadron was composed of five ships from the main 
fleet detached under Gottberg at the end of June, and sent on 
Gy liens tjerna's recall to replace him off Riga. Ryning, with 
the main fleet, did not get to sea till the middle of July, when 
he was ordered to make an attack on the shipping in the 
harbour of Lubeck. A month later there seemed a prospect of 
intervention by the Danes and Dutch on the side of Poland, 
and therefore both Jonsson's and Gottberg's squadrons were 
ordered to join Ryning off Bornholm. However, these fears 
proved groundless ; Jonsson was sent to Riga, and at the middle 
of September Ryning's fleet went into winter quarters at 
Kalmar. At the end of that month Gottberg was sent to join 
Jonsson off Riga, and in October twelve shrps from Stockholm 
cruised for three weeks in the Eastern Baltic, but nothing of 
importance occurred. 

This year Duke Karl became King of Sweden as Karl IX, 
It had been arranged in 1600 that this should be so; out it 
was not until it was certain that Ladislaus, Sigismund's son, 
would not be sent to be brought up as a Protestant, and until 
Johan, Duke of Ostergotland, Sigismund's half-brother, had 
renounced his claims that the Duke agreed to accept the title. 
Still, when he was once established on the throne he acted 
with even greater energy than before. Since his withdrawal 
from the siege of Riga in 1601 the Poles had been steadily 
gaining ground; they had recovered Livonia and invaded 
Esthonia, till the Swedish army was practically confined to 
the coast towns, and it became necessary to take strong 
measures. He therefore decided to proceed in person to 
Livonia with a new army ; but before this a considerable naval 
force was concentrated off Riga. Jonsson and Gottberg sailed 
in April, 1605, from Kalmar and Stockholm respectively, and 
in May they were followed by Bjelkenstjerna from Stockholm 
and Gyllenstjerna from Nykoping. At length, on August 4th, 
the King left Djurhanm, near Stockholm, with a fleet of 
seventeen warships and twenty-three transports* under Ryn- 
ing. The army was duly landed in Livonia, but on September 
17th King Karl was badly beaten at Kexholm, near Riga, and 
had to re-embark the remains of his armv in the fleet, which, 
after transporting them to Pernau and visiting Revel, returned 
to Sweden for the winter. 

This same year a change of considerable importance took 

Tornquist says the fleet consisted of forty ships. Zettersten only mentions 
seventeen warships, and suggests that the rest may have been transports. The 
new ship Scepter 38 was in this fleet. 

1604-1609. 25 

place in Russia. Though the Tsar Ivan IV., who had died 
in 1584, had himself killed Dmitri his eldest son, a pretender 
appeared in 1605 claiming to be this same Dmitri, and on the 
death in 1605 of Boris Godunoy, successor to Ivan's second son 
Feodor, the so-called Dmitri, backed by Sigismund, was 
crowned Tsar in Moscow. His alliance would naturally have 
been of the greatest use to Sigismund, but next year, 1606, a 
revolt broke out. Dmitri was murdered, and Russia was 
plunged into confusion, though Vassili Shouisky, leader of the 
revolt, was nominally recognised as Tsar. 

No important naval operations took place in 1606, though a 
Swedish fleet of sixteen ships cruised off Riga and Danzig, and 
other squadrons transported stores and reinforcements to the 
seat of war, and in 1607 the only activity of the Swedish fleet 
in the Baltic consisted in the support of the new fortress of 
Salis midway between Pernau and Riga. There was, however, 
one other incident of note. The small vessel Lambert* was 
sent from Elfsborg to cruise off the coast of Lapland, presum- 
ably in support of Swedish claims on that territory, but on 
the way she was forced by heavy weather to put into Bergen. 
She was at once arrested by the Norwegian authorities, and 
only released on condition that she should return at once to 
Elfsborg without attempting to visit Lapland. Still, in 1608, 
two other small craft, the Obekant Fortuna and Hollandska 
Hjort, were sent on a similar errand, though this time they 
were to act as fishing vessels, and were to hand over half their 
catch to the Danish crown. 

Dunamunde, the fortress at the mouth of the Diina, was 
taken by the Swedes in June, 1608, but its new garrison was 
at once besieged by the Poles, and an attempt on the part of 
the Swedish fleet to ascend the river to attack Riga was frus- 
trated by Polish fireships. All through the summer of 1609 
the Swedish fleet tried in vain to relieve Dunamunde; the 
besieging army was too strong, all attempts at landing were 
repulsed, and, finally, the fortress was recaptured. Besides 
this a fleet of Dutch merchantmen succeeded in reaching Riga 
in spite of the blockade, though some Danish ships were cap- 
tured in the attempt. A Danish fleet of ten shipst was cruis- 
ing in the Baltic to protect neutral merchantmen, and this 
probably helped to secure the release of the Danish ships. The 
Swedes made an effort to intercept the Dutch vessels on their 
way home, but two captured Dutch ships were retaken by the 
Danes, and only one prize was brought to Sweden. 

Relations between the two Scandinavian Kingdoms were 

* Or Lampret. 

t Oedion, S. Anna, Victor, Raphael, Markat, E0de L0ffue, Trost, Angeli- 
brandt, Makrel, and Kertz (Sj. Reg. xv. 234). 


very insecure, and the events of 1610 made war almost in- 
evitable. Another fleet of Dutch merchantmen was expected 
at Riga, and it was important for the Swedes to prevent their 
reaching the town. Nine ships sailed for Riga in April or 
May, and at the end of June the main fleet of fourteen ships 
under the command of Admiral Gyllenstjerna also arrived. 
In the interval seventeen Danish ships* under Admiral Ulfeld 
had reached the Diina, but at the time of Gyllenstjerna's 
arrival this fleet was out at sea. This enabled Gyllenstjerna to 
join the other Swedish ships, so that on Ulf eld's return to the 
Duna he was confronted by a superior force. Gyllenstjerna 
had, however, strict orders not to attack the Danish ships, but 
to confine himself to watching them. Leaving eight ships 
off Eiga under Admiral Snakenborg, he followed Ulfeld with 
the remaining fifteen ships as far as Bornholm. Here they 
arrived on July 23rd, and Gyllenstjerna went to Kalmar for 
provisions ; but, Ulfel'd, reinforced on August 3rd by twelve 
more shipst under Admiral Lindenov, returned at once to the 
Gulf of Riga, and was off Runo on the 8th or 9th with twenty- 
eight ships. At once Snakenborg was ordered to return to 
Kalmar; five ships were sent thither from Stockholm, and 
Gyllenstjerna was ordered to take the resulting fleet of twenty- 
eight to Bornholm to wait for the Danes. On their arrival 
he was to inform Ulfeld that King Karl IX. considered that 
the Danes were acting contrary to the Peace of Stettin in 
convoying supplies for Sweden's enemies, but that they were 
to be allowed to pass this time, though a repetition of the 
offence would be considered as a "casus belli/' However, this 
plan fell through, since the Danes reached Bornholm for the 
second timej before the Swedish fleet was ready, and the King 
of Sweden, wishing to avoid seeming anxious for war, thought 
it best to keep his ships in harbour. 

At the same time Russia also became Sweden's enemy. 
Sigismund had succeeded in dethroning the Tsar Vassili in 
spite of Swedish support, and in replacing him by his own 
son Ladislaud, or Vladislav; but, not content with this, he 
endeavoured to remain in occupation of Moscow. Vladislav's 
election naturally involved Russia in hostilities with Sweden, 
but at the same time Sigismund, wishing to make the most 

* Oedion 30, S. Anna, Justitia, Victor, Raphael 22, Crocodil, Jonas 8, 
Leopard, Markat, Eenhjorning, Penitent, Jupiter, Trost, R0de L0ffue 6, For- 
laaren Son, Kiedtk, Markat (Makrel ? ). They left Copenhagen May 30th 

t Argo, Argoroes, Norske Drage, Stjern, Lybskemand, Heiringnes, Lindorm, 
Byst, Turteldue, Fransk Skib, Spur, and Gr0nlandske Kat. 

Ulfeld detached Daa with twelve ships on August 17th to convoy the home- 
ward-bound Dutch ships. With the rest of the fleet he reached Copenhagen on 
September 6th, and Daa presumably soon followed (Graah. 95). 

1572-1610. 27 

of his present position in Russia, consented to an armistice. 
Under these circumstances the Swedish army in Esthonia 
carried everything before it, but the war with Denmark 
prevented full advantage being taken of this success. 

Before proceeding to deal with the " Kalmar War " it will 
be necessary to give some short account of the development 
and activity of the Danish fleet during its forty years of peace. 
In 1572, two years after the conclusion of the Peace of Stettin, 
King Frederik II. had at his marriage a fleet of no less than 
thirty-nine warships* at Copenhagen exclusive of auxiliary 
vessels, besides a few others at sea on various duties, but by 
1596, when Christian IV. took up the government, the fleet 
had dwindled to nineteen ships and three galleys. t In the 
interval the fleet had had but little to do. In 1587 thirteen 
ships were sent into the North Sea to prevent the English 
from trading in Iceland, Lapland, and other northern 
countries. Next year three ships* were sent to the Belt and 
others to Norway and Lapland. In 1589 a fleet of fourteen 
large ships and some small craft was equipped to take to 
Scotland Princess Anna, elder sister of the new King of 
Denmark, Christian IV., after her marriage by proxy to 
James VI. of Scotland; but bad weather prevented this, and 
it was not until next year that the fleet sailed for Scotland, 
escorting not only the Queen but also James himself, who had 
come to meet his bride and had spent the winter in Denmark. 
Nine ships took Christian IY. to Christiania in 1591, and 
in 1595 and 1596 a few shipts cruised in the North Sea and 
Baltic for the protection of trade. 

After King Christian IY. took over the actual government 
in person the fleet was better looked after. New ships were 
built and old ones condemned, so that though the Danish 
fleet at the outbreak of war in 1611 consisted of over thirty 
ships, only six of these are found in the list of 1596. At the 
same time some important expeditions took place. In 1597 
the King sailed to Bornholm, Gothland, and Osel, his islands 

* Fortuna, Jeger, Marian, Svenske Jomfru, Krabatt, Leopard, L0ffue, 
Hercules, Tvende Achilles, Jonathan, Bj0rn, Gabriel, Flyende Gfeist, Engelske 
Gabriel, Elefant, Grib, Pelican, Lange Hercules, Danske Hane, Jason, Eenholt, 
Nachtergal, Strudtz, Svale, Danske Svale, Rostocher David, Store Hjort, 
Forgyldte Maage, Meermand, Sancte Peder, Isack, Vilde Hand, Fyerblase, 
Bulle, Forlorne Son, Eose, Danske Jomfru, Meer-Frue, Flaske. 

f Fortuna 80 ; Prindse-Bark 64 ; Samson 62 ; Josaphat 52 ; Josua 48 ; Drage 
42; Gedion 30; Raphael 22; Bark 18; Due 18; L0ve 16; Hector 14; Gabriell 
12; Michel 12; Jonas 8; Gr0nlandske Griff 6; R0de L0ve 6; Christopher 6; 
and three galleys: David, Solomon, and Jacob, with 30 guns together (Garde 
Eft. i. 75). 

Raphael, Michaell, Gabriell. 

% Josaphat, Gabriell, Rose; David, Jacob, Solomon, galleys; Due, Raphael, 
Falk von Bergen (Garde Eft. i. 73). 


in the Baltic, and in 1599 he took a fleet of twelve ships* to 
the north of Norway. Five of these then cruised in the North 
Sea under Erik Urne,t while the King himself took the rest 
round the North Cape as far as Kola. During the following 
years three expeditions were sent to Greenland, and in 1606 
Christian IV. visited England with the Victor, Argo, Gideon, 
Raphael, Tre Kroner, Penitens, and Markat.% In 1608 several 
ships were sent into the Baltic to assert the " honour of the 
flag " over the Hanseatic ships which had begun to call them- 
selves the Mecklenburg Fleet, and in 1609, as has been seen, 
it became necessary to commission a large fleet to protect 
merchantmen from the Swedes. 

* According to Graah (89) the fleet was composed of the following eight 
ships: Josaphat, Gideon, S. Michael, Raphael, Victor, Due, Papeg0ye, and 
Raabuk. He, however, puts the journey in 1595. 
Urne's flagship the Lilie was lost. 

t On his return he was fired on by an English ship in the Thames and forced 
to strike his flag. 

1611. 29 




The second war between Sweden and Denmark was definitely 
begun by the declaration of war issued by King Christian IY. 
of Denmark in April, 1611. The old question of the " Three 
Crowns " had again come to the fore ; Karl IX. had assumed 
the title of " King of Lapland," and was endeavouring to 
push forward the Swedish boundary in the north; while the 
assistance given by the Danes to Riga was a fair ground of 
complaint for Sweden. Still, it was certainly Christian IY. 
who was responsible for the war. Coming to the throne of 
Denmark and Norway in 1588 at the age of eleven, he had 
taken up the active work of government in 1596. Young, 
warlike, and energetic, he was only waiting until sufficient 
excuse could be found to induce the Danish people to agree 
to a war with Sweden. In the meantime, all the necessary 
preparations were carried out. A new fortress was built at 
Christianopel in Blekinge, thirty miles south of the Swedish 
arsenal of Kalmar, others in Norway, Skane, and Halland 
were strengthened, the armament and equipment of the fleet 
were improved, alliances were made with the Electors of Bran : 
denburg and Saxony, and finally the Dutch were persuaded 
to agree to an increase in the Sound dues for as long as the 
war should last. 

Directly after declaring war Christian IY. assumed the offen- 
sive. He divided his army in Skane into two parts, marched 
in person on Kalmar with the one, and sent the other under 
Sehested against Elfsborg and the new Swedish town of 
Goteborg or Gothenburg. 

The fleet was divided in the same way; five ships were sent 
under Erik Urne to join the two* already off Kalmar, seven 
under Jorgen Daat supported the attack on Gothenburg and 
Elfsborg, while Ulfeld, with the main _ fleet of twejity-f our 
ships, was told off to look after the Swedish fleet. At Kalmar 
the Danish plans were successful enough. Urne arrived in 
Kalmar Sound on May 3rd and anchored off Stenso, a peninsula 

* Markat and Penitens. 

t Hdringsnesse, Sorte Hundt, Makrel, R0de L0ffue, Turteldue, Forlohren Son, 
Eatt (Sj. Reg. xv. 328). 


south of the harbour, while nine small armed vessels under 
Nielsen took up a corresponding position to the north at Kvarn- 
holmen. The Swedes had in all thirteen ships* at Kalmar, 
but these were all small, since the larger vessels had been sent 
to Elfsnabben. In conjunction with the attack by land, the 
Danish ships bombarded, and on May 16th and 17th they 
damaged two of the Swedes, the Scepter and Obekante. A fire- 
ship attack on the 19th was frustrated by the vigilance of the 
Swedes, but a further bombardment on the 25th did so much 
damage that the Swedish commander decided to destroy his 
ships. On May 27th the town was taken by the Danes and 
the garrison forced to retire to the Castle. It now became 
necessary for the Swedes to relieve this fortress either by land 
or sea, but there were many delays and difficulties. King 
Karl IX. arrived near Kalmar with an army in June, but the 
Swedish fleet was still unready. Ten Danish ships under 
Herlof Daa had been at sea north of Gland in May, and on 
June 25th Lindenov, who had been detached from the main 
fleet under Ulfeld, arrived in Kalmar Sound and joined Urne, 
bringing with him the five ships Victor, Josaphat, Argorosa, 
Krokodil, and Stjern. 

Meanwhile the Swedes were slowly getting ready. At the 
end of May five ships left Nykoping for Elfsnabben to await 
the fleet from Stockholm, and a little later the so-called 
" Little Fleet " of galleys and armed boats began to work 
south from Stockholm towards Kalmar Sound. Finally, 
Bjelkenstjerna got to sea from Stockholm with the six ships 
Tre Kronor 38, Samson 20, Concordia 18, Mjolkepiga 18, 
Svarta Hund 18, and Roda Lejon 16, and picked up the 
Nykoping division, consisting of the Josua 10, Dralte 16, 
Hollands Engel 17, Jagare 12, and Leopard 13. Further re- 
inforcements brought his strength up to seventeen ships, and 
on July 8th he entered the northern end of Kalmar Sound; 
here he was joined by the " Little Fleet," which had been 
repulsed on June 30th by Nielsen's small craft, so that he 
had now a fleet of twenty-four ships. The Danes had eighteen 
ships, and were in two divisions. Lindenov was off Stenso' 
and Urne and Nielsen at Kvarnholmen between the Castle and 
Bjelkenstjerna, so as the wind would not permit Lindenov to 
bring the bigger ships to them they ran south under fire and 
joined him at Stenso. Bjelkenstjerna anchored at Kvarn- 
holmen, and his flotilla relieved the Castle and captured the 
Danish batteries on Grimskar, a small island just opposite the 
harbour mouth. However, in the morning of July 20th Ulfeld 
appeared to the north of Bjelkenstjerna with nine large Danish 

* Salvator, St. Peter, Jonas, Sm&lands Hjort, Scepter, Hannibal, Spegel, 
Orpheus, Krannij, Lejon, Obekante, Ttgar, Lejonnina (Kalmarkrigen 90). 

1611. 31 

ships. The Swedish commander at once recalled his four 
vessels from the Castle and concentrated his fleet at Skaggenas, 
about ten miles north of Kalmar and close to the Swedish camp 
at Ryssby. The same day Lindenov tried to retake Grimskar, 
but failed, and on the 21st he brought his fleet north between 
these batteries and the Castle under a heavy fire. The 
Stjern 22 went aground, but was got off safely. That night 
Bjelkenstjerna also made use of the fresh southerly breeze 
to escape by cutting his cables and running through TJlfeld's 
fleet, though the Mjolkepiga 18 went aground and was taken, 
and the Danes also captured two vessels of the flotilla. At the 
same time the Swedes evacuated Grimskar. On July 24th the 
Danes took a number of small craft, and the same day Karl IX. 
retired definitely to his camp at B/y-saby. 

Bjelkenstjerna had only retreated as far as Jomfru Island, 
in the northern part of Kalmar Sound, but he was soon ordered 
to Barosund, half-way between there and Stockholm, to await 
reinforcements, and on arriving there was superseded by Gott- 
berg, his former second in command. At tne same time the 
" Little Fleet " got to sea again under Nils Engelsman, con- 
sisting of the ten ships Salvator 8, Basiliscus, Pikale Pinass, 
Fink, Jdgare 12, Nachtergal, Stdbi 8, Lilia, Rather 10, and 
Romulus. On July 26th Engelsman was* at Westervik, and 
proceeding south from there he met a part of the Danish fleet 
in the evening of the 30th. He took the Stjern 22, nearly 
did the same to Ulfeld's flagship the Argo, and got away safely 
with his prize. Gottberg was ordered to sail southwards, pick 
up two divisions of small craft, and attack the Danish fleet, 
but he was too late to save Kalmar Castle, which surrendered 
on August 3rd.* The Danes had, however, received a severe 
blow in the destruction of Christianopel. Gustaf Adolf, the 
Swedish Crown Prince, who was later to become the most 
famous general in Europe, had taken it by storm during the 
night of July 25th-26th and burnt the fortress and town to- 
gether with all the stores for the Danish army. On the other 
hand, Christian IV. captured the whole of Oland, the island 
opposite Kalmar, but after repeated fruitless attacks on the 
Swedish position at Ryssby he decided, on the appearance of 
sickness in the fleet, to return home, leaving a strong garrison 
in Kalmar, and accordingly on September llth he sailed for 
Copenhagen with the fleet. In the meantime the Swedish 
naval forces were disposed as follows. At Monsteras, twenty- 
five miles north of Kalmar, was Cordel with some rowing 
vessels, at Westervik was Engelsman with the " Little Fleet/' 
while Gottberg with the main fleet was at Elfsnabben. These 

* The Danes took four or five small craft, including the Summa Summarum 
6 (Kalmarkrigen 138). 


three detachments were ordered to join, but Engelsman could 
get no support from Cordel, and in his turn gave little help 
to Gottberg, who appeared in Kalmar Sound at the end of 
August, but at once returned to Elfsnabben after an unsuccess- 
ful action in which he lost the Roda Lejon. Both Cordel and 
Engelsman were condemned to death, but eventually pardoned. 
Still, in spite of the mistakes of the Swedes, the " Little Fleet," 
now under Kyle, was quite enough on the withdrawal of the 
Danish ships to cover a landing in Oland under Gustaf Adolf. 
TJlfeld returned to Kalmar Sound with the Danish Fleet, but 
it was too late; the island was easily retaken by the Swedes.* 

Up to now little had been accomplished in the western part of 
the theatre of war. Sehested had to send reinforcements to 
the King's army and had not been able to accomplish anything 
on land, while Daa had done little more than keep up a 
blockade of the Gota River. The Swedes in Elfsborg had six 
ships, the Hektor, Krabbe, Bid Orm, Lampret, Fransiskus, ano! 
a Scottish ship bought and called Skotska Lejon. Karl IX. 
sent repeated orders to these ships to put to sea and engage the 
enemy, but no attempt was made to do so. After the con- 
centration of the Danish forces in Kalmar Sound in July 
Lindenov was sent with three shipsf to take over the command 
in the Kattegat, but was eventually recalled. At last early in 
November the Victor again joined Daa with orders to attack, 
and on December 12th he carried out an unsuccessful night 
attack with nine armed boats. The Hektor and Bid Orm were 
captured and set on fire, but the Danes had to retreat with a 
loss of eighteen men and the Swedes managed to save the 

Meanwhile, on October 30th, King Karl IX. died at 
Nykoping. After a fruitless challenge to Christian IV. to meet 
him in single combat, he had abandoned his position at Ryssby 
and was on his way to Stockholm when taken ill. He was 
succeeded by his son Gustaf Adolf, and the new King, who 
had already shown his capacity at Christianopel and in Oland, 
set to work to try and recover some of the losses of the previous 

He met with no success, and in fact suffered further 
disasters. The Danes were now able to devote more attention 
to the western coast, and the result was soon apparent. On 
March 21st Daa left Copenhagen for the Kattegat with seven 

* Four of Kyle's ships wintered in Kalmar Sound, but the rest went to 
Westervik (Kalmarkrigen 154). 

t Victor, S. Michael, Krokodil. 

$ In many accounts it is said that Daa captured the whole Beet, but this is 
confusing this attack with the fall of Elfsborg next year, when these ships 
were certainly still there. (See Kalmarkrigen, 159 and 206. The account is 
based on a MS. life of Jens Munk, who commanded the attack.) 

1611-1612. 33 

ships, the Raphael 22, Leopard, Makerill, Rode Loffue, Sorte 
Hund, Turteldue, and Hejringnesse. The Swedish ships could 
not be got ready in time to put to sea, and on May 24th, 1612, 
Elfsborg fell. A week later Guldborg and Gothenburg shared 
the same fate. The six Swedish ships had all been scuttled 
before the surrender, but the Danes were able to raise them 
and add them to their fleet.* After this the Danish squadron 
was divided, the Sorte Hund, Turteldue, and Makrel (or 
Makerill) were left at 'Elfsborg, the Hektor (ex-4Swedish), 
Hejringnesse, and Rode Loffue cruised under Daa in the North 
Sea, while the Raphael, Leopard, and a late arrival, the Victor, 
were sent to the Baltic. 

Operations here had also begun early. Two Danish ships 
were sent out at the end of March, t four in April, J and four 
early in May, while the main fleet, under Ulfeld in the Argo, 
reached Kalmar on May 21st. It was twenty-one ships strong; 
but whether this included the ten already mentioned is uncer- 
tain. Part of this fleet burnt the town of Soderkoping, and 
eight ships and eight small craft under Lindenov covered yet 
another successful landing in Oland under Rantzau on May 
31st. The same day the three ships from Elfsborg arrived. 
The Swedes had again found great difficulty in equipping their 
fleet. Eleven or twelve ships left Stockholm early in June 
under Captain Klerck. They did a certain amount of damage 
in Gothland, but, meeting the Danisli fleet of twenty-six ships, 
they retreated to Barosund; three ships ran aground and one 
of these sank, but may have been refloated later. On June 
23rd Klerck was back at Elfsnabben, and Joined the new 
Admiral, Gyllenstjerna, who was there with eight ships. || On 
June 27th ulfeld left Kalmar Sound, and on July 1st he was 
off Danzig. He then proceeded towards Stockholm, but was 
forced home by sickness, and reached Copenhagen on July 
30th with twenty-one ships. In the meantime the Swedish 
fleet of eighteen ships had been at sea for a few days from 
July 18th, but had been forced back by heavy weather. At 
the beginning of August Gyllenstjerna got to sea again, but 

* They were ready for sea as follows: Hektor, June 4th; Krabbe and Bid 
Orm, June 7th ; Lampret, June 26th ; Jonas and Fransiskus considerably later 
(Kalmarkrigen 206). 

t Penitens, St. Michael 12. 

Lysbke David, Jupiter, Markatt 16, St. Peder (ex-Swedish). 

Mdlkepige, Lindorm, S. Anna, Justitia (Kalmarkrigen 198/9, etc.). 

|| There is a good deal of uncertainty about this action. It is not mentioned 
by Zettersten or in Kalmarkrigen. Zettersten says they put to sea with eleven 
ships early in June, went to Gothland, and were back by June 23rd. Garde 
says they sailed June 18th and were attacked at once. Tornquist says Klerck 
sailed with twelve ships, so one may have been lost before he joined Gyllen- 
stjerna with eleven. 



even then, in the absence of the Danish fleet, he accomplished 
nothing of any real value. He proceeded to Danzig, took 
three privateers, and convoyed a few merchantmen to Elfs- 
nabben, where he anchored on August 16th, but did nothing 
that could influence the issue of the war in any way. 

Meanwhile King Christian's great plan for the operations 
on land had proved unsuccessful. The idea had been that he 
should advance in person from Elfsborg and Bantzau from 
Kalmar until they met at Jonkoping on the southern end of 
Lake Vettern, a place which was considered to be the strategic 
centre of Southern Sweden. However, the constant guerilla 
tactics of the Swedish peasants, coupled with the impossibility 
of obtaining supplies, forced both armies to turn back short 
of the goal, and the great scheme came to nothing. At once 
Christian hastened to Copenhagen, resolving to attack Stock- 
holm directly from the sea, and on August 13th he put to sea 
in command of a fleet of thirty-six ships. He looked for the 
Swedish fleet on the Pomeranian coast, but, failing to find it, 
he proceeded to Kalmar, embarked his army, and left again 
on the 21st. He then went to Danzig, returned to Gland, and 
finally reached the Stockholm skargard on July 31st. The 
Swedish fleet, now twenty-one ships strong, retreated, and the 
Danes advanced, both &ides towing their ships with boats. The 
Danes destroyed a few small craft and took a galley, but the 
enemy managed to take up a strong position under me guns of 
the fortress Yaxholm. Christian IV. bombarded, landed guns 
on the islands, and sent in a challenge to the Swedes, but all in 
vain, and on September 4th he had to confess himself power- 
less and withdraw. As the Danish fleet retired the Swedes 
prepared a fireship attack, but on the 8th the Danes attacked in 
boats and captured three fireships with the loss of only one 
boat. On September 10th the Danish King left the skargard 
on his way home. 

The greater part of the Danish fleet went back to Copen- 
hagen, but Kruse, captain of the Argorosa, was transferred 
to the Raphael, and ordered to remain at sea with nine of the 
smaller ships.* Off Gothland he heard that Liibeck was about 
to send no less than twenty-four ships to Sweden with supplies. 
At once he sailed for Travemiinde, and on arriving there sent 
in a ship to investigate. The Liibeckers opened fire and Kruse 
atiacked, but the Liibeckers ran their ships ashore, and the 
Danes could not get in close enough to do any damage. Kruse 
sailed for Riigen, but met Lindenov in the Victor, who took 
the fleet back to Travemiinde, and concluded an agreement 

* Three of these besides the Raphael were the S. Peder, David, and Lindorm 
(Kalmarkrigen 242/3). 

1612-1615. 35 

with Liibeek by which no ships were to sail for Sweden that 
year. Soon after this the Lindorm was lost off Drager, and 
Lindenov went ashore and died; but Kruse stayed at sea all 
October between Oland and Gothland. In October eleven 
Swedish ships under Klerck were sent to convoy merchantmen 
to Danzig, but they met no enemy, and no further hostilities 
occurred. At the end of November peace negotiations began 
through the mediation of King James I. of England, and on 
January 26th, 1613, a definite treaty was signed at Knared. 

Sweden gave up all claims on Lapland and on the fortress 
of Sonnenburg in the island of Osel, another point at issue. 
Kalmar and Oland were given back, and Sweden was further 
to buy back Elfsborg and Gothenburg within six years for 
2,000,000 riksdalers, but was to evacuate Jemtland and Harjea- 
dalen, which had been taken from Norway by Scottish 
mercenaries. Both Kings were to continue the use of the 
" Three Crowns " in their arms. As at the Peace of Stettin, 
Swedish ships were granted freedom from the Sound Dues. 

As has been said above, the war between Sweden and Russia 
went in general in favour of the former country. Under the 
leadership of Jakob de la Gardie the Swedes occupied the whole 
of Ingria from Narva to Noteborg on Lake Ladoga, and even 
took Novgorod itself, though Pskov, at the southern end of 
Lake Peipus, some 100 miles south of Narva, held out against 
all their efforts. For the moment Novgorod was forced to 
submission, and chose as Tsar Karl Filip, brother of Gustaf 
Adolf ; but in 1612 came the great Russian national revival. 
The Poles were driven from Moscow, Michail Romanov was 
chosen Tsar in place of Vladislav, and this example naturally 
spread to the northern towns of Russia as well. In June, 
1613, Karl Filip left Stockholm for Viborg, on his way" to 
Novgorod, only to find himself too late. Novgorod, though 
still occupied by the Swedes, had refused to recognise any Tsar 
save Michail ; the Russian forces were advancing towards Lake 
Ladoga, and there was nothing for Karl Filip to do but return 
to Stockholm. 

The war naturally presented little of naval interest. Detach- 
ments of the Swedish fleet conveyed men and supplies to Narva 
and other ports, and a flotilla on Lake Ladoga in 1615 and 1616 
helped to check the Russian designs on Finland; but the fleet 
was only employed as a whole in 1615. In that year hostili- 
ties were expected again from Poland, and it was thought 
that Sigismund might take advantage of the absence of Gustaf 
Adolf and his forces to make a descent in Sweden. Gyllen- 
stjerna, therefore, after transporting the King and his army 
to Narva, was sent with a fleet of twenty-seven ships to Danzig 
to investigate the situation; but arriving there in September 

D 2 


he found no preparations for an expedition, and accordingly 
went for the winter to Abo, in Finland. 

At last Gustaf Adolf agreed to make terms with Russia. 
Pskov still held out, though the Russian invasion of Ingria 
had been checked, and Sweden, no longer sure of the neutrality 
of Poland, accepted the mediation of the Butch. On February 
27th, 1617, the Treaty of Stolbova was concluded ; by it Sweden 
gave up Novgorod, and recognised Michail Romanov as Tsar, 
but acquired substantial territorial gains. The whole of the 
coast of the Gulf of Finland became Swedish ; Northern Ingria 
extended the Swedish possessions from Esthonia to Lake 
Ladoga, and the territory of Kexholm did the same for Fin- 
land, while the two fortresses of Notebprg and Kexholm on 
the lake secured the new frontier. Besides this Russia paid 
an indemnity of 20,000 roubles, and abandoned all claims on 
Esthonia and Livonia. 

As soon as this war was over the Swedish King turned on 
Poland again. The armistice of 1611 had expired, and, after 
sending a few cruisers to Danzig and other Polish ports to 
reconnoitre,, he mobilised a fleet of eleven ships and embarked 
his army. On July 22nd, 1617, the troops under Nils Stjerns- 
kold landed at the mouth of the Diina, and at once captured 
Diinamunde. A further armistice for two years was concluded 
in 1618. 

Now, however, began a struggle which soon involved the 
whole of Europe. In 1618 the Protestant inhabitants of 
Bohemia rebelled against the Emperor, and chose Frederick, 
the Elector Palatine, as their King. From this at once sprang 
up a contest between the Protestants of Germany on the one 
hand, and Austria and Spain on the other. At first the 
Catholics had the better of it. In November, 1620, the battle 
of Prague overthrew the new King of Bohemia, drove him back 
to his previous territory of the Palatinate, and delivered the 
Bohemians to the cruelties of Ferdinand II. Still, the Pro- 
testants kept up the unequal struggle, and in 1621 the renewal 
of hostilities between Spain and the Dutch did something to 
relieve them. 

The same year, on the expiration of the truce the war 
between Sweden and Poland was resumed. Gustaf Adolf col- 
lected an immense fleet of twenty-four large warships, twenty- 
eight small craft, and 106 transports,* and put to sea with an 

* Tornquist gives the following list of the fleet (i. 88/9). Guns from Backstrom 
Ap. 3. (List for 1621.) : Scepter 22; Andromeda 32; Harbo Lejon 32; Svard 
32 ; Eikskrona 32 ; Riksnyckel 22 ; Wasa 32 ; Perseus 28 ; Tre Kronor 28 ; Ostgota 
Lejon 18; Svarthund, 22; Lilla Krona ; Lilla Nyckel 22; Hannibal 22; 
Samson 22; Orpheus 28; Oranienbom 28; Jupiter 22; Mars 18; Drake 14; 
FAejant 30; Merkurius 18; J&gare ; Salvator ; Engel 18; Blomma 28; 
Stdlndbb . Nine smaller ships. 

1615-1626. 3T 

army of 20,000 men on July 24th. Scattered by heavy weather, 
the fleet reassembled at Pernau, and sailing thence landed the 
troops at the mouth of the Diina on August 4th. After a 
month's siege Riga surrendered, and was followed shortly by 
Mittau, thirty miles to the south-west. The fleet sailed for 
home in October. Little of interest took place in 1622, but in 
November another truce was arranged. This was at first only 
to last till May, 1623, and therefore the Swedish fleet, twenty- 
one ships strong, was sent to Danzig in June to see what the 
Poles intended, and to prevent an expected invasion of Sweden. 
No preparations were found, the armistice was extended to 
June, 1625, and the fleet returned to Stockholm. 

Meanwhile, the Protestant Princes of Northern Germany 
had been looking round for help. Finally their choice fell on 
Christian IV. of Denmark, whom they elected Director of the 
Lower Saxon Circle. This was in 1625, and there were there- 
fore for the next few years two wars on the shores of the Baltic, 
contemporaneous but distinct : the war between Sweden and 
Poland and that between Denmark and the Empire. These 
are best discussed separately, and will be taken in the order in 
which they have been mentioned. 

Gustaf Adolf landed with an army at Dunamiinde on the 
last day of June, 1625, and leaving the fleet there marched 
inland to strengthen his hold on Livonia. In September the 
fleet on its way home lost no less than ten ships on Domesness, 
in the Gulf of Riga.* To make up for this the ships at Elfs- 
borg were ordered to Stockholm early in 1626. This year the 
Swedish objective was Polish Prussia; 14,000 men were em- 
barked, and on June 28th the fleet of thirty-two ships, besides 
galleys and other small craft, reached Pillau at the entrance to 
the Frisches Haff, some sixty miles east of Danzig. The greater 
part of the fleet (twenty-four ships) was now sent to blockade 
Danzig, but eight ships and all the galleys and transports 
remained at or near Pillau. The King took his army across 
the Frisches Haff to Braunberg, which he captured on June 
30th. Elbing and Marienburg soon followed, and finally 
Danzig itself was besieged, while the fleet took Putzig, to the 
north, in July. During August the seven largest and eight 
other vessels of the Danzig fleet were sent home, but two were 
lost on the way.t In October they were followed by the eight 
ships remaining. Of the ships at Pillau three were lost,J two 
sailed for Stockholm with the King on November 1st, and the 

* Engel 18; Hannibal 22; Mars 18; Orfeus 28; Harbo Lejon 32; Maria ; 
Hektor ; Perseus 28; Gustavus ; Elefant 30 (Zettersten i. 486). The fleet 
was originally about twenty-five' ships strong. 

t Ostgota Lejon 18 ; Tre Kronor 28. 

Stjerna 28 ; Salvator ; Oranienbom 28. 


remaining four wintered at Pillau.* In 1627 the Swedish dis- 
positions were very similar. Gustaf Adolf reached Pillau on 
May 8th with 6,000 men. Gyllenhjelm was sent to blockade 
Danzig with fifteen ships; three others were sent to join him, 
but two of his largest vessels were sent home, and at the end 
of May his force was reduced to ten or eleven ships. In 
August he was sent home with two large ships and Fleming put 
in command. Sickness broke out, and only six small craft 
were left off Danzig. On November 18th these were attacked 
by ten Polish ships. Stjernskjold, the Swedish commander, 
was killed, and his ship, the Tiger, captured. The Sol was 
blown up by her own captain, and the four remaining ships 
arrived at Elfsnabben badly damaged. 

Next year Gustaf Adolf took the first steps towards 
joining in the Thirty Years' War. Denmark had been involved 
since 1625, and though beaten in Holstein Christian IY. was 
able to send help by sea to Stralsund, one of the Hanse towns 
besieged by Wallenstein. The~"Kmg of Sweden decided to 
assist. He had already arranged for war with the Empire, 
and Stralsund would, he thought, form an excellent base of 
operations. Stationing the usual fleet off Danzig, he accord- 
ingly sent Klas Fleming with eight ships to take troops to 
Stralsund. Wallenstein pressed the siege hard, but the town, 
resting on undisturbed lines of communication by sea, held 
out easily, and the siege was eventually abandoned. t 

Sweden Was now on the point of exchanging Poland 
for the Empire as enemy. The assistance given to Stralsund 
had made a rupture almost inevitable, and in 1629 further com- 
plications ensued. A plan had been formed by Wallenstein 
of taking all the maritime cities on the Baltic and, aided by 
Spain, of establishing the Empire as supreme Naval Power in 
those waters. This was, of course, an open threat to both 
Denmark and Sweden. The former, crushed by four years of 
unsuccessful war on land was compelled at this moment to 
come to terms, but Sweden, in the fulness of success, was in 
no mood to acquiesce. Ryning was given nine ships and sent 
to cruise off Wismar, where the first fruits of Wallenstein's 
scheme had been collected in the shape of eleven warships of 
one kind and another. Though ordered to retire to Kalmar 
he held his ground, and on September 16th, when the Imperial 
ships put to sea, he defeated them and drove them back to 
harbour. Now he returned to Kalmar, but was soon sent back 

* One small vessel had been transferred from the Danzig fleet. 

t Three large Swedish ships were lost this year. The Vasa 32 capsized just 
outside Elfsnabben on August 10th ; the Kristina 36 was wrecked in Putzig Bay 
on September 3rd ; and the Riksnyckel 22 was wrecked off Landsort on Septem- 
ber 6th (Zettersten i. 492/3). 

1625-1629. 39 

to his station. The Germans had, however, had enough; they 
laid up their ships and Ryning was recalled, though five 
Swedish ships were left in Stralsund for the winter. 

Meanwhile negotiations had been going on between Sweden 
and Poland. Largely owing to the efforts of Richelieu, who 
wanted Sweden's help, Sigismund agreed to conclude a truce 
for six years. This agreement was signed at Altmark on Sep- 
tember 26th, 1629, and by it Sweden gained Livonia and the 
coast of East Prussia with the exception of Danzig. This left 
Gustaf Adolf free to plunge into the Thirty Years' War, but 
before proceeding further the unsuccessful effort of Denmark 
in the same direction needs considering. 

Christian IV., King of Denmark, being also Duke of Hoi- 
stein, was a member of the Lower Saxon Circle, a confederacy 
of small Protestant territories in the north-west corner of 
Germany. He was further employed in pushing the claims 
of his second son Frederik to various bishoprics in this district, 
in direct opposition to the nominees of the Emperor. As early 
as 1623 the Circle had decided to mobilise in self-defence, but 
as yet it had not actually joined in the war. 

Finally, in 1625 Christian of Brunswick-Luneberg resigned 
the directorship of the Circle, Christian IV. was elected 
in his place, and it was decided to assume the offensive. 
Advancing southwards the Danish King established his head- 
quarters at Nieuburg on the Weser, some fifty miles above 
Bremen, but he found difficulty in keeping up his army, and 
could get no further. Tilly came against him from the South, 
and Wallenstein, raising a new army, also moved against this 
fresh enemy. Little of naval interest occurred this year; the 
Empire had as yet no fleet, and the Danish navy had therefore 
little to do. Still, some thirty vessels were commissioned and 
small squadrons were stationed at various important points. 
In the middle of April four ships* were sent to the Elbe, where 
they remained until the end of June. Suffering from sickness, 
they were then ordered to land their sick and cruise in the 
North Sea. At the same time two shipsf were stationed in 
the Weser. In September a fresh squadron of five ships* was 
sent to the Elbe, and the fleet in the Weser was also brought 
up to five ships. Both divisions had to send gunners and 
supplies to the army. Early in the year two ships, the Trost 
and Markat had been in the Belt to prevent any communica- 
tion between Liibeck and the Spanish Netherlands, but these 
were recalled later to strengthen the squadrons in the North 

* Sorte Rytter, Raphael, Nelleblad, Postillion. 
t Hummer, Svan. 

Hektor, Gabriel, Markat, Postillion, Grib. 
Havhest, Hummer, Trost, Nassau, Lampret. 


Next year the fortune of war went decidedly against the 
Danes. Christian IV. advanced to Wolfenbuttel in Bruns- 
wick and sent Mansfield eastwards into Silesia with 10,000 
men. This drew off Wallenstein, but Tilly remained, and was 
reinforced by 8,000 of Wallenstein's troops. Christian of 
Brunswick moved south into Hesse-Cas'sel, only to be driven 
back to Gottingen and besieged there. Christian IV. advanced 
but was too late to save Gottingen, and retired when he heard 
of Tilly's reinforcements. Tilly pursued, and on August 27th, 
1626, defeated the Protestants at Lutter, north of Goslar. 
Christian now withdrew as far as Stade, on the south bank of 
the Elbe, twenty miles below Hamburg, while Tilly occupied 
the territory thus left open. As before, the Danish navy had 
been employed chiefly in scattered squadrons at various 
strategic points. Two small craft were stationed in the Belt, 
and the squadrons in the Elbe and Weser were mobilised. 
These squadrons were, however, soon reduced to provide ships 
elsewhere. Ulfeld from the Elbe was sent with eight ships, 
including his four larger vessels and the Hummer from the 
Weser, to cruise off the Norwegian coast, while the ships in 
the Weser were also recalled, and only two small craft left in 
those waters. Ulfeld fought a smart action with a fleet of 
twelve Dunkirk privateers, sank four of them, burnt two, and 
damaged the rest severely. At the same time a squadron was 
sent on convoy duty to Iceland, and later in the year Wind 
was ordered to the Elbe with five ships to capture any Ham- 
'burg ships trying to trade with the Spaniards. Ulfeld had 
previously captured a number of Liibeckers employed in the 
same business. Wind's fleet returned to Copenhagen for the 

The year 1627 was disastrous for Christian IV. on land. 
Wallenstein, having defeated the Protestant forces in Silesia, 
was free to join Tilly in an attack on Holstein. Tilly 
advanced first and entered Lauenburg at the end of May. 
Wallenstein followed, and at the end of August they moved 
together into Holstein. Christian left Stade with a small garri- 
son under Morgan and retired to Rendsburg. He could collect 
but few troops ; the Catholic advance continued ; and, finally, in 
October he abandoned the mainland and crossed into Fyen, 
leaving Holstein and Jylland to be occupied by the Imperial 
troops. The retreat of the Danish army was, however, covered 
to some extent by the fleet. Early in 1627 six ships* under 
Hendrik Wind arrived in the Weser to join the two small 
craft that had wintered there. A second squadron under Kruse 
was sent to the Elbe to act in conjunction with a few English 
and Dutch ships; but at the end of August it was ordered to 

~ * Svan, Hummer, Nelleblad, Havhest, Flensborg, Orib. 

1626-1628. 41 

the Baltic. Kruse left two small craft in the Eider, and pass- 
ing into the Baltic established a blockade of the Mecklenburg 
coast to prevent supplies reaching the Imperial army by sea.* 
Finally, at the end of the year, when the defeat of the Danish 
army was complete, a few small craft were sent to the east 
coast of Jylland and the southern islands as a precaution 
against any further advance by the Catholics. 

The Danish fleet achieved one good result. Lubeck, which 
with Hamburg had long been friendly to the Catholic side, 
was at last compelled by the pressure of the blockade to throw 
in its lot with the Power that held "command of the sea," 
and could therefore stop or allow trade at will. This was a 
check to Wallenstein's great plan for establishing the Empire 
as a maritime State. To do this the help of the Hanseatic 
towns was essential;, but though Mecklenburg and Western 
Pomerania were in the power of the Imperial forces by the 
end of 1627 nothing definite was yet arranged. 

The Hanse towns referred Wallenstein to the meeting which 
they were to hold at Lubeck in February, 1628; but when 
this took place they were careful to decide nothing, but merely 
adjourned till July. Meanwhile at Stralsund the final blow 
to Wallenstein's scheme was struck. At the end of 1627 the 
Duke of Pomerania had agreed to allow Imperial garrisons in 
his dominions. Arnim proposed to Stralsund that it should 
pay a large sum as an alternative to supporting a garrison. 
The city refused. Arnim decided to compel acquiescence, and 
on May 13th, 1628, the siege began. 

In the meantime the Danish fleet had been active. A 
squadron of eight ships , under Pros Mundt was at sea in 
February; it cruised off the coast of Mecklenburg, and cap- 
tured or destroyed many small Imperial ships. Six vessels 
were sent to the Little Belt, and the King himself left Copen- 
hagen in March with the Hummer, Havhest,^ and Nakskov 
and about ten transports. Joined by four ships and two 
galleys from Nakskov in Lolland he attacked Femern, the most 
southerly of the Danish islands, and had no difficulty in retak- 
ing it, together with over eighty vessels which the Catholics 
had collected to transport an army to Denmark proper. After 
this he made a successful attack on Eckernforde, fifteen miles 
north-west of Kiel, but failed in two attempts on Kiel and 
the coast east of that town. A considerable part of the fleet 

* The Leopard and Penitens were already blockading Travemiinde, the port 
of Lubeck, and Kruse was reinforced later by the Justitia, Victor, and Postillion 
(Sj. Teg. xxiii. 390). 

t Havhest, Saelhund, and six other small craft, including "den Kjobenhavnske 

t Detached from Mund's fleet. 


was now sent to the North Sea; but several ships remained 
to keep the Imperial forces from crossing" into the Danish 
islands and to frustrate Wallenstein's plans of sea power. As 
early as April 20th a " frigate " and two galleys* had been 
sent to help the town. Kruse brought three ships, t which 
joined Mund's squadron and kept open communications by sea. 
In June eight Swedish ships arrived with 600 soldiers, and 
though Wallenstein arrived at the end of the month and 
assembled as many as 25,000 men he could make no impression. 
In the middle of July more troops, both Danish or Swedish, 
arrived, as well as the Danish fleet under King Christian him- 
self, consisting of six warships and as many as 150 small craft 
and transports. On July 24th Wallenstein abandoned the 
siege and withdrew. Christian IV. then tried to assume the 
offensive once more. He occupied Usedom, a large island 
between Stralsund and Stettin, and even took Wolgast on the 
mainland; but Wallenstein returned, and the King had to 
re-embark his troops. After this failure the Danish fleet 
returned to its former duty of blockading the German coast, 
and continued it without incident until winter. Six ships 
wintered at Nakskov, the rest at Copenhagen. 

The fleet had also shown considerable activity in the North 
Sea during the year. In the early spring Kruse had been sent 
thither with ten ships, and on March 16th, after the operations 
in Femern and Holstein, Wind was sent from the Baltic to 
blockade the Elbe and Weser. Together with English and 
Dutch ships he tried to relieve Stade. The Allies had thirteen 
ships in all,J but the batteries of the besieging force were 
too strong, and the attempt failed, though fourteen transports 
were taken and brought to Gliickstadt. On May 7th Morgan 
was at last compelled to surrender Stade, but only on condition 
of being allowed to march out with his garrison, and of being 
free to participate again in the war after a lapse of six months. 
Krempe north of Gliickstadt held out till November, and then 
surrendered with a free passage for its garrison to Gliickstadt ; 
but the latter town, with communications open by sea, could 
not be reduced, and remained Danish to the end of the war. 
Kruse had not remained long in the North Sea, but had pro- 
ceeded to the Baltic at the end of April with the Victor, 
Hummer, and Flensborg, and in the middle of September 

* Saelhund, Ravn, Vildsvine. They were probably part of Mund's force. 

t Victor, Hummer, Flensborg. 

Nothing certain is known of the composition of this fleet. Two small 
Danish ships had wintered in the Elbe and two in the Eider. The Nelleblad, 
Markat, and several galleys wintered at Gluckstadt, 1628/9. Other ships that 
are known to have been in the North Sea this year are the Hummer, Spes, 
Lindorm, Patientia, St. Anna, and several small craft, but these may have 
belonged to Kruse's squadron (Garde Hist. i. 157/9. Eft. i. 127/8). 

1628-1629. 43 

Wind was also sent east. He and Kruse were then put in 
command of two squadrons to act alternately as Commander- 
in-chief, but they attempted nothing more than the usual 

At the end of January, 1629, negotiations for peace 
began at Liibeck. To ensure favourable terms Christian IV. 
made a final effort. He had, as before, a squadron in the North 
Sea, and a second under Wind, consisting of nine ships and 
three galleys, t blockaded Wismar, where seven Polish ships 
had arrived to form the nucleus of the Imperial navy. The 
remaining ships were used to cover a landing in Slesvig. 
Morgan, supported by the ships in the North Sea, landed on 
the west coast, while the King, with no less than 150 warships 
and transports, attacked from the east. Ten thousand Danish 
troops were thrown into Slesvig, the Germans in Jylland were 
cut off, and Wallenstein had to grant favourable terms. Peace 
was signed on May 12th, 1629. Jylland, Holstein, and Slesvig 
were restored to Christian IV., and no indemnity was required, 
but all the episcopal sees in Germany possessed or claimed 
by his sons had to be abandoned, and besides this he had to 
resign his directorship of the Lower Saxon Circle, and engage 
not to take any further action against the Empire.J 

Hardly had Denmark withdrawn from the Thirty Years War 
when Sweden took her place as the champion of Protestantism. 
The assistance given to Stralsund, of course, led to war, and 
Gustaf Adolf, as usual, attacked instead of waiting to be 
attacked. After consulting the Eiksrad in December, 1628, 
he proceeded to occupy the island of Bug-en, opposite Stral- 
sund, while, as has been said already, a Swedish fleet block- 
aded Wismar and defeated the Imperial squadron there. As 
a counter move Wallenstein sent fifteen thousand men to the 
assistance of Poland, but even with this reinforcement Sigis- 

* Some of their ships were as follows: Victor, Raphael, Flensborg, Mynd, 
Postillion (Sj. Reg. xviii. 354/5). The following wintered at Nakskov : Hummer, 
Hare, Vindhund, Flyvende Fisk, Gfrib, Trost (Ibid. 355/6). 

t He had the Hummer, Mynd, Flyvende Fisk, Saelhund, Hare, Hjort, and 
six others. 

+ The following list of the Danish Navy at this period is of interest. 
It is said to be the list for 1629, but is more probably that of the previous 
year. It is an autograph list of Christian IV.'s. (Garde. Hist. i. 169/70.): 
1, Argo (Kruse) ; 2, St. Sophia; 3, Eecompens ; 4, Patientia; 5, B0de L0ve ; 
6, St. Anna; 7, Justitia; 8, Raphael. The Elbe: 9, Lindorm (Wind); 10, 
Lytenant; 11, Spes; 12, Gabriel; 13, Svan; 14, Nelleblad; 15, Markat. Norway: 
16, Hector; 17, Fides; 18, Trost. Iceland: 19, Victor, 20, Flensborg; 21, 
Havhest; 22, Charittas. Coast of Holstein: 23, Nassau; 24, Saelhund; 25, 
Fisk; 26, Hare; 27, Mynd (galley); 28, Oslo (galley); 29, Marstrand (galley). 
Middlefart and Coast of Jylland: 30, Hummer; 31, Postillion; 32, galley; 
33, galley; 34, the Norwegian galley; 35, the galley at Samso ; 36, Skildpad. 
" The twenty-eight which are at sea, or shortly to be so, are noted separately." 
(This separate list has not been found.) 


mund could not stand against Sweden, and had to agree to the 
truce for six years, signed at Altmark in September, 1629. 
Gustaf Adolf now returned to Stockholm, where he held 
another meeting of the Riksdag and the Had and decided 
finally on the invasion of Germany. Attempts were made by 
Christian IV. to bring about a settlement by a congress held at 
Danzig, but nothing came of it. 

The Swedish fleet was collected at Elfsnabben. It consisted 
of twenty-seven warships and thirteen merchantmen under 
Gyllenhjelm, and had on board 13,000 soldiers. Putting to sea 
on June 17th, 1630, it touched at Oland, and was off Riigen on 
the 24th. Two days later the landing began at the northern 
end of the island of Usedom, and by the 29th it was completed. 
There is no need to follow the fortunes of Guistaf Adolf in any 
detail. For two years he carried everything before him; he 
conquered the whole of Northern Germany, and penetrated as 
far south as Munich. However, Wallenstein, again in com- 
mand of the Imperial troops, turned on Saxony and occupied 
Leipzig; this forced the Swedish King to come to the help of 
his allies, and on November 16th, 1632, was fought the great 
battle of Lutzen. Here, though the battle went in favour of 
the Swedes, the great leader lost his life. Only thirty-eight 
years old, his death was a great loss to Sweden, and but for the 
ability of his Chancellor, Axel Oxenstjerna, it would have 
been greater. He was succeeded by his daughter Kristina, but 
as she was a child of six the operations in Germany and the 
policy of Sweden were directed, practically speaking, by Oxen- 
stjerna alone for some years. 

Meanwhile, the Swedish successes on land had had some 
slight parallel at sea. During 1630 little had occurred, the 
Swedish fleet had blockaded the German coast, but save for 
some small actions off Wismar, in which ships from Stralsund 
drove back the Imperial vessels into harbour, nothing of import- 
ance took place. In 1631, however, no less than fourteen 
vessels of the new Imperial navy were captured at the fall 
of Wismar. These were the following : Salvator 26, Maria 
Rekompens 26, Hans von Wissmar 18, Wissmars Meerman 18, 
St. Mikael 18, Tiger 12* Meerweib 12, Del/in 12, St. Jakob 10, 
Forlangare 10, Hvita Hund 8,Muskijl ,Fenix 1, Noahs ArkQ. 

For a few years the Swedish navy had little to do, but in 
1634, in view of the fact that the truce with Poland was about 
to expire it was thought as well to send a fleet to Danzig. 
Admiral Erik Ryning therefore took a large fleet thither and 
remained off the harbour for the greater part of the summer. 

This move was followed next year by the despatch of an 

* This was probably the Tiger, captured from the Swedes at Danzig in 1627. 
Danish accounts state that seven Polish ships came to Wismar in 1628 or 1629. 

1629-1641. 45 

army of 20,000 men, transported by a fleet of twenty-nine 
ships. The army landed at Pillau at the end of June and 
Ryning then took the fleet to Danzig with orders to attack if 
the town proved hostile, but to allow trade to pass unhindered 
if Danzig remained neutral. The arrival of this new army 
hastened the negotiations which had been under way for some 
time. The Swedes on their side were anxious to come to terms 
so as to be able to act more freely in Germany, and on Septem- 
ber 2nd, 1635, a peace for twenty-six years was concluded at 
Stuhmsdorf . Sweden kept Eisthonia and Livonia, but gave up 
West Prussia, a loss not only in territory, but in the lucrative 
customs dues attaching thereto. Ryning, whose fleet had been 
suffering severely from sickness, was ordered home, and reached 
Stockholm a fortnight after the conclusion of peace. From 
this time until the outbreak of war with Denmark in 1643 the 
only activity of the Swedish fleet lay in the transport of troops 
to Germany, where, from 1635 onwards Sweden was supported 
by France. 

In 1638 these troop-transporting operations were on a 
somewhat large scale. Vice-Admiral Stewart was sent with 
eleven small ships to Helsingfors, while Byning took charge 
of the main fleet which left Dalaro eleven ships strong in the 
middle of June. Both squadrons proceeded to Usedom, where 
they disembarked their troops, and then forming a single fleet 
were back at Stockholm at the end of July. 

Next year Stewart took fifteen ships to Pomeranian 
waters, and in 1641 six small vessels acted as transports from 
Finland, while Ryning, who left Stockholm in July, had a 
fleet of twelve large ships. 

The Danish navy, on the other hand, had found plenty to 
do, though Denmark was no longer involved in the great 
struggle. The first difficulty came with Hamburg. 
Christian IV. claimed to be master of the Elbe, and from 
his fortress of Gliickstadt levied toll on passing ships. 
Naturally, this was unacceptable to Hamburg, and after trying 
diplomacy the citizens of the great Hanseatic town resorted to 
force. They fitted out a fleet, attacked Gliickstadt, captured 
four small Danish warships, and established a blockade of the 
fortress by land and water. At once Christian mobilised in his 
turn, and on August 6th, 1630, he left Copenhagen at the head 
of the following powerful fleet : 

First Squadron. St. Sophia, Spes, Hummer, Store Lykke- 
pot, Trost, Crocodil, 1 galley, 1 fireship, 2 small craft. 

Second Squadron. Oldenborg, Raphael, Gabriel, Svan, 
Flyvende Fisk, 2 galleys, 1 fireship, 2 small craft. 

Third Squadron. Lindorm, Nelleblad, Havhest, Mynd, 
Grib, 1 galley, 1 fireship, 2 small craft. 


Fourth Squadron. Justitia, Victor, Markat, Hare, Lille 
Lykkepot, Flyvende Hjort, 1 galley, 1 fireship, 2 small craft. 

His flagship, the St. Sophia, was damaged in a gale, and 
had to be sent back to Copenhagen, but he shifted his flag to 
the Hummer, collected his fleet at Flekkero, took several 
vessels from Norway and the North Sea under his command, 
and reached the Elbe on September 4th with forty-two sail in 
all. The fleet of Hamburg consisted of twenty-two warships, 
two fireships, and some twenty merchantmen. 

After an action of five hours on the first day both fleets 
anchored at extreme range, but during the next three days the 
Hamburgers gradually retreated, still fighting, until they 
reached a point above Stade where the deeper-draught Danish 
ships could not reach them. Hamburg now fell back once 
more on diplomacy. The payment of toll was accepted as a 
necessary evil, but Christian's claim to the sovereignty of the 
Elbe was repudiated. However, the negotiations were kept 
going on one pretext and another until 1643, when Chris- 
tian IV., seeing that further delay was useless, resolved to 
use force again. He therefore sent a fleet of thirty ships to 
the Elbe and blockaded Hamburg until the town was at last 
brought to submission, and besides acknowledging his rights of 
sovereignty over the Elbe, agreed to pay a sum of 280,000 
dollars as indemnity. 

These were the only real hostilities in which the Danish 
fleet was engaged during this period, but in view of the war 
still raging in Germany a number of ships had been kept in 
commission in the Baltic and North Sea. This was to some 
extent necessitated by Christian's claim to the sovereignty of 
the Baltic, which he tried to uphold by levying toll on all 
merchantmen passing Riigen. This claim naturally led to 
difficulties, and was only maintained by a considerable show 
of force. Poland, in particular, attempted to dispute it, and 
also tried to levy tolls in the Baltic, but Danish warships were 
sent on convoy duty, and the capture of two Polish warships 
brought about the recognition of Denmark's claims in exchange 
for their return. Another source of trouble lay in the Sound 
dues, since their increase imposed a very heavy burden on all 
commerce entering or leaving the Baltic, and in 1640 a con- 
siderable mobilisation was necessary to meet a threatened 
attempt on the part of the United Provinces to convoy their 
merchantmen through the Sound without paying toll, but for 
the moment nothing came of the idea. 

1630-1644. 47 



The second of the five seventeenth-century wars between 
Sweden and Denmark began in 1643. It was more or less 
evident that there was not room for both countries, and that 
one or other must go to the wall to some extent, and there 
was therefore little need for excuses, though in the troubled 
state of Germany these were easy enough to find. Orders to 
attack Denmark were sent to Torstensson, the Swedish com- 
inander-in-chief in Germany, at the end of May, 1643, but 
they did not reach him till September, and as he was then in 
Moravia he was for the moment unable to put them into effect. 
However, on December 12th, 1643, he crossed the border into 
Holstein, received the submission of the Duke of Gottorp, and 
proceeded into Slesvig and Jylland. Two months later another 
Swedish army entered Skane and occupied that province with 
the exception of the town of Malmo, which held out bravely. 

The war now became naval in character. Jylland and the 
greater part of Skane were in Swedish hands, but as long as 
the Danish fleet was unbeaten the Swedes could advance no 
further. Besides this, the position of the Swedish army in 
Germany would become by no means easy if it were severed 
from all communication with Sweden. As a matter of fact, 
the Swedish navy was at this time no match for the Danish, 
either in numbers or efficiency. Recognising this fact, a 
Dutch merchant, Louis de Geer, resident in Sweden, went to 
Amsterdam to cEarter and equip ships for the Swedish cauise, 
his object being, of course, the removal of the Danish Sound 
dues. Ships and men were obtained easily enough and a fleet 
of over thirty ships was equipped.* 

Early in April, 1644, the first part of the fleet, compris- 
ing eighteen ships under Gierdtson, the second in command, 
left the Vlie for the Elbe. On April 15th Gierdtson was off 
Cuxhaven at the mouth of the river, and next day he moved up 
stream, bombarding Brunsbiittel on the way. He stopped off 
Freiburg, some ten miles below Gliickstadt, carried on a 
desultory action with various Danish batteries, and levied toll 

* Eleven of these which were in the Vlie on April llth were armed aa 
follows: 1 of 30, 1 of 28, 1 unknown, 6 of 20, 2 fireships of 6 each (Kernkamp 
62 n.). 


on passing ships; but the Swedish land forces were not ready 
to support him, and on the 21st he dropped down the river 
again under a heavy fire from Brunsbuttel and anchored off 
Cuxhaven. Northerly gales kept him there for a few days, 
but at the beginning of May he reached the island of Sylt, on 
the Holstein coast, and anchored in List Deep and the King's 
Haven just inside the northern end of the island. Here he 
was joined on May 7th by fifteen ships under Maarten Thijsen, 
commander of the squadron ; which was thus raised to a strength 
of thirty- three ships. Thijsen at once went to consult the 
Swedish general Torstensson, and arranged to take his fleet to 
the east of Holstein to cover a landing in Fyen. Torsteneson 
sent him seven hundred soldiers, and on May 12th all was 
ready for sailing-. 

In the meantime the Danes had been active in commission- 
ing their fleet. On April 1st King Christian IV. had left 
Copenhagen with ten ships to blockade Gothenburg. These 
were the following : Trefoldighed 48, Sorte Rytter 24, Pos- 
tillion 14, Tre Lever 46, Pelican 36, " Fregat " (Hollandske 
Fregat ?) 12, Lindorm 38, Graa Ulv 30, Norske Love 30, 
Neptunus 28.* Off Elfsborg on the 5th he was joined by the 
Plienix 20 and Hejenhald 8, and here he remained, until 
May 1st; when hearing of Thijsen's approach he sailed to meet 
him. From May 1st to 5th the Danish fleet was off Vinga, 
outside Gothenburg, but on the 8th it reached Flekkero in 
Norway, just south of Christiansand. At Vinga it had been 
joined by the Forloren Son 12, Stumpet Dorothea, and Haab, 
bringing it up to fifteen ships; but of these the Pelican and 
Graa Ulv were left at Vinga, the Stumpet Dorothea was sent 
to Copenhagen, the Forloren Son and Haab sailed for Samso, 
north of the Belts, and the Hejenhald, with Admiral of the 
Fleet Jergen Wind, was despatched to join the ships fitting 
out in Denmark. With the remaining nine ships the King 
sailed southwards to meet the Dutch. On May llth he was 
off Fohr, the island south of Sylt, and next day he heard that 
Thijsen was in List Deep. 

The same day the Dutch were ready to sail, but northerly 
winds kept both fleets back, and when Christian IV. arrived 
outside List Deep on May 15th the bulk of Thijsen's ships were 
still inside, though seven under Marcus, his rear-admiral, were 
at sea looking for the enemy. On the 16th an action took place, 
but its details are very obscure, though apparently what hap- 
pened was somewhat as follows. At dawn Thijsen signalled to 
his fleet to put to sea and proceeded, helped by the ebb, to tow his 
ships out of the harbour. He had in all twenty-six ships, but 

* Bruun i. 264. Guns from various sources. 

1644. 49 

apparently half of those, under Gierdtson, were in the inner 
harbour, the King's Haven, and were somewhat behindhand, 
since Thijsen speaks of putting to sea with thirteen ships, while 
Danish accounts say the Dutch had twenty-six. The Danes, 
as had been seen, had the following nine ships : Trefoldighed 
48, Tre Leaver 46, Lindorm 38, Norske Love 30, Sorte Rytter 
24, Neptunus 28, Postillion 14, Hollandske Fregat 12, Phenix 
(or Foniks) 20. They had, therefore, 260 guns, while the 
Dutch must have had about 500, if the ten whose guns are 
known give a fair average. Still, the Danish ships were of 
course individually bigger and stronger, besides being more 
heavily built, so that the advantage of the Dutch in material 
was not so large as appears at first sight. 

At eight o'clock both fleets were under sail with a very 
light breeze, and about ten o'clock firing began. Th& Danes 
at first retired slightly to get into deeper water, and for some 
time the Trefoldighed wa& unsupported. However, by noon she 
was relieved, and Thijsen in his turn, advancing ahead of his 
fleet in the Guide Swaen, suffered severely. At last he was 
relieved by the Lange Bark and the Grooten Dolphien, Gierdt- 
son's flagship, and managed to withdraw towards the rest of 
his fleet. The Danes, with their deep-draught ships, could not 
follow far, and at four o'clock the action was* over.* Accounts 
of the losses are conflicting. One written from List says that 
the Dutch had over 800 killed, another Danish account puts 
the Dutch loss at 700 killed and 300 wounded. Thijsen, in his 
report, says his flagship had fifty-six killed and wounded and 
Gierdtson's forty-eight ; and a German account says " the 
heaviest loss on the Swedish side was that Colonel Lohausen, 
one captain, two ensigns, thirty privates, and forty sailors fell." 
This seems to be merely another version of the loss in Thijsen's 
ship since he gives the same figures as far as the officers are 
concerned. Of course, an average loss of fifty men per ship would 
give a total of over 1000, but it is certain that only a few ships 
were really heavily engaged. The only mention of the Danish 
losses puts them definitely as " in the whole fleet dead and 
wounded eleven men," but it seems probable that this must have 
really been the loss in the Trefoldighed alone. At any rate, it 
is certain that on May 16th the Swedish-Dutch fleet or some 
part of it came out of List Deep, and was defeated by a force 
of nine Danish ships under the King himself and driven back 
into the harbour. 

The day after the action, May 17th, Marcus again appeared, 
this time with his full strength of seven ships. The Danish 

* Four of Marcus's ships appeared in the offing during the action, but did 
not join in it. 


M fleet at once pursued him, but the Dutch ships were the better 
sailers, and easily got away. This took the Danes awav from 
ETst, and on the 18th the King decided to go direct to Flekkero 
for provisions. By so doing he not only allowed Marcus to 
join Thijsen on the 19th, but also failed to meet a second 
Danish fleet which arrived off the harbour a few hours after 
Marcus had entered. This fleet consisted of ten ships and three 
fireships. Four ships were Norwegians, which 0ve Gedde had 
brought to Copenhagen early in May; the remaining six were 
Danes under Pros Mund.* On May 7th they had left Copen- 
hagen, and on the 13th they had sailed southwards from 
Flekkero. On May 24th they entered the mouth of List Deep 
and Thijsen decided to attack. Next day he did so, and a 
second action took place. The Dutch had apparently thirty- 
three vessels in all, including fireships and small craft; the 
Danes had ten warships and three fireships. As the Dutch 
came out Mund weighed anchor and stood out to sea, but his 
three fireships went aground at the entrance to the harbour 
and were of no further use to him. The action was a long 
range affair, with the wind and sea getting up steadily, until 
by evening all thoughts of fighting had to be abandoned. The 
Dutch ship Campen lost her mainmast in a squall early in the 
day, and at once steered for home. In the morning of May 26th 
Thijsen had only seventeen ship with him, and decided, in 
view of their damaged state and the discontent of his crews, 
to return to the Ylie. Several of the missing ships were already 
on their way thither, and eventually the whole fleet arrived 
there with the exception of two fireships lost on the Danish 
coast. The crews were in a state of mutiny, the populace 
of Amsterdam sympathised with them, and for some time Louis 
de Geer could not show himself in the streets with safety. 

The Danish fleet returned to Flekkero, and was there by 
June 3rd. since on that day several of its captains were court- 
martialled for having neglected their duty in the fight of 
May 25th. The King now reorganised his fleet with a view 
to a third attack on the Dutch at List. Two squadrons of six 
ships each were formed as follows : Lindorm 38, NorsJce Leve 
30, Rytter 24, Pelikan 36, Nelleblad 24, Postillion 14. 
St. Sophia 40, Tre Kroner 30, Delmenhorst 28, Graa Ulv 30, 
Neptunus 28, MarJcat 16. These were put under two admirals 
(presumably Mund and Gedde), who were to draw lots to decide 
which squadron should lead the fleet, while the King himself 
intended to sail between the two squadrons with the five vessels 
Trefoldighed 48, Tre Lover 46, Fregat 12, Dybendal 9, and 

* Five of these were as follows : Sophia 40; Nelleblad 24; Delmenhorst 28; 
Markat 16; Graa Ulv 30. (Bruun i. 275.) Probably the sixth ship was the 
Pelican 36. 

1644. 51 

Samson (galley) 9. He had thus a fleet of seventeen ships 
with 462 guns, and would undoubtedly have made short work 
of Thijsen's damaged ships, hut on arriving at List he found 
no enemy left to fight. He was off List on June 12th, hut soon 
returned, and after a visit to Flekkero reached Copenhagen 
on June 22nd, bringing with him the entire fleet in expectation 
of an attack by the Swedes. 

He was none too soon. The Swedish fleet had left Dalaro 
on June 1st forty-three ships strong, under the command of 
Admiral Klas Fleming. It had passed Oland on June 2nd, and 
reached the German coast west of Danzig on the 4th. Fleming 
then sent two ships to Danzig* to look for Danish merchant- 
men, two to Neustadt, in Holstein,t to communicate with 
Torstensson, and three to YstadJ with a letter to Horn, the 
commander of the Swedish army in Skane. On the 6th he 
was off Bornholm, and anchored on the 8th near Dornbusch, 
in Rugen. Two of his ships, the Drake 40 and Smdlands Lejon 
32, sent out on June llth to reconnoitre towards Copenhagen, 
were engaged next day off Meen by three Danish ships, but 
managed to put them to flight, and returned on the 13th to 
their fleet at Dornbusch. The same evening Fleming weighed 
anchor and steered for the Sound. On the 15th he was off 
Amager, and could see that there were only thirteen or fourteen 
Danish ships in the harbour, but he was unwilling to risk 
the passage of the Drogden channel, and after an unsuccessful 
landing on the shore of Kjoge Bay he left again on the 16th 
for Kiel Fjord to communicate with Torstensson in person. 
In the evening of June 18th the fleet reached Kiel Fjord, on 
the 20th it moved in as far as Kristianspris or Friedrichsort, six 
miles north of Kiel, and on the 23rd Torstensson arrived to 
consult Fleming. The move decided on was the capture of 
the Danish island of Femern on the Mecklenburg coast. With 
this object on June 25th the Jdgare 26 and Gamla Fortuna 18 
were sent to Stralsund to fetch any available small craft, and 
the Grip 12, Lam 12, and Fenix 10 to Femern to reconnoitre. 
Troops were embarked, and on June 28th the fleet put to sea; 
Torstensson himself accompanied it in the Postpferd 2. Next 
day the troops were landed, and soon occupied the whole island. 
The Swedish fleet lay during the 30th at anchor north of 
Femern. On the previous day the Danish fleet had left Copen- 
hagen forty ships strong. Off Meen on the 30th it was sighted 
by the Jdgare and Gamla Fortuna on their way back from 

* Katta 22 and Mane 16. 

t Svan 22, and a " bojort " (a small storeship). 

t Jdgare 26, Fortuna 18, and the " galiot " Hane 2 (also a storeship). The 
Hane does not appear in the list of the fleet as it left Stockholm. 

E 2 


Stralsund. At dawn on July 1st these two vessels rejoined 
Fleming with the news of the Danes' approach, and at 9 a.m. 
the two fleets were in sight of one another.* 

They were well enough matched. As far as can be ascer- 
tained their composition was according to the two following 
lists : 

Swedish Fleet. t Yan Squadron under Admiral Fleming : 
Scepter 58, Drake 40, Goteborg 36, Rafael 36, Regina 34, 
Leopard 36, Jupiter 34, Smdlands Lejon 32, Katta 22, Tiger 18, 
Mane 16, two fireships. 

Centre Squadron under Admiral Ulf sparre : Krona 68, 
Nyckel 34, Stockholm 34, Samson 32, Vestervik 26, Vestgota 
Lejon 26, Salvator 26, Merkurius 26, Apollo 26, Rekompens 22, 
Svan 22, St. Jakob 12, two fireships. 

Rear Squadron under Admiral-Lieutenant Bjelkenstjerna : 
Gota Ark 72, Svard 32, Mars 30, Andromeda 26, Jdgare 26, 
Vesterviks Fortuna 24, Akilles 22, Enhorn 18, Gamla Fortuna 
18, Falk 18, Papegoja 12, three fireships. 

The Grip 12, Lam 12, and Fenix 10, were to the south of 
the island, and took no part in the action. 

The Swedish fleet thus consisted of thirty-four ships and 
seven fireships, + and carried 1,018 guns. 

Danish Fleet. First Squadron under General- Admiral 
Wind: Patientia 48, t Oldenborg 42,t Stormar 32,t Fides 
28, t Svan 26, t Lam 16,t Havhest 14, t Jomfrusvend 6,t Orn 
4,+ Prinds Christian (M). 

Second Squadron under General Vice-Admiral Grabov : 
Lindorm, 38, t Tre Lever 46,t Kronet Fisk 20,t Sorte Bjorn 14,^ 
Hvide Biern 14, J Postilion 14, t Emanuel (M), Forgyldte Stok- 
fisk (M), 5. Peter (M), 5. 7co6 (M). 

Third Squadron under King Christian IV.: Trefoldighed 
48, Tvende Lever 22,t AWs&e Z>ye 30, t Sorte Tfytter 24, 
Pelikan 36t, raa Z/fo 30 1, Neptunus 28f, Hollandske Fregat 
12, Hojenhald 8t, /oswa (M). 

Fourth Squadron under Fourth Admiral Mund : 5. Sophia 
40t, TVe kroner 30J, Delmenhorst 28t, Nelleblad 24f, Markat 

* Torstensson returned to Kristianspris in the Postpferd as the Danes 

t From Zettersten i. 360, or Munthe " Danska Kriget," i. 301. 

t Four of these fireships had been used as horse-transports and were probably 
not yet ready for service. 

List from Bruun ii. 34/5. Guns marked t from Bruun, ibid, taken from 
Tornquist i. III. (Mund's squadron later in the year) or from Garde Eft. i. 142, 
taken from Graah 146, the two lists being the same save that Tornquist gives 
the Patientia 48 and Graah 40. Those marked t from Lind (Frederik III.'s. 
Somagt) 3/4. Trefoldighed from Brunn ii. 72/3 (a Swedish account). Lind gives 
her 44. Hollandske Fregat from Garde. Hist. i. 172 (list for 1647). Samsons 
Galley from Zettersten ii. 581 (she was taken by the Swedes in 1645). 

1644. 53 

16t, Gak Med 12$, Samsons Gallej 9, Flyvende Hjort 8}, R0te 
Gans (M), Unge Ulv (M). 

Total, forty ships, with about 927 guns (assuming the eight 
merchantmen to have had on an average 20 each). 

These two lists are given as the best available, and are 
probably substantially correct. There is, however, considerable 
doubt as to the guns carried by the various ships. Zettersten, 
in giving his list of the Swedish fleet, acknowledges this, and 
Bruun's list of the Danish fleet is to a great extent lacking 
altogether in figures as to its armament. Still, the probability 
is that the estimate given is roughly accurate, and that the 
Swedes with thirty-four ships to forty had about a ten per cent, 
superiority in guns. 

There is a similar uncertainty as to some points in the 
battle that followed. Bruun|| on the Danish side and Munthelf 
on the Swedish have taken great pains to sift and weigh the 
mass of conflicting evidence, and the following description of 
the action is based mainly on their accounts. The Danish 
fleet passed Gjedser thirty miles east of the Swedish anchorage 
at 5 a.m., and, as has been said, they were 'sighted at nine 
o'clock. The wind was then about E.S.E., having veered since 
dawn from N.E. and fallen slightly in strength. Fleming at 
once signalled to his fleet to weigh anchor, and steered south- 
wards close to the coast of Femern between it and a large shoal 
lying west of Petersdorf. As he did so the wind gradually 
became more southerly, so that as the Danes followed round 
the north-west coast of Femern they found themselves to lee- 
ward. Not only that, but in the haste of their approach 
their ships had lost station and become " strung out " with the 
leading vessels unsupported. 

Fleming saw his chance and took it. At about one o'clock 
or a little earlier he ordered his ships to bear away together, 
wear to the starboard tack, and open fire on the head of the 
Danish fleet. The wind was then about south-east, and still 
veering. The Swedish fleet passed the head of the Danish 
line at long range, wore again together, and came to close 
quarters. The leading Danish ship was the Patientia 48, 
flagship of the First Squadron under Jergen Wind. It was 
on her that the brunt of the attack fell. As the Swedes wore 
for the second time she was attacked at close quarters by the 
Scepter 58, Fleming's flagship. A few lucky shots compelled 
Fleming to haul to the wind for repairs, but for some time 
the Patientia was hard pressed by other Swedish ships. How- 
ever, she was relieved by Pros Mund in the S. Sophia 40, flag- 

|| Slaget paa Kolberger Heide. 1879. 

IT Danska Kriget, 1643/5. (Svenska Sjohjaltar V.) 1905. 


ship of the Fourth Squadron and by Henrik Mund in the 
Stormar 32 from her own division, and was able to go out of 
action to refit. At the same time the King in the Trefoldighed 
48, coming to help his hard-pressed van, had been the object of 
a fierce attack by four Swedish ships. He was wounded in the 
head, but stayed on deck and continued to direct operations. 
A little later Fleming came back into line, sent verbal orders 
for a general attack at close quarters, and bore away for the 
Danish rear. He was not over well supported by his fleet, and 
was beaten off by the Trefoldighed, S. Sophia, Norske Leve, 30, 
and Oldenborg 42. The Swedish ship Katta 22 tried to board 
the Nelleblad 24, but was repulsed with the help of the 
Pelikan 36. The wind by now was north of west, and as the 
two fleets altered course to starboard in consequence of the 
gradual change the Danish fleet moving on the smaller circle 
had naturally drawn ahead. Fleming again got his ship into 
fighting condition and intended another attack, but night came 
on and made this impossible. The Danish fleet anchored 
near Femern, while Fleming, finding himself near Lolland, 
hauled to the wind on the starboard tack at 9.30 p.m. and 
stood back towards the German coast. 

Neither side had lost a ship,* but several were badly 
damaged. The Danes had lost 37 men killed and 170 wounded, t 
the Swedes 32 killed and 69 wounded J, including a few casual- 
ties at the landing in Femern. On the Danish side Jergen 
Wind was severely wounded, and died at Copenhagen on 
July 17th, while King Christian lost the sight of one eye, but 
was not otherwise badly wounded. No Swedish flag officer 
waj& hurt. Both Christian IV. and Fleming complained 
bitterly of their captains, but both claimed to have won a 
victory. There is little to be said for either claim, though on 
the whole the Danish is perhaps the more reasonable since the 
Swedes returned to Kiel Fjord to refit while the Danes 
repaired damages at sea and were soon able to establish a 
blockade. The action is usually called the battle of Colberger 
Heide or Colberg Heath, a curious name for a sea-fight, but 
one arising from the name of the bleak stretch of coast 
between Femern and Kiel Fjord. 

During July 2nd the two fleets did not sight one another. 
The Swedes remained on the scene of the battle, the Danes 
at anchor east of Femern. Christian IV. sent to Copenhagen 
the damaged Patientia with Jergen Wind and the other killed 

* The Swedish Papegoja 12 had been run aground badly damaged, but was 
refloated and rejoined the fleet on July 5th. 
t The Patientia had 42 killed and wounded, the S. Sophia 70. 
Zettersten ii. 363/4. Another estimate is 30 killed and 50 wounded. 

1644. 55 

and wounded, and consequently put the first squadron under 
Peder Gait in the Oldenborg 42. Fleming recalled the Grip 
12, but sent the other two detached ships Lam and Fenix to 
Wismar. On July 3rd the Swedish fleet anchored in Kiel 
-Fjord, and next day it took up its position off Kristianspris. 
On the 5th the King had ordered 'Gait to take the first 
squadron of the Danish fleet to a position just west of the 
mouth of Kiel Fjord, and o~n the 7th he arrived there in 
person with the rest of the fleet, chasing back the Smdlands 
Lejon 32, Jdgare 26, and Gamla Fortuna 18, which Fleming 
had sent out the day before to go to Stralsund for provisions. 

For the moment the Swedish fleet was unready to put to sea, 
and Christian IV. made his arrangements for a blockade. On 
July 12th the greater part of the Danish fleet moved in to an 
anchorage south of Biilck, i.e., into the mouth of the actual 
fjord, but the King with his squadron remained outside to the 
west of the entrance. Expecting the Swedes to attempt an 
escape, he issued orders for their reception. The first squadron, 
under Gait, was to take the first shock of the encounter, but 
was to be supported at once by the second and fourth 
squadrons, while the King would bring the third squadron 
wherever it was most needed. Attention was to be paid solely 
to the larger Swedish ships. If the enemy got through the 
Danish fleet they were to be pursued and damaged as much 
as possible; such of them as steered for Wismar should be 
ignored, but those which showed signs of entering the Sound 
or the Belt must be prevented from doing so. As a matter 
of fact, Fleming had just worked out a plan of attack and 
had communicated it to his command on July 10th. The 
gist of it was- that the fleet should leave the harbour in three 
consecutive divisions of line abreast, with the biggest ships 
leading and the smallest in the rear. On approaching the 
Danes each line was to turn into line ahead and endeavour to 
board the enemy.* 

There were, however, several reasons why the fleet should 
stay in Kiel Fjord a little longer. Firstly, the ships were not 
ready for sea; secondly, reinforcements for its crews were on 
the way under General Major Wrangel and Admiral Blume 

* First Line: Oota Ark 72 (Bjelkenstjerna) ; Mars 30; Svard 34; Smdlands 
Lejon 32; Goteborg 36; Scepter 58 (Fleming); Drake 40; Jupiter 34; Nyckel 
34 ; Krona 68 (Ulfsparre) ; Stockholm 34 ; Samson 32. Second Line : Vesterviks 
Fortuna 24 ; Andromeda 26 ; Jdgare 26 ; Enhorn 18 ; Rafael 36 ; Katta 33 ; Regina 
34; Mane 16; Vestervik 26 ; Svan22; Rekompens22; Salvator2b; Meerman (fire- 
ship) ; Grip 12; Caritas (fireship). Third Line: Falk 18; Fortuna 18; Akilles 
22; Meerweib (fireship); Tiger 18; Leopard 36; St. Mikael (fireship); Vestgota 
Lejon; Bona (fireship); Apollo 26; Merkurius 26; Jungru (fireship). (The 
Papegoja 12 being a drag on the rest of the fleet was sunk.) 


from Aalborg in Jylland;* and, thirdly, news was expected 
every moment of the approach of Thij sen's fleet on a second 
attempt to enter the Baltic. On July 16th news reached 
Fleming that Thij sen was again at List. The Swedish fleet 
lacked provisions, and Fleming personally was in favour of 
putting to sea at once ; but Torstensson advocated delay, and at 
a council of war it was decided to wait another week if 
necessary. Next day, the 17th, the Danish fleet, with the ex- 
ception of the King's squadron, moved in still further, and 
anchored in a line across the narrow part of the fjord, about 
a mile north of Kristianspriis>. On the 19th Wrangel arrived, 
but without the fresh men to take the place of the many sick. 
Meanwhile a second danger was threatening the Swedish 
position in the shape of an Imperial army under Gallas which 
was advancing on Holstein. To meet it Torstensson called in 
his scattered divisions from Slesvig and Jylland, but this took 
time, and Gallas was close enough to send a small detachment 
into Kiel on a flying raid on the night of July 23rd-24th. The 
following day the Danes landed men and guns east of the 
fjord opposite Kristianspris. It was obviously time for the 
Swedish fleet to move, but a north-east wind prevented this. 
Fleming expected the Danes to use this wind to attack him, 
and rearranged his fleet to be ready for them. The new order 
was a deep and narrow crescent, with its two ends pointing 
towards the eastern shore of the fjord. t In the evening of 
July 25th the new Danish battery opened fire. Early next 
morning the Smdlands Lejon had to move, and at six o'clock 
a shot struck the Scepter and took off Fleming's right leg. 
He died in two hours, but before doing so he appointed Wrangel 
to command the fleet in spite of the fact that his instructions 
made Ulfsparre his successor. Several councils of war had to 
be held to decide this point, and at first Torsteneson's influence 
seemed likely to secure Wrangel in the command, but eventu- 
ally it was settled on the 28th that " the commanders should 
be Wrangel in the Scepter, Hansson (Ulfsparre) in the Krona, 
and Bjelkenstjerna in the Ark; nothing should be said of any 
precedence amongst them, this being Hansson's suggestion. 

* Blume was sent to Aalborg early in the year to equip and arm any suitable 
captured vessels to co-operate with Thijsen's fleet on its arrival. Later he was 
ordered to join the fleet at Kiel; but on July 7th, when he brought his flotilla 
to the mouth of Lira Fjord he was repulsed by a Danish division of four ships 
and six small craft. After this Wrangel received orders to disarm the ships 
and bring their crews to Kiel, and this was done. 

t Smdlands Lejon, Scepter (Fleming), Drake, Jupiter, Sv&rd, Regina, 
Leopard, Katta, Rafael, Rekompens, Andromeda, Apollo, Mane, Merkurius, 
Oamla Fortuna, Akilles, Talk, Enhorn, Salvator, Tiger, Vestervik, Vesterviks 
Fortuna, Samson, Mars, Ark (Bjelkenstjerna), Stockholm, Nyckel, Krona 
(Ulfsparre), Ooteborg, Svan, Jdgare. Behind the line : Meerweib, St. Mikael, 
Bona, Jungfru, St. Jacob, Grip. 

1644. 57 

In the meantime it was decided on the 27th that the fleet 
should warp out of the harbour that night, going two and two 
and reforming in the outer part of the fjord. To ensure their 
safe passage Torstenstson engaged to take the Danish battery 
from the land side. The same day Blume arrived from Aal- 
borg, and his men were divided among the ships. Early on 
the 28th there was a westerly wind, and the Swedish fleet got 
under way. The battery was, however, not yet captured, and 
several 'ships were injured. At last the Akilles had her main- 
mast so much damaged that she had to anchor for repairs, 
and the rest of the fleet therefore did the same. At the same 
time the Swedish troops stormed the battery just too late. The 
three Danish squadrons in the fjord had weighed anchor on 
the approach of the Swedes, and were beating up towards 
Biilck to geit the weather gauge, while the Swedish fleet 
anchored roughly in the position the enemy had left. Tor- 
stensson came on board the Scepter, and another council was 
held. On the 29th the wind went again to the eastward and 
freshened, making it impossible to put to sea. 

King Christian now resolved to attack, and ordered Gait to 
take his squadron in and open fire on the Swedes " first with 
one broadside, then with the other." With this object the 
Danish fleet, or rather part of it, worked to windward towards 
the eastern shore, but the wind fell again, and nothing else 
could be done. Next morning, July 30th, at about six o'clock, 
the Swedish fleet put to sea with a light south-westerly breeze. 
The Danish fleet was at the moment somewhat scattered. Gait 
with the first squadron was at the east side of the entrance 
to Kiel Bay, the King with the third squadron at his old 
anchorage to the west, and the other two squadrons somewhere 
near him. The Swedes were thus to windward of Gait and to 
leeward of the rest of the Danish fleet. Gait at once 'steered 
out to sea, and the Swedes set their course for Femern. The 
wind, however, dropped, and then about noon sprang up from 
the south-east. This altered the position, and put Gait in the 
weathermost position and the main part of the Danish fleet 
to leeward. Now perhaps was the time for Gait to act on his 
orders of the 29th and attack the enemy, or even on those of 
the 13th and " receive the enemy's attack," but he did neither. 
Presumably he considered that the rest of his fleet was too 
far to leeward, and that his squadron would be overwhelmed 
to no purpose, and there is much to be said for this view. At 
any rate, as the Swedes worked to windward towards him he 
did the same, and thus kept ahead of them. At last, towards 
evening, the wind went back to the south-west and the Swedish 
fleet turned on Gait, but again he declined action, steering 
northward, and eventually he rejoined the other Danish 


squadrons. In the morning of July 31st the wind was still 
south-west and the Swedes therefore to windward. They 
steered for the Danes, but the" 'wind dropped and soon went 
round to east. It was now decided by the Swedish commanders 
that in view of the slowness of their progress and the short- 
ness of supplies they must return to Kristianspris to get the 
provisions which were being prepared for them there. They 
therefore steered for Kiel Fjord, followed by the Danes. At 
the mouth of the fjord they turned on their pursuers, and the 
Danes at once steered out to sea again. At eight o'clock in 
the evening of July 31st the Swedish fleet anchored north of 

The same day Erik Ottesen, formerly flag captain to Jergen 
Wind, rejoined the fleet in the Patientia 48, and was imme- 
diately appointed to command the first squadron in the place 
of Gait, though the latter retained his original post as Vice- 
Admiral of that squadron. The Swedish fleet took in all the 
available provisions on August 1st, and then after another 
council of war weighed anchor at 10 p.m. with gun-ports closed 
and all lights out, formed a single line ahead, and got safely to 
sea unobserved by the Danes. Next day it was off Femern, 
on the 3rd it passed Bornholm, and on August 5th it anchored 
at Dalaro. The Danes knew nothing of the escape of the 
Swedish fleet until daylight on August 2nd, when they saw 
that the harbour was empty. The King at once sent Ottesen 
with the first squadron to Femern to find the whereabouts of 
the enemy, and followed him later in the day with the other 
squadrons. At the same time he dismissed Gait from the 
fleet and ordered him to Copenhagen. Later on his own 
return to Copenhagen, he had Gait court-martialled, and 
eventually on September 10th the unfortunate Admiral was 

It is hard to see the justification for this. Gait certainly 
had not attacked on July 30th, but he had been far from the 
rest of his fleet, and in no position to do any good. Further, 
it is certain that on the 31i&t there had been a much better 
opportunity for the Danish fleet to engage the enemy, but it 
had not been taken. Why, then, did not the King accuse 
Ottesen for not attacking on the 31st? The only answer can 
be that Christian IV. was really in command of the fleet him- 
self. True, he was only commander of the third squadron, 
while Ottesen was General-Admiral, but it was the King who 
issued all orders, and it was the King who was responsible for 
the mistake. Had the Swedes not escaped on August 1st 
nothing more would have been heard of Gait's mistake, but 
when the enemy gave him the slip Christian IV. had to find 
some scapegoat, and Gait was the easiest victim. 

1644. 59 

On August 2nd King Christian, with the greater part of the 
Danish fleet, rejoined his advanced squadron under Ottesen 
off Femern. The Swedes had a long start, and it was- useless 
to pursue, but it was possible that they might propose to return 
to the Sound or the Belt to meet Thijsen's fleet, which was 
known to be approaching. The King therefore divided his 
fleet, always a risky proceeding, and one attended on this 
occasion with the usual consequences. First he reorganised 
it in three squadrons, as follows : 

First Squadron. Patientia 48, Norske Love 30, Fides 28, 
Svan 26, Lam 16, To Lever 22, Delmenhorst 28, Gdk Med 12, 
Markat 16, Havhest 14, Jomfrusvend 6, 0rn 4, Prinds 
Christian (M), Flyvende Hjort 8. 

Second Squadron. S. Sophia 40, Tre Lever 46, Oldenborg 
42, Hvide Bjern 14 Sorte Bjern 14, Postilion 14, Snarens- 
vend 16, Forgyldte Stokfisk (M), S. Peder (M), S. Jacob (M), 
Neptunus 28, Josua (M), Rete Gans (M). 

Third squadron : Trefoldighed 48, Lindorm 38, Tre Kroner 
30, Stormar 32, Kronede Fisk 20, Sorte Rytter 24, Pelikan 36, 
Graa Ulv 30, Nelleblad 24, Hollandske Fregat 12, Hejenhald 
8, Samson 9. 

The first squadron was commanded bv Ottesen as> General- 
Admiral, the second by Mund as General-Vice- Admiral, while 
the King himself as Admiral took charge of the third. The 
first two were sent to cruise separately between Sweden, Goth- 
land, and Bornhplm, with orders to combine into one fleet if 
there was any sign of the Swedes returning to the Western 
Baltic. The third squadron remained for a few days near 

Meanwhile Thijsen, with a second Dutch fleet, was approach- 
ing the theatre of operations. He had left the Vlie at the 
beginning of July with twenty-one ships, and had reached 
List Deep on the 7th of that month. After communicating 
with Torstensson and Fleming he put to sea again on the 20th. 
Bounding Skagen (the Skaw) he appeared at the mouth of 
Lim Fjord, captured a Danish ship of twenty -four guns, and 
drove off some smaller craft, but finding no ships here to 
co-operate with him, and probably hearing that the Swedish 
fleet had left Kiel Fjord, he proceeded to Gothenburg. Here 
he drove off the Norwegian squadron of five ships under Gedde 
and captured a small ship of twelve guns and several store 
ships. On August 9th he entered the Sound without suffering 
any damage from the guns of Kronborg, and anchored off 

The Dutch fleet was in the Sound, but the Danes were not 
ready to meet it. Christian IY. had been divided in mind as 
to whether Thijsen would come through the Sound or the Belt, 


and had in the end made a wrong decision. On August 6th, 
7th, and 8th he had written to Ottesen to bring his two 
squadrons to Stevnis, twenty-five miles south of Copenhagen, 
to provision, sending meanwhile six ships to destroy the 
Swedish small craft at Ystad.* The last of these orders was 
written " off Meen," some twenty miles south of Stevns, so 
that the whole Danish force was for the moment just south of 
the Sound, but next day the King reversed his policy. In 
instructions of August 9th he ordered Ottesen to send the 
armed merchantment in his fleet to Copenhagen, and to take 
the rest of the two squadrons to the southern coast of Lolland 
to look for the Dutch. If he found that they were coming 
through the Belt he was to attack them off Lolland, but if not 
he was to cruise in the Baltic, using Gothland as a base. 

The very day that these orders were issued Thijsen anchored 
off Landskrona, and early on August 10th, with a fresh 
northerly breeze, he passed the Drogden channel close to Copen- 
hagen, in spite of the fire of two " prams " of twenty-four guns 
each, and entered Kjoge Bay. Here he met the squadron under 
Christian IV. and a running fight followed, but the King's 
force was_ not enough to effect much, the Dutch ships were of 
lighter draught and handier than the Danes, and Thijsen had 
little difficulty in making his way into the Baltic. Both the 
King and Ottesen, who had got no further than M0en, pursued 
him as far as Bornholm, but without result. On August 13th 
Christian IV. returned to Copenhagen. Thijsen looked in 
vain for the Swedish fleet; he sent a ship to Kalmar and 
another to Stockholm for instructions, cruised between Oland 
and Gothland, and finally anchored off Kalmar on August 
24th. t He and his second-in-command, Gierdtson, were at 
once given commissions as Admiral and Vice-Admiral respec- 
tively in the Swedish fleet, and on September 16th Thijsen 
was raised to the nobility under the name of Anckarhjelm. 

While these events had been taking place in the Baltic the 
Dutch Government had been preparing to resist the increase 
in the Sound dues imposed by Christian IV. to meet the cost 

* These consisted of six store ships, with sixty-two small craft and armed 
boats. They had left Dalaro with the main fleet, and had reached Kalmar on 
June llth and Ystad on July 8th. Their object was to transport troops to 
Sjaelland. They had been attacked unsuccessfully on July 28th by two small 
Danish ships and nine boats. Ottesen's attack took place on August 8th, but 
only resulted in the capture of three boats. On August 15th Hansson, the 
Swedish commander, set sail to return to Kalmar. He left at Ystad sixteen 
serviceable boats and four condemned and disarmed. On the 16th he was 
attacked by Danish ships and lost six boats and two transports, and the 
following night seven boats were wrecked, but on August 22nd he reached 
Kalmar with the rest of his command. 

t Off Bornholm he took the Danish galley Prinds 6. 

1644. 61 

of the war. With this object, on June 27th a fleet of forty-one 
warships under Vice-Admiral de With left the Vlie, convoying 
over 900 merchantmen, and at the same time ambassadors 
were sent to both Sweden and Denmark to endeavour to reach 
some agreement about trade through the Sound. On July 3rd 
the fleet reached the Lap, a shoal just north-west of Kronborg. 
It was now thirty-two warships strong.* The Danish fleet 
was then off Femern, and the merchantmen were allowed 
to pass the Sound on paying the usual toll, no attempt being 
made to impose the higher duties or to prevent them from 
sailing to any port in the Baltic not actually in Sweden. 
Negotiations were then opened with the Danish King, but 
they progressed slowly. Christian IY. insisted that not more 
than ten ships should remain at the Lap, and de With there- 
fore cruised with the rest between Skagen and Gothenburg. 
Finally, on the return of the merchantmen from the Baltic 
the fleet sailed back to the Netherlands. 

The Danish fleets returned to Copenhagen at the beginning 
of September, and Christian IV. landed at Malmo to take 
command of the army in Skane. From an intercepted letter 
to Horn, the Swedish General, he gathered that there was no 
chance of the Swedish fleet leaving Stockholm again before 
next spring. Thinking therefore that he had only the Dutch 
auxiliary fleet to deal with, he sent out on September 17th 
a squadron of only seventeen ships,, under Mund, with orders 
to take up a position between Femern and Lolland to prevent 
Thijsen (Anckarhjelm) from any operations in Holstein or 
the Danish islands. The Swedes, however, had decided on 
another attempt to get the " command of the sea " with the 
aid of Anckarhjelm's fleet. TJlfsparre, at Dalaro, was ordered 
to equip a small fleet under Vice-Admiral Blume, while 
Wrangel was to be commander-in-chief over this and the Dutch 
squadron. On September 16th Wrangel was readv to leave 
Dalaro, but head winds kept him there till the 28th. The follow- 
ing day he anchored off Kalmar and joined Anckarhjelm. 
The Swedish fleet consisted of twelve ships, two fireships, and 
two " galiots," the Dutch of twenty ships and one galiot. On 
October 5th the combined fleet left Kalmar Sound. On the 
7th they anchored off M0en and heard that Mund had been 
off Wismar with the Danish fleet. They therefore proceeded 
in that direction, arrived off Wismar in the evening of October 
8th, and were joined next day by the ships there, the Tre- 
kronor 32, a fireship, and two small craft. At this moment 

* One had been sent back to the coast of Flanders, eight had gone as convoy 
to the north-bound merchantmen, two had been sent with the ambassadors to 
Sweden ; but the two ships sent in advance to Kronborg had rejoined. (Kern- 
kamp 75 n.) 


a Lubeck merchantman reported that the Danes were between 
Lolland and Langeland, sixteen or seventeen ships strong. 
A strong north-westerly wind kept Wrangel at anchor during 
the 10th, but on the llth it backed to south-west, and he was 
able to put to sea. In the afternoon he sighted the Danish 
fleet at anchor to the north-west of Femern, but as night was 
coming on and the wind steadily rising he decided to postpone 
his attack and anchored north of the island. At a council of 
war it was resolved that as soon as the wind fell the fleet should 
attack in two columns, one consisting of the Swedish ships and 
the other of the Dutch, All through the 12th it was impos- 
sible to move, but in the morning of October 13th the wind 
had fallen and there was merely a fresh W.S.W. breeze. Mund 
was slightly to windward, but some of his ships had fallen to 
leeward in the gale, and by bearing away to join them he 
lost the weather-gauge. Seeing that he could not escape, he 
formed line on the starboard tack and stood towards the enemy. 
Wrangel, as arranged, put his fleet in two parallel lines, with 
the Swedish ships to windward, and steered to meet him. 

The opposing forces were very unequal ; in fact, either division 
of the Swedish fleet would have been roughly equal to Mund's 
squadron. The composition of the two fleets was as follows : 

Danish Fleet. Patientia (f) 48, Tre Lever 46, Oldenborg 
42, Lindorm 38, Pelikan 36, Stormar 32, Fides 28, Delmenhorst 
28, Neptunus 28, Nelleblad 24, To Lever 28, Kronfisk 20, 
Markat 16, Lam 16, Havhest 14, Hejenhald (galley) 8, - 
(galley) 2. Seventeen ships, 448 guns. 

Swedish Fleet. Drake 40, Goteborg 36, Leopard 36, 
Smdlands Lejon (f) 32, Regina* 34, Trekronor 32, Jdgare 26, 
Hafsiru 24, Vesterviks Fortuna 24, Katta 22, Akilles 22, Svan 
22, Gamla Fortuna 18, Lam (galley) 12, Fenix (pinnace) 10, 
Postpferd (galley) 2, two fireships, one storeship. Sixteen 
ships, 392 guns. 

Delphin 38, Jupiter (f) 34, Engel 34, Gekroende Liefde 31, 
Coninch van Sweden 28, Campen 26, Swarten Raven 26, 
Vlissingen 24, Nieuw Vlissingen 24, St. Matthuis 24, Patientia 
24, Arent (or Adelaar) 22, Nieuw Gottenburg 22, Liefde van 
Hoorn 20, Prins 20, Wapen van Medenblik 20, Posthorn 20, 
Brouwer 20, St. Marten 20, Harderinne 8, - - (galiot) 2. 
Twenty-one ships, 483 guns. 

Thijsen may have had with him his three prizes, carrying 
twenty-four, twelve, and six gun. The list given was sent 
by him to Wrangel from Kalmar, so probably gives the force 
which he took into action. 

Mund intended to fight in a single line-ahead and Wrangel 

* Commanded by Major Du Quesne, who was later the famous French 

1644. 63 

proposed to attack this line on both sides, but these arrange- 
ments were not strictly followed. Mund stood towards the 
enemy on the starboard tack, but was only followed by two 
ships, the Lindorm and Oldenborg. The rest of his fleet, headed 
by Vice-Admiral Ulfeld in the Tre Lover, bore up and tried 
to pass to leeward of Anckarhjelm's column. The latter at 
once bore up as well and intercepted them. As a result the 
battle became two separate actions, one to windward of the 
other. In the weathermost action firing began at about ten 
o'clock. Wrangel, in the Smdlands Lejon 32, tried to board 
the Patientia 48, Mund's flagship, but his rigging and tackle 
was injured, he missed his mark, and had to go out of action 
for repairs. The Patientia was, however, boarded by the 
Goteborg 36 and Regina 34, Mund was killed, and the ship 
was captured. The Lindorm 38, flagship of Vice-Admiral 
Grabov, was fired by the Swedish fireship Meerman and burnt. 
Grabov was picked up by the Swedes. The Oldenborg 42 was 
taken by the Vesterviks Fortuna 24, with the aid of the Leopard 
36, Tre Kronor 32, and Svan 22, and Yice-Admiral Yon 
Jasmund was taken prisoner. Wrangel then sent the Regina, 
Jdgare, Vesterviks Fortuna, and Katta to help in the pursuit 
of the Danish ships to leeward, and proceeded to see aboiit 
securing his prizes and repairing such slight damages as his 
ships had suffered. 

The action to leeward was not so creditable to the Danes as 
that to windward. In fact, the Tre Lever 46, under Ulfeld, 
was the only ship to attempt anything like a stand. She was 
boarded by Anckarhjelm in the Jupiter and by another Dutch 
ship. The Jupiter had her rudder injured and let go of her 
prey; but a third Dutch ship came up, and the Tre Lever was 
soon taken. Ulfeld lost a leg and died three days later. 
Anckarhjelm at once steered with the rest of his fleet after 
the escaping Danes. The Fides 28, To Lever 22, and Havhest 
14 'surrendered ; the Stormar 32, Delmenhorst 28, Neptunus 28, 
Nelleblad 24, Kronfisk 20, Markat 16, Hejenhald 8, and the 
galiot ran aground off Lolland. The crews of the five bigger 
ships took to the boats and the Dutch took possession, but the 
three smaller vessels ran in so close to land that they could 
be covered by artillery and musket fire from the shore, and 
had to be left. The Delmenhorst could not be got off, and 
was burnt by a second Swedish fireship, but the other four 
ships were easily refloated by the Allies. Two ships, the 
Pelikan 36 and Lam 16, managed to escape from the Swedish 
ships detached by Wrangel, and reached Copenhagen in safety ; 
the Markat also was refloated later by the Danes and returned 
to Copenhagen, but the Hejenhald and the galiot could not be 
moved. The Danes thus lost fourteen ships out of a fleet of 


seventeen. Ten were captured, the Patientia 48, Tre Lever 
46, Oldenborg 42, Stormar 32, Fides 28, Neptunus 28, Nelle- 
blad 24, To Lever 22, Kronfisk 20, and Havhest 14 ; two burnt, 
the Lindorm 38 and Delmenhorst 28; and two wrecked, the 
Hejenhald 8, and the galiot 2. The Swedes only lost one ship, 
the Dutch Arent or Adelaar 22, sunk by the Tre Lever.* 
About 1,000 Danish prisoners were taken, but nothing is known 
of their loss in killed and wounded. Wrangel gives his total 
loss as sixty men. Of the Danish flag-officers Mund was killed, 
and Ulfeld, Grabov, and Von Jasmund captured, but Ulfeld 
soon died of his wound. No officer of high rank was hurt on 
the Swedish side. 

Next day the Swedish fleet went to Kristianspris for repairs. 
Several ships went aground on entering the Fjord, and it was 
not until October 30th that the fleet was able to put to sea 
again. t That morning Wrangel weighed anchor to return to 
Sweden. Anckarhjelm was at once detached with the Dutch 
ships and the captured Neptunus to make his way home through 
the Belt; Wrangel proceeded eastward and landed a small 
force in Femern. The Danish garrison had evacuated the 
island, and the Swedes took formal possession. On November 
3rd Wrangel wa& off Wismar, and entered the harbour two 
days later. Here he laid up for the winter most of his prizes 
and a few of his own ships, but prepared to send the Patientia 
and Oldenborg to Sweden with the galiot Postpferd. On 
November 13th he put to sea with these ships and the rest of 
his fleet, consisting of nine ships and a fireship, sent the 
Katta 22 and Svan 22 towards Copenhagen, sent off the home- 
ward-bound ships, and anchored on the 14th off M0en. From 
here he again sent the same two cruisers, with the Jdgare 26, 
to Draper, just south of Copenhagen, and shortly followed them 
into Kjoge Bay. On the 16th he sent the Fenix to investigate, 
and next day went towards Copenhagen himself with one other 
shfp. The Danish fleet could be seen unrigged in the harbour. 
The same day the Regina 34 joined from Wismar. That night 
Wrangel left Kjoge Bay, but head winds kept him off Stevns 
all the 18th; on the 20th he was off Meen and intended a 
landing, but was prevented by heavy weather. He anchored 
off Dornbusch, in Rugen, and on the 23rd entered the harbour 
of Wismar for the winter. Anckarhjelm reached Gothenburg 
on November 4th, after driving off Gedde's ships once more. 
He intended to leave eight ships there, but could only per- 
suade the crews of three to remain. At the end of the month 

* Two fireships had been expended, the Meerman and Lilla Delfin. 
t The Oamla Fortuna 18 had sailed for Stockholm on the 20th with despatches. 
Smdlands Lejon, Drake, Jdgare, Svan, Katta, Vesterviks Fortuna, Akilles, 
Leopard, Fenix, and fireship Caritas. 

1644. 65 

he put to sea, and on December 2nd, off Skagen, his fleet was 
scattered by a gale. On the 10th he was back at Gothenburg 
with four ships, and others came in by degrees; three were so 
much damaged that they had to be left there with the other 
three, but the rest sailed for home, several ships having done 
so already. 

This ended the operation of 1644 at sea.* The Danish 
fleet had fought five actions : two against the first Dutch fleet, 
one against the Swedes, one against the second Dutch fleet, 
and one against a combined Swedish-Dutch force. The first 
two were victories, the third indecisive, the fourth a mere 
skirmish, and the fifth and last an overwhelming defeat. Start- 
ing the year with every chance of a successful naval campaign, 
King Christian ended by losing everything, largely owing to 
his own mismanagement and his failure to see that success 
against an enemy strong but divided can only be attained by 
employing every available ship against one of his divisions 
before it can be supported by the other. 

There had been some hope that the Swedish forces in 
Holstein, Slesvig, and Jylland might be cut off and destroyed, 
but Gallas, the Imperial general, failed utterly in his object. 
At tne end of July he was joined at Neumunster by a Danish 
army from Gliickstadt, consisting of 5,000 men under Baner. 
His force was then 12,000 men, but Torstensson managed to 
collect 18,000 to oppose him. On August 3rd Gallas occupied 
Kiel, but this was his only success. Torstensson moved south 
and entered Mecklenburg ; Gallas followed as far as the border, 
but crossed the Elbe instead of turning east after the Swedes. 
Baner then returned to Gliickstadt and Gallas went to Magde- 
burg. Later in the year Torstensson followed him, and Gallas 
was twice defeated. The Danish operations in Skane were no 
more successful. Early in August all available troops were 
landed at Malmo, the only remaining Danish town in the 
province, and on September 6th the King took command in 
person. For over a month he and Horn watched each other 
without fighting, and at last, on October 20th, Christian IV. 
heard of the disaster to Mund's fleet. At once he decided to 
send his army back to Fyen to guard against a Swedish attack 
on the islands. The Danish troops were reshipped from Malmo 
to Sjaelland, and Horn left in control as before. In November 
he went into winter quarters at Ystad. 

* At Gliickstadt at the beginning of the year were two Danish ships and a 
number of galleys and prams under Whittle, an Englishman. Ordered to the 
islands west of Holstein with eight galleys and two prams, he at once 
surrendered his ships to the Swedes and entered Swedish service. He was, 
however, attacked in March by another Danish force; his ships were retaken, 
and he himself was hanged. 


Soon after leaving Holstein Torstensson sent Helmuth 
Wrangel back thither with 4,000 men to do what he could. 
Alreaay fhe Danes had retaken Aarhuus,* in Jylland, and Ribe 
and Hederslev, in Slesvig, and were besieging Pinneberg and 
Breitenburg, in Holstein. They had also built and occupied a 
small fortification, Snogshej, just opposite Middelfart, in Fyen, 
at the narrowest part of the Little Belt. In September 
Wrangel relieved Pinneberg, but failed in a similar attempt 
at Breitenburg, which soon surrendered. A little later he 
retook Kiel. The Danish plan was that Bille, from Even, 
should co-operate with Prince Frederik, from Gluckstadt, in an 
expedition into Jylland, but this also failed. Wrangel moved 
first, retook Ribe and Hederslev, and was in Jylland before 
Prince Frederik had joined Bille. Even when the junction 
did take place in December the Prince insisted on wasting time 
in besieging Ribe instead of following Wrangel. The latter 
meanwhile retook Aarhuus, occupied other towns in Jylland, 
and finally began to move south again. At once Frederik with- 
drew to Holding, and was then ordered by the King to return 
to Gluckstadt. In January, 1645, he was back there with 
nothing accomplished. Bille now evacuated Snogshej, and 
Wrangel was left supreme in the Peninsula. 

While these various events had been taking place at sea or 
in the coast districts there had been a good deal of fighting in 
the interior of Norway and Sweden. In March, 1644, Swedish 
troops had occupied Jemtland, a Norwegian province in what 
is now the west of Sweden, but for some time little else 
occurred. At last, in June, the Norwegians advanced at the 
extreme southern end of the boundary, took Wenersborg at 
the south end of Lake Wener, and blockaded Gothen- 
burg from the land in conjunction with Gedde's ships. In 
August they also re-took Jemtland. No great progress was 
made near Gothenburg, but Sehested took a Norwegian army 
into Vermland, north-west of Lake Wener, and won a con- 
siderable victory in December. 

Peace negotiations had already been begun at Malmo 
through French mediation, but for some time they made little 
progress. In the meantime both sides prepared for further 
efforts in 1645. The Danes attempted an attack on Gothen- 
burg. Gedde, now Admiral of the Fleet (Rigs-admiral), left 
Copenhagen in the middle of May with a fleet of sixteen ships. 
The Swedes were, however, ready for him, and had a force of 
fourteen ships in the harbour. These consisted of the 
following : 

Nya Goteborg 36, Salvator 26, Tiger 18, sent from Wismar at 

* They took two ships and about thirty small-craft left there by Blume. 

1644-1645. 6T 

the end of 1644*; Ndttelblad 24t, Hafsfru 24, Akilles 22, Hafs- 
hdst 18J, sent from Wismar March 30th, 1645 ; Neptunus 24, 
came to Gothenburg with Thijsen November, 1644; Harde- 
rinna 8, taken over from Thij sen's fleet ; Naktergal 10, Gamla 
Goteborg 8, Kalmarnyckel ,|| Fama 16, || brought by Anckarh- 
jelm from the Netherlands May 3rd, 1645. 

Anckarhjelm had arrived from the Netherlands on May 3rd 
and taken charge of all the ships in the harbour. On the 19th 
the Danish fleet reached Varberg, and the galley Rose 10, sent 
to reconnoitre off Gothenburg, was captured by the Swedish 
Fama 16. Next day the Danish ships were off Gothenburg, but 
on the 24th Gedde's flagship, the S. Sophia 40, 11" was wrecked, 
though without serious loss of life, and he thereupon left 
Gothenburg on May 29th, escorted his convoy to Norway, went 
to Marstrand for repairs, and was back at Copenhagen at the 
beginning of June. 

In the Baltic the Swedes prepared a large fleet. On May 
20th the Stockholm fleet was ready to put to sea. It was com- 
posed of twenty-three ships, three fireships, and one galiot, and 
was under the command of Admiral Kyning. On the 21st 
E-yning sent the Rekompens 22 and Vestervik 26 to Wismar 
to tell Wrangel to meet him off Dornbusch, and the following 
day he set sail with the fleet. An extraordinary series of head 
winds and gales followed, and it was not until June 20th that 
he got to sea. Next day the fleet was caught by a gale, in 
which the Gota Ark 72, flagship of Bjelkenstjerna, the third 
in command, and the Andromeda 24 were so much damaged 
that they had to be sent home with the Rapphona 2. On the 
26th the fleet was off Oland and on July 6th it met Wrangel's 
ships south of that island. Wrangel had had at the beginning 
of the year twenty ships, one fireship, and one pinnace. He 
had sent four ships to Gothenburg, but had been sent the Apollo 
28 and Enhorn 18, with 300 fresh men, so that the arrival of 
the Rekompens and Vestervik brought his fleet up to its full 
numbers. Early in June he put to sea and captured the island 
of Bornholm, and on June 29th three of his ships were wrecked, 
the Vestervik 26 and Gamla Fortuna 18 on Bornholm and the 
Stormar 28 on the German coast. At the same time Eyning 
had had to send home the Mars 30. 

* Sent in November, 1644, to Wismar with stores. 

t ex-Danish Nelleblad. 

+ ex-Danish Havest. 

% Nothing is heard of any other Dutch ships, so it would seem that they had 
gone home. Gierdtson, who had been left in command of them, was at Stock- 
holm this year. 

|| These were both Swedish ships, and must have accompanied Anckarhjelm 
when he returned to the Netherlands in 1644. 

11 Some accounts give her 54 guns. 



The list of the combined fleet follows : 

First Squadron. Scepter 56 (Ryning), Apple 66, Patientia 
44, Svdrd 34, Samson 34, Oldenborg 30, Rekompens 22, Apollo 
28, Kalmarnyckel* ', Mane 18, Hok 14, Meerweib 8, one fireship, 
one " bojort." 

Second Squadron. Tre Lejon 48 (Wrangel), Drake 40, Orn 
38, Smdlands Lejon 32, Trekronor 32, Regina 34, Leopard 30, 
Fides 28, Jagare 26, Tw Le;on 22, Svan 22, Kronfisk 16, one 
fireship, one pinnace. 

Third Squadron Krona 68 (Ulfsparre), Jupiter 38, Stocfc- 
Ti-oZm 34, IVyckel 32, Vestgota Lejon 26, Merkurius 26, V ester - 
viks Fortuna 24, Katta 20, Enhorn 18, 6rrip' 12, one fireship, 
one galiot. 

The evening following the junction saw this fleet off Born- 
holm, where it stayed till July llth. Two ships, the Kalmar- 
nyckel and Katta 20, were sent towards Copenhagen to investi- 
gate. On the 14th the fleet was off Riigen, and the same day 
the Katta rejoined with a Danish prize, the Samsons Gallej 9, 
taken off Drager, just south of Copenhagen. On July 23rd 
Ryning moved to M0en, and next day to Stevns; on the 25th 
he entered Kjoge Bay. At a conference between him and Horn 
it was arranged that an attack should be made on the Danish 
islands, and that for this purpose Anckarhjelm should bring 
his fleet from Gothenburg to Kristianspris, but before anything 
oould be done came the news of the conclusion of pe,ace on 
August 13th. The only work of this great fleet had been the 
capture, on August 8th, of the Danish armed merchantman 
S. Peter 22. 

As in the previous year, the Dutch had sent a large fleet to 
convoy their merchantmen, intending this time to take them 
right through the Sound under the protection of the warships 
without paying any toll whatever. On May 30th Admiral de 
With put to sea with a fleet of forty-eight warships and about 
300 merchantmen. The list of his fleet is given here, since it 
is of interest as showing the sort of force the Dutch could send 
out a few years before their first war with England. 

Maze. Brederode 51, Gecroonde Lieffde 33, Prins Hendrick 

Admiralty Ships of Amsterdam. 't Huys van Nassau 36, 
De Goude Maan 34, De Goude Son 33, 't Wapen der Goes 32, 
Gelderlant 32, Zutphen 32, 't Jaertsvelt 30, Prins Hendrick 30, 
Bommel 30. 

Old Directory of Amsterdam. --De Burght 24, Prinses 
Royale 28, Hollandia 26, De Valck 23, De Jonge Prins 28, De 
Wakende Boey 26, De Drommedaris 24, y t Wapen Medemblick 

* She must have joined from Gothenburg during June. 

1645. 69 

New Directory of Amsterdam. Sint Andries 30, De Grooten 
Jupiter 30, De Fortuyne 28, Den Godt Mars 26, Sint Jacob 
26, Patientia 26, 't Wapen Genua 36, Den Cleynen Jupiter 22, 
Venetia 32, Abrahams Offerhand , Coninck van Sweden 26, 
Den Swarten Raven 30, De Rechte Lyeffde 26, De Goude 
Leeu 24. 

Admiralty ships of 't Noorder-quartier. De Hoope 26, 
't Wapen Alcmaer 24, 't Wapen Hoorn 24, Medenblick 26, 
Sampson 28, 26. 

Old and New Directory of Enckhuysen. Getrouwen Harder 
34, Den Haen 34, Den Dolphyn 34, Coninck Davith 30. 

Medenblick. De Coninck Davidt 28. 

Harlingen. Prins Willem 28. 

Forty-nine ships, with 1,410 guns.* 

De With detached two shipst to the Flemish coast at once, 
but went on with the rest, and passed into the Sound on 
June 5th. Four days later he passed the Drogden channel 
and entered the Baltic without firing a shot save as a salute. 
Gedde's fleet of fifteen ship lay in the harbour of Copen- 
hagen, but made no move, and the Danish batteries were also 
silent. De With then sent off his merchantmen in two fleets, 
with three ships as convoy to each, sent two ship to the 
northern entrance to the Sound, took twenty-eight to a posi- 
tion just off Copenhagen, and left the remaining eleven in 
Kjoge Bay. Thus he remained, sending his ships home with 
convoys a few at a time, until the conclusion of peace between 
Sweden and Denmark, when he moved with his whole fleet to 
an anchorage off Kronborg. 

Neither side had made much progress on land in 1645. 
Malmo was still Danish and Gothenburg still Swedish, while 
the position in the interior was much the same as before. In 
the southern part of the theatre of war the Swedish forces had 
occupied Bremen, Prince Frederick's archbishopric, but had 
since been employed in a vain siege of Rendsburg, in Holstein, 
and had made no progress towards an attack on the Danish 

The terms of the Peace of Bromsebro were naturally very 
favourable to Sweden. Christian IV. would, as a matter of 
fact, have continued the war, but his noble refused to support 
him, and he had to give in. Denmark ceded Jemtland and the 
neighbouring province of Harjeadalen, besides the islands of 
Gothland and Osel. Swedish ships were made free of the 
Sound dues, and as security for this Sweden was given the 

Province of Halland, between Helsingborg and Gothenburg, 
or thirty years. At the same time an agreement was signed 

* Assuming that the Abrahams Offerhand carried 30. 
t Prinses Eoyale and Den Godt Mars. 


at Chriatianopel, whereby the Dutch obtained great concessions 
as to the Sound dues and the manner of their collection. 

After the conclusion of these two treaties the Dutch and 
Swedish fleets had no further object in staying in Danish 
waters. On August 20th Eyning set sail, and on the 28th he 
reached Dalaro. Wrangel, with three ships, went to Wismar. 
In September seven small ships were sent to Kalmar under 
Blume. Here Ulfsparre took charge and sailed for Gothland 
and Osel to take over these islands from the Danish authori- 
ties. Some of the ships in Gothenburg* were sent to Stock- 
holm, but no further operations took place. De With, how- 
ever, was not recalled until October 29th, though he had by 
then only thirteen ships. On November 22nd he reached 

The Thirty Years' War went on for another three years, 
but the disappearance of Denmark put an end to all naval 
events of any interest. The only expeditions were the Swedish 
convoys to Germany and a trading voyage to Portugal by six 
warships from Gothenburg in the winter of 1646-7. At last, in 
1648, the Peace of Westphalia put an end to the struggle and 
gave to Sweden Bremen, Yerden, the greater part of Pomer- 
ania, the island of Rugen, and the town of Wismar. 

* Nya Goteborg, Harderinna, Naktergal, N&ttelblad, Hafsh&st, Salvator. 

1645-1652. 71 




After the Peace of Bromsebro, Denmark, in spite of the 
conduct of the Dutch during the war with Sweden, began to 
lean more and more towards the nation which had shown 
itself so ready and so able to interfere in the quarrels of the 
Baltic peoples. In 1649 Frederik III. of Denmark, who had 
succeeded Christian IV. in 1648, concluded a defensive alliance 
with the Netherlands, and on the outbreak of war between 
the English and the Dutch Denmark was soon involved. 

Early in August, 1652, twenty-one or twenty-two English 
merchantmen* collected at Helsinger to wait for convoy 
home to England. The King of Denmark invited them to 
seek safety at Copenhagen, and eighteen took advantage of 
this offer; but two of the others were taken by a Dutch man- 
of-war, though one of these was recovered by a third 
English ship which had been lying under the Castle of 
Kronborg. The Dutchman tried to press his attack home, 
but the .guns of the fortress opened fire, and com- 
pelled him to withdraw. The eighteen ships were now 
allowed to enter the harbour of Copenhagen, and a Danish 
warship, the Hannibal 44, was sent to Helsinger to protect the 
two there. This was on August llth, but on the 27th nine 
Dutch men-of-war arriving with a convoy were allowed to 
enter the Sound, while on September 9th the Soblad 12 was 
sent to forbid any English ships to enter, and several large 
shipst were sent to join the Hannibal, and, if necessary, to 
keep the English back by force. 

The same day an English squadron of eighteen shipst under 
Captain Ball left Yarmouth for the Sound to convoy the 
merchantmen home. On September 20th Ball arrived outside 
the Sound and found eleven Dutch warships inside Helsinger. 
The Danish Government at once complained that no notice 
had been given of the squadron's approach, and using this 

* Most of these ships were armed. One had 20 guns, ten had 18-10, and six 
had 8-6. The rest were unarmed. (Lind 52.) 

t Trefoldighed 48, Spes 40, Viktoria 44, &c. (Lind 53.) 

+ The following were amongst Ball's ships: Antelope 56 (f), Tiger 36, 
Recovery 26, Star 22, Greyhound 20, Elizabeth (M) 40, Prosperous (M) 40. 
(l.D.W. Various.) 



as a pretext refused to allow the merchantmen to sail. 
Further, they forbade the English to pass the Sound, saying 
that if they did so the Danish ships would join the Dutch 
against them, though in the event of the Dutch going out to 
fight the Danes would take no part. The crews of the 
merchantmen now left their ships and embarked in Ball's fleet. 
On September 27th he set sail to return, and, though delayed 
by the loss of his flagship the Antelope 56 on the Jylland 
coast, he reached Bridlington Bay on October 14th after some 
slight skirmishes with the Dutch. Meanwhile, on October 1st, 
eleven Dutch men-of-war had left the Ylie for Denmark. On the 
4th, Balck in the Vrijheijt, the senior officer, with only two 
ships in company, came in contact with the leading ships of 
Ball's fleet near Skagen, and managed to injure the Eliza- 
beth 40. He met the Dutch convoy from the Sound, collected 
his scattered fleet, and was back at the Vlie on the 13th. 
This was not the only Dutch fleet sent to Danish waters this 
year; on October 30th, when there were already thirteen Dutch 
men-of-war near Copenhagen, seven more arrived, with a convoy 
of 100 merchantmen from the Vlie. The Danish fleet had 
returned to Copenhagen on the departure of the English, but 
it was again in the Sound from October 7th to 19th, and left 
some ships there until November. England was too busy with 
the Dutch to act effectively against Denmark, and merely 
seized such Danish ships as could be found in English ports. 
Next year, 1653, Frederik III. made an agreement with the 
Dutch whereby he undertook to close the Sound and the Belts 
to English ships, and in return for a subsidy to commission 
a fleet of twenty ships to enforce this. As a matter of fact, he 
fitted out twenty-two or twenty-three ships ranging from 86 
guns to 12.* The arrangement was that the Danish squadron 
should be in commission from April 1st to November 1st, but 


* Frederik 86 86 

Sofia Amalia 86 86 

Prinds Kristian 78 74 

Trefoldighed 48 48 

Norske Love 44 44 

Viktoria 48 44 

Hannibal 44 44 

Tre Kroner 42 42 

Justitia 36 

Sorte Rytter 40 40 

Spes 30 40 

Delmenhorst .. . 34 34 


Hvide Bj0rn 34 34 

Graa Ulv 30 30 

Pelikan 32 34 

Phenix 32 30 

Sorte Bj0rn 38 30 

Forgyldte Bj0rn 30 30 

Snarensvend 30 30 

Lykkepot 32 30 

Gribbe 12 - 

S0blad 12 

Arke Noa . 12 

List from Lind (p. 60) and from a Dutch list in the Archives at The Hague. 
Guns in first column from a list in Garde Eft. i. 146-9, and in second column from 
the Dutch list. These agree very closely. The guns given in Lind (48/9) are 
very different, and have therefore been ignored. Lind (60) does not mention 
the Justitia, and the Dutch list does not mention the three small craft. 

1652-1655. 73 

that it should be kept in home waters. The Dutch, however, tried 
to get the use of it in the North Sea, and in June there was a 
possibility of the Danes' lending their larger ships in exchange 
for smaller Dutch vessels, but the Dutch defeats soon convinced 
Frederik III. of the folly of this idea. In August Bjelke 
was sent with ten ships to prevent the Dutch from searching 
neutrals in Danish waters; but on September 3rd he received 
orders to convoy the Dutch homeward-bound merchantmen with 
fourteen ships till he met the squadron sent to receive them, 
and then to act for a few days in conjunction with that fleet, 
joining in any action against the English, but not fighting 
them alone unless forced to do so. These orders were executed 
without incident, and early in November the Danish fleet was 
laid up. Its only other activity had been the despatch of 
four ships to cruise during May and June on the coast of 
Norway. Meanwhile some fifteen of the English merchant- 
men had been sold. 

No further operations occurred. Early in 1654 it became 
probable that peace would soon be concluded, and on April 5th 
this took place. Denmark was, by special insistence of the 
Dutch envoys, included in the Treaty on the terms that the 
Dutch should guarantee the return of the English merchant- 
men, and should pay 140,000 for damages done by Denmark. 
A special Treaty of Peace was, however, concluded between 
England and Denmark on September 15th, 1654.* 

Peace in the Baltic did not last long. Karl Gustaf became 
King of Sweden in June, 1654, on the abdication of Queen 
Kristina, and in very little over a year he was engaged in 
warfare on foreign soil. Having decided that Swedish terri- 
tory beyond the Baltic must be increased at all costs, the only 
decision still necessary was the choice of an enemy. It was 
on Poland that the blow fell, since in this case there was 
an excuse available in the fact that John Casimir, Sigismund's 
second son, now King of Poland, sfill claimed the Swedish 

Karl Gustaf fitted out a large fleet of 31 shipst at Dalaro, 

* Sweden kept out of the conflict, but found it necessary to send out a few 
ships on convoy duty in 1653 and 1654. (Zettersten ii. 388/9.) 

t 1st Squadron. Scepter 66 (King Karl Gustaf and Admiral Bjelkenstjerna), 
Cesar 54, Nyckel 32, Maria 54, Apollo 46, Vestervik 44, Orn 38, Svdrd 34, Fides 
30, Fenix 30, Svan 28. 

2nd Squadron. Tre Lejon 50 (Vice-Admiral of the Fleet K. G. Wrangel), 
Carolus 54, Oldenburg 48, Merkurius 46, Mane 46, Folk 40, Samson 34, Rafael 
30, Salvator 26, Eronfisk 16. 

3rd Squadron. Herkules 58 (Admiral Ulfsparre), Mars 44, Andromeda 44 (?), 
Wismar 44, Leopard 36, Eekompens 26, Fortuna 24, Hafsfru 24, Neptunus 24, 
Fama 16. 

Joined later by the Orona Jagare 26 and Hok 16. 

(Zettersten ii. 392.) 


embarked his army, and sailed on July 9th, 1655, to 
invade Poland. The army was landed on the 15th and 16th 
near Wolgast, in Pomerania, some fifty miles north-west of 
Stettin, and here the fleet stayed for some time, sending out 
cruisers to see if any interference was to be expected from the 
Danes or Dutch.* 

At last, on August 23rd, Wrangel received orders from the 
King to take the fleet to Putzig Bay, outside Danzig, and to 
establish a blockade, or rather to levy toll on all ships entering 
or leaving Danzig, until such time as the town should capi- 
tulate to the Swedish army. He entered Putzig Bay on 
August 27th, and sent five ships! in to the entrance to Danzig 
to carry out the collection of the toll. On September 14th 
some of the older shipsj were sent home, and a second detach- 
ment followed a month later. On October 4th the new ship 
Amarant 46 arrived, and Wrangel shifted his flag to her. 
Little of interest occurred save a few attempts on the town of 
Putzig, and on November 9th Wrangel moved in close to 
Danzig previously to taking the rest of the fleet home. Leaving 
Strussflycht with the Apollo, Fenix, Svan, and Ho'k, he put 
to sea with the remaining ships on the llth. Two days later 
he returned, driven back by head winds and fog, but on 
November 22nd he isent off Gustaf Wrangel with all the fleet 
save the Amarant and Strussflycht's four ships. These sailed 
on the 25th, and anchored three days later at Greifswalder 
Island, south of B/iigen. Wrangel went ashore, the three 
smaller vessels went to Stralsund for the winter, and the 
Amarant and Apollo sailed for Dalaro. Here they arrived 
early in December, a few days after the bulk of the fleet under 
Gustaf Wrangel, who had had a rough passage and had loet 
the Andromeda on the way. 

In one way the system of toll collecting had been a success. 
It had killed Danzig's trade, but it had therefore failed to 
bring in much money for the simple reason that the merchants 
of Danzig preferred losing their trade to paying the toll neces- 
sary to keep it. Next year, therefore, the idea of tolls was 
given up and a complete blockade substituted. After bringing 
the Queen from Kalinar to Pillau in April, Strussflycht took 
the Amarant 46, Merkurius 46, Hjort 32, and Fenix 30 to 

* These cruisers reported that Cornelius Tromp was in the Sound with six 
Dutch ships. There is no mention of this in the " Leven van C. Tromp," but 
very probably the ships were there under some other commander. 

t Mars, Rafael, Leopard, Fortuna, Salvator. 

$ Scepter, The Lejon, Nyckel, Sv&rd, Rekompens, Neptunus, Eronfisk. 
(The last-named was lost on the way home.) 

Herkules, Cesar, Carolus, Mars, Samson, Maria, Rafael, Leopard, Fides, 
Oldenburg, Vestervik, Salvator, Fama. 

1655. 75 

Danzig at the beginning of May. He maintained the blockade 
till the end of July, when the arrival of a fleet of 42 Dutch 
warships forced him to withdraw.* 

This fleet, sent expressly to raise the blockade of Danzig, 
had collected in the Sound. Twenty-five ships under Euyter 
had left the Dutch coast on May 21st and anchored outside the 
Sound on the 29th. Entering the Sound, this squadron was 
joined at intervals by other ship, and on June 17th Wassenaer 
arrived to take over the command. No movement was made 
for a month, but on the arrival of de With with the last of 
the fleet Wassenaer proceeded to Copenhagen on July 19th, 
and leaving next day, reached Danzig on the 26th. Like the 
fleets of 1644 and 1645, the Dutch fleet had been sent purely 
in the interests of trade. It was essential to the Dutch that 
their merchantmen should have free access to Danzig, so a 
fleet was sent to secure this, but without any intention of an 
unprovoked attack on Sweden. This, however, was not under- 
stood in Sweden, and in expectation of a Dutch attack a fleet of 
nineteen shipst was commissioned and stationed at Elfsnabben. 
The alarm proved groundless, but altogether the position of 
Sweden was far from enviable. Karl Gustaf was already at war 
with Poland and with Alexis of Russia, who had begun hosti- 
lities in June and was besieging Eiga; the Dutch were 
obviously more inclined to be foes than friends; and finally 
Frederik III. of Denmark had not only given Wassenaer' s 
fleet every possible assistance and attention at Copenhagen, 
but actually sent a small squadron, J which, joined the Dutch 
off Danzig on September 1st, though it was recalled after a 
fortnight. Still, this year no further complications ensued. 
Two ships, the Fenix 30 and Hok 16, were sent to relieve 
Eevel, but returned with the news that the Eussiams had 

* Ships of Rotterdam. Eendracht 68, Vitrecht 42, Prins Maurits 42, Brederode 
54, Prins Hendrik 42, Prins Willem 42, Hollandia 42. 

Of Amsterdam. Huis Tijdverdrijf 50, Marseveen 42, Dom van Uitrecht 42, 
Tromp 42, Zuiderhuis 42, Gelderland 44, Westvriesland 20, Windhond 22, 
Koevorden 54, Gouda 46, Doesburg 42, Burgt van Leiden 42, Zeelandia 30, 
Maagd van Enkhuisen 32, Star 30, Brak 22, Staveren 42, Landman 42, 
Jaarsveld 42, Maan 38, Duivenvoorde 42, Uitrecht 30, Leiden 28, Zutfen 34. 

From Noord, Holland. Josua 45, Eendracht 48, Burgt van Alkmaar 36, Goude 
Leeuw 48, Wapen van Hoorn 30, Kasteel van Medenblik 42, Hollandsche 
Tuin 36. 

From Zeeland. Ter Veere 40, Vitrecht 35. 

From Vriesland. Vriesland 42, Prinsen Wapen 36. 

42 ships, 1,676 guns. 

t Drake 64, Bjelkenstjerna, Herkules 58, Cesar 54, Carolus 54, Samson 34, Maria 
54, Mars 44, Wismar 44, Mane 46, Apollo 46, Svard 34, Leopard 36, Rafael 30, 
Fides 30, Vestervik 44, Orn 38, Falk 40, Svan 28, Salvator 26. 

+ Trefoldighed 66, Lindenov, Norske Love 48, Lindorm 46, Hannibal 44, Peli- 
kan 36, Sorte Eytter 48, F0niks 32, Graa Ulv 36, Falk 16. 


retired. W asflenaer stayed at Danzig till September 26th, 
when he sailed for home with his thirty largest ships, leaving 
Tromp there till October 20th with the twelve remaining vessels. 

Early in 1657 Frederik III. decided to attack Sweden in the 
hope of regaining some of the territory which had changed 
hands in 1645 and 1648. With this object he made every 
effort to increase his fleet by taking over several merchantmen 
and chartering six warships* in the Netherlands. The first 
attack was to be made on the new Swedish territory of Bremen, 
and in support of this a squadronf was sent into the Elbe, 
while Captain Niels Juel was stationed in the Sound with five 
ships.* On May 20th order were sent to these two fleets to 
capture all Swedish ships, and the war was thus definitely 
begun. On the 25th Captain Nielsen was sent towards Gothen- 
burg with the Sorte Rytter 48 and Snarensyend 30 with orders 
to take over one of the three Dutch ships under Koningk, but 
to leave him the other two ships to cruise nearer Copenhagen. 
On May 29th the three Dutch ships returned to Copenhagen, 
and were followed on June 10th by Nielsen, who had been 
joined by the Hvide Bjern 40, but on June 21st Nielsen 
was ordered back to Gothenburg with all six ships, and there 
Rqdthsten shortly joined him with the other three Dutch 
ships, after having been sent to the Weser on June 3rd to 
support the military operations. In Gothenburg was a squad- 
ron of nine ships, the Delfin 14, and eight armed merchantmen, 
but it gave no sign of activity. The main Danish fleet, con- 
sisting of nineteen ships, equipped with great difficulty, sailed 
from Drager, just south of Copenhagen, on June 24th, with 
the King himself on board. On July 2nd it reached Danzig, 
but hearing that the Swedish King was marching westwards 
towards Holstein, Frederik III. ordered an immediate return. 
He himself Wen,t to Copenhagen in the Trefoldighed, but the rest 
of tTie fleet parted from him at Bornholm and steered for Riigen. 

The Swedes, however, made no attack by sea at present; 
their fleet was not yet ready, and save for two ships, the 
Merkurius 46 and Folk 40, which cruised outside the Stockholm 
skargard, they had no ships at sea. Bjelke, therefore, with 
the Danish fleet was unmolested, and after being reinforced 
from Copenhagen he was able to blockade Wismar and make 
several descents in Riigen and the surrounding country. At 
last, on September 1st, the Swedish fleet left Elfsnabben under 
Admiral Bjelkenstjerna forty ships strong. Off Oland on the 
10th Bjelkenstjerna heard that the Danes were near Riigen. 

* Sunder Ifoer, Raadhuis van Haarlem, Beurs van Amsterdam, Captain 
Koningk ; Haabet, Forgyldte Talk, Fama, Captain Rodthsten. 
t Including the K0benhavn 32, S0blad 12, and Prinsens Jagt 10. 
J Norske L0ve 48, Oraa Ulv 36, Pelikan 36, F0nikg 32, Falk 16. 

165T. 77 

He weighed anchor at once, and was off Bornholm in the after- 
noon of the llth. Meanwhile the Danish fleet, hearing of 
the approach of the Swedes, had left E/iigen for the north, 
and soon after mid-day on September 12th the two fleets 
met east or north-east of Meen. The fleets, as far as is known, 
were as shown in the footnote.* 

Details of the fighting which followed are very scanty, and 
such accounts as there are contradict one another freely, but 
probably what happened is roughly as follows. 

Bjelke tried to avoid action and steered towards Kjoge Bay, 
but the Swedes, being to windward, prevented his escape. 
However, many of the Swedish ships behaved badly, so that 
Bjelkenstjerna's flagship, the Drake 66, was not properly sup- 
ported and suffered considerable damage. The action began 
about 4 p.m. and lasted till nightfall, but it was never more 
than partial. According to some accounts Bjelke was joined 
that evening by Niels Juel from Copenhagen with eleven ships, 
but this is very doubtful. At any rate, next day the Danes 
were quite ready to give battle. As before, the Swedes were 
to windward; there was a strong easterly wind and a heavy 
sea, and this, coupled with the disinclination of many of the 
Swedes to come to close quarters, prevented a decisive action, 
though fighting went on from about 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Both 
flagships were much knocked about, and a good deal of damage 
done to hulls and spars on either side, though the losses in 
men were comparatively small. The Danes are said to have 
lost 60 killed and 100 wounded; the Swedes. 40 killed. Next 
morning the weather was too bad to renew the action; the 
Danish fleet withdrew to Copenhagen, and the Swedes, leaving 
four ships to watch them, anchored ofi Dornbusch, on the north- 
west of Eiigen. On the 16th the Swedish scouts returned, and 
were replaced by five others. Next day, finding his anchorage 
insecure, Bjelkenstjerna moved to Jasmund, on the east coast 

* Swedes from Zettersten ii. 402. Danish list approximate only ; compiled 
from Lind 108, 113, etc., and Bricka 2.22. Guns from Lind 48 and 242 and Garde 
Eft., i., 147. Some Swedish accounts give the Danes twenty-eight ships. 

Swedes: Dra k e 66 (f), Krona 68, Herkules 58, Carolus 54, Cesar 54, Amarant 
46, Maria 46, Apollo 46, Mane 46, Merkurius 46, Svard 44, Mars 44, Wismar 44, 
Vestervik 44, Falk 40, Orn 38, Rafael 36, Leopard 36, Fides 36, Hjort 36, Samson 
32, Fenix 30, Svan 36, Salvator 30, Fortuna 24, Morgonstjerna (M) 48, Smdland 
(M) 46, Nordstjerna (M) 40, Samson (M) 36, Fenix (M) 30, Halfmdne (M) 28, 
Vesterviksoxe (M) 22, Leopard (M) 16, two fireships, five small-craft (42). Thirty- 
eight ships, two fireships, 1,388 guns. 

Danes: Trefoldighed 66, Spes 66, Tre Lover 60, Norske L0ve 48, Viktoria 48, 
Nelleblad 46, Lindorm 46, Hannibal 44, Delmenhorst 43, Tre Kroner 40, Justitia 
36, Sorte Bj0rn 36, Pelikan 36, Oraa Ulv 36, Sunder Roer , Raadhuis van 
Haarlem 40, Beurs van Amsterdam , Svenske L0ve , Svenske Grib , 
Svenske Lam , F0niks 32, Samson , , Karitas , one galiot, two fire- 
ships. Twenty-four ships, two fireships, circa 920 guns. 


of Riigen, and on the 23rd, after picking up his five cruisers, 
he anchored at Wismar. 

The Danish fleet, repaired and increased,* left Kjoge Bay 
on September 28th, and appeared off Wismar on October 4th, 
intending to blockade the Swedes there, but three days later 
a northerly gale forced them to withdraw, leaving only four 
ships off the port. These four ships were recalled on Octo- 
ber 15th and rejoined the fleet which anchored off Grjedser, 
the southern point of the island of Falster, on the 17th. 
Here Bjelke found orders to stay off Wismar, but heavy 
weather prevented him from obeying. In fact, the resulting 
damage and the lack of provisions completely paralysed the 
Danish fleet, so that the Swedes were able to send out cruisers, 
and on November 3rd to send the Drake, Herkules, and Mane 
to Stockholm to fetch the Queen to Wismar. Still Clerck, who 
took over the command on Bjelkenstjerna's departure in the 
Drake, made no move during the whole of November, and 
the Danes, though starting to cruise again on the 10th, suffered 
so much from continual gales that they gave up the struggle 
and returned home through the Belt. On December 3rd the 
fleet anchored at Copenhagen. On the 4th Clerck was ordered 
to take the Swedish fleet home; he was to fight the Danes if 
he met them, but not to go out of his way to look for them. 
Detaching five ships to Sonderborg, in the island of Als, to 
help the army, he put to sea, and reached Dalaro on 
December 21st. 

In the Kattegat nothing of importance had occurred. Niel- 
sen remained on the blockade, and the Swedish ships were 
unable to move. Sjohjelm,t the Swedish commander, was 
ordered in July to sail to the Elbe, and in August to Aarhuus, 
in Jylland, but the presence of the blockading squadron kept 
him in port. In September the three Dutch ships under 
Koningk were sent to Copenhagen to join the main Danish 
fleet, but the six remaining ships, with a few privateers and 
Norwegian vessels, kept up the blockade till ordered home on 
November 14th. J 

* Its strength was now as follows: 1st squadron Trefoldighed 68, Hannibal 
44, Justitia 36, Tre Lover 60, Sunder Hoer , Svenske Love , Emanuel , 
two fireships; 2nd squadron Sofia Amalia 86, Viktoria 48, Raadhuis van Haar- 
lem 40, Lindorm 46, Delmenhorst 43, Forgyldte Fisk , Saelhund ; 3rd 
squadron Frederik 86, Tre Kroner 40, Nelleblad 46, Spes 66, Pelikan 36, 
Svenske Lam , Svenske Grib , one fireship ; 4th squadron Norske Leve 48, 
Graa Ulv 36, F0niks 32, Beurs van Amsterdam , Samson , Sorte Bj0rn , 
Karitas , one fireship. Also five unattached small craft (Lind 119A20, 
Brick a 2). 

t Formerly Gierdtson, second in command of Thijsen's fleet in 1644. 

The Flyvende Hjort 6, a privateer, was wrecked on November llth. At the 
end of this year's campaign three of the Dutch ships, the Haabet, Forgyldte 
Falk, and Fama, returned to the Netherlands (Lind 126/7). 

1657-1658. 79 

Meanwhile, Karl Gustaf had carried everything before him 
on land. After a tremendous march from Poland he had 
entered Holstein in July. The Danes were beaten everywhere, 
and at the end of August Bille, the Danish commander, was 
forced to ship the remains of his army in the small squadron 
in the Elbe, and proceed by sea to Frederiksedde, on the Little 
Belt, the last Danish position on the mainland. On October 
24th Frederiksedde fell by storm, and about the same time the 
Danish Grib 12 was taken by the Samson 32. Bjelke sent 
Bredal to the Little Belt on November 8th with the Tre Lever 
60, Svenske Lam*, Emmanuel, a fireship, and a galiot, and ten 
days later reinforced him with the Svenske Love,* Samson, 
and Forgyldte Fish. A few small Swedish ships escaped into 
Frederiksedde, but two were taken by the Danes. Finally, 
Bredal was ordered to winter at Nyborg with the Svenske Love, 
Samson, Emmanuel, and Svenske Lam. At the same time 
Speck, detached from the main Swedish fleet, arrived in the 
Little Belt with the Carolus 54, Amarant 46, Vestervik 44, 
Hjort 36, and Fenix 30, and remained off Als or Frederiksedde 
until January, when winter forced him back to Wismar. 

Winter gave the King of Sweden his opportunity. 
As long as the sea was open the Danish ships were able to 
prevent his advancing further than Jylland, but when the ice 
became thick the condition changed. On January 30th, by a 
movement of extraordinary boldness, he marched his army 
over the Little Belt into Fyen, and occupied the island. After 
this he went on by the same means, and, passing in turn to 
Langeland, Lolland, and Falster, he reached Sjaelland (or 
Zealand), the chief island of Denmark, on February 12th. At 
Nyborg, in Fyen, were Bredal's four ships, frozen in. The 
town surrendered, but Bredal managed to cut his way to the 
middle of the harbour, and there successfully resisted all 
attacks for three days, until the Swedes had to leave him 
unsubdued to continue their march towards Copenhagen. Still, 
the Swedish army took one naval trophy, in the shape of the 
Delmenhorst 44, which was captured at Kprser, in Sjaelland, 
where she was repairing the damage sustained in the gale of 
the previous autumn. 

The Swedish attack on Sjaelland found Copenhagen 
defenceless, and there was no alternative but to sue for 
peace. Naturally Karl Gustaf drove a hard bargain. At the 
Peace of Eoeskilde, signed on February 26th, 1658 r he took 
Skane. Halland, Bahus, Bleking, Trondhjem, and Bornholm. 
The first four of these comprised all the Danish or Norwegian 
territory in what is now the south of Sweden, Trondhjem opened 

* Captured Swedish merchantmen. 


a way from central Sweden to the North Sea, and Bornholm 
was the last of the outlying Danish islands. Besides these 
territorial gains he forced Frederik III. into an alliance with 
him whereby all foreign fleets should be excluded from the 
Baltic, and, with one side of the Sound in his own hands, 
naturally kept the previously-granted freedom from the Sound 
dues for Swedish ships. 

After the conclusion of peace the Swedish forces were trans- 
ported to their own territory by Danish ships as soon as the sea 
was open, and Karl Gustaf prepared to renew his attack on 
Poland and Russia. Three Swedish merchantmen,* which had 
been taken by the Danes and used as warships, were now 
returned, and at the same time the Danish fleet was weakened 
in other ways. The Saelhund was wrecked, the Sunder Roer, 
Raadhuis van Haarlem, and Beurs van Amsterdam sent back 
to Holland, the other chartered merchantmen returned to their 
owners, and_the Feniks 32, Hvide Bjern 40, and Sorte Bjorn 
36 sent on a trading voyage to Portugal. 

Naturally, little of naval interest arose from the Swedish 
war with Russia and Poland, but still one or two small expedi- 
tions took place. On May 8th Major Sperling was sent with 
stores from Stockholm to Malmo with the six ships Merkurius 
46, Apollo 46, Leopard 36, Wismar 44, Rafael 36, and Fortuna 
30. Arriving there on the 18th, he was joined from Gothen- 
burg by the five merchantmen Goteborgsfalk 24, Kalmar- 
kastell 32, Johannes 36, Hopp 24, and Lilla Johannes, with a 
few troops on board. The resulting fleet left Malmo on June 
3rd for Danzig, and remained there till ordered to Wismar at 
the end of the month. At the same time three shipst had 
been sent to Kiel with the Queen's baggage, and on June 6th 
the King and Queen embarked at Gothenburg in the Amarant 
46, landing at Flensburg, in Holstein, on the 14th. 

Suddenly Karl Gustaf decided to attack Denmark again. 
His reason was that Frederik III. was being urged by the 
Dutch to refuse to ratify the clause in the Treaty of Roeskilde, 
which called upon him to assist in keeping foreign fleets from 
the Baltic. This was a matter of the highest importance to 
Sweden, and the King considered that his only course was to 
fight. At Kiel he had 10,000 men, and thither he summoned 
Sperling from Wismar and Strussflvcht with various small 
craft from Stralsund. Sending Sperling's eleven ships direct 
to Copenhagen to establish a blockade, he embarked his troops, 

* Svenske Love, Svenske Lam, and Svenske Grib. Lind mentions the cap- 
ture of three Swedish merchantmen, including the two first-named, and records 
the return of three. He only mentions the return of the last-named ; probably 
she was the third of those mentioned as taken. 

t Drake 66, Mdne 46, Svan 36. 

1658. 81 

convoyed by the Drake 66, Mane 46, and Svan 36, and landed 
on July 8th at Korser, on the west of Sjaelland. Two days 
later Sperling anchored off Copenhagen, on August 14th 
Admiral Sjohjelm joined from Gothenburg with the Delfin 14, 
Svan (M) 38, Konung David (M) 40, and Mdse (M) 30, and on 
August 26th Bjelkenstjerna arrived from Stockholm with the 
thirteen ships Viktoria 74, Herkules 58, Cesar 54, Mars 44, 
Svard 44, Maria 46, Samson 36, Orn 38, Fides 36, Hok 28, 
Jd.gare 26, Stralsunds Johannes 24, and Fogel Struts 14. 

The Danish fleet, besides having been weakened, was unready 
and without men and gear, but several floating batteries were 
fitted out and did a good deal to keep the Swedes at a distance. 
Three sea-going ships, the Tre Lever 60, Trefoldighed 66, and 
Hannibal 44, were moored at the mouth of the harbour, but 
none of them had more than sixty men on board, and the ships 
inside the harbour were even more weakly manned. In the 
night of August 23rd-24th Bredal took 180 men in a number 
of small boats, and managed to capture and burn two small 
ships of the blockading fleet, the Wrangels Jacht 10 and an- 
other of four guns. On September 14th the Swedes attempted 
a bombardment, but the fire of the prams and the Danish 
warships prevented their doing much damage. Later, on 
October 27th, the Jonas (M) came in purposely too close, and 
was captured by the Danes through the treachery of her cap- 
tain, a Dutchman; two days later the Swedish Fortuna 8 was 
wrecked. On the other hand, several Danish ships at sea or 
in outlying ports were lost. The Snarensvend 30 was taken 
by the Swedes under the guns of Kronborg (or Helsinger) and 
sunk by the fort before she could be removed, and the Pelikan 
36, Fatk 16, Soblad 12, and four smaller craft were captured. 
At the same time Copenhagen was very hard pressed both by 
sea and land, but at this crisis the .Dutch intervened. The 
proviso in the Treaty of Roeskilde whereby foreign fleets were 
to be excluded from the Baltic was certainly directed mainly 
against them, in order to prevent any repetition of their assist- 
ance to Danzig in 1656. As long as the two sides of the Sound 
were in different handa, and as long as Denmark was strong 
enough for an independent policy, access to the Baltic would 
be free; but if, as seemed probable, Sweden were to obtain a 
footing west of the Sound and at the same time crush Den- 
mark into a position of dependence, Karl GKistaf would be able 
to achieve his object, and Dutch trade in the Baltic would be 
at his mercy. 

The United Provinces decided, therefore, to support Den- 
mark, and with this object a large fleet was equipped and sent 
out under Lieutenant-Admiral Wassenaer. Leaving the Ylie 
on October 7th, Waissenaer dropped anchor outside the Sound 



on the 23rd. Kronborg had fallen on September 6th, and both 
sides of the Sound were thus in Swedish hands. The Swedish 
fleet, after the bombardment of September 14th, had sailed to 
Helsinger on the 20th. It had returned to its position off 
Copenhagen on October 7th, and supported the army in an 
unsuccessful action on the 10th, but had anchored again at 
Helsinger on the 12th. It was reinforced by six ships* on 
October llth and by threef on the 15th, and on the 21st Karl 
Gustaf Wrangel, Admiral of the Fleet, took command. The 
fourth squadron, under Gustaf Wrangel, paid a visit to the 
neighbourhood of Copenhagen on October 19th-20th, and again 
on the 27th-28th, but the rest of the fleet remained at 
Helsinger. Head-winds kept Wassenaer at his anchorage till 
October 29th, but that morning he got under way with a 
strong northerly wind and steered for the Sound. 

The following lists give the strength of the opposing fleets. 
A few ships were commissioned in Copenhagen, and their 
names are given, though they took no part in the action, since 
the wind that allowed the Dutch to pass the Sound kept the 
Danes in harbour. 

The Dutch fleet was divided into three squadrons, the van 
under Vice-Admiral de With, the centre under Lieutenant- 
Admiral Wassenaer, and the rear under Vice-Admiral Floris- 
zoon. The Swedes were in four squadrons commanded by Vice- 
Admiral Sjohjelm, Admiral of the Fleet K. G. Wrangel, 
Admiral Bjelkenstjerna, and Vice- Admiral G. Wrangel. The 
second in command of the second squadron was Vice-Admiral 
Strussflycht. The Danish division was under Admiral Bjelke 
and Vice-Admiral Kelt. 

Dutch FleetJ:- 

Van Squadron. Brederode 59, Landman 40, Zeeridder 22, 
Princesse Louyse 31, Boge 40, Windhont 23, Prins Willem 
28, Wapen van Medenblick 36, Wapen van Enckhuysen\\ 27, 
Castel van Medenblick 28, Groeningen 36. 

Centre Squadron. Eendracht 72, Rotterdam 52, Son 40, 
Wapen van Rotterdam^ 40, Dordrecht** 40, Halve Maen 40, 
Duyvenvoorde 40, Staveren 40, Deutecum 24, Wagh 40, Goude 
Leeuw 38, Hoorn 28, Princesse Albertina 36. 

Rear Squadron. Josua 50, Breda 28, Jupiter 32, Alckmaar 

* Fortuna 30, Salvator 30, Smdland (M) 46, Rose (M) 40, Ooteborgsfalk (M) 
24, Fama fireship. 

t Krona 74, Hjort 36, Konung David (M) 40. 

t From Grove, " Journalen van Wassenaer en Ruyter," Ap. A. This corrects 
in many details the list in Tidskrift i Sjovasendet 1900, pp. 125/6. 

Or Cogge. 

|| Or Maagd van Enckhuyten. 

IT Or Rotterdam. 
** Or Wapen van Dordrecht. 

1658 83 

36, Westfriesland 28, Hollandia* 38, Eendracht 38, Caleb 40, 
Jonge Prins 30, Wapen van M onnickendam^ 26, Munnicken- 
dam 32. 

Transports. Judith 24, Ver gulden Haen 16, Liefde 24, 
Medea 24, PereZ 23, Fruytboom 23. 

Four fireships, six galiots. Total strength, including 
the transports': Forty-one ships, 1,413 guns. 

Danish Fleet} : Trefoldighed 66, Hannibal 44, Tre Lover 
60, Norske Love 48, Graa Ulv 36, Johannes 20, Hojenhald 8. 

Seven ships, about 280 guns. 

Swedish Fleet : 

First Squadron. 1st Division Cesar 54, Apollo 46, (Hjort 
36), Vestervik 44; 2nd Division Amarant 46, S^ara (M) 38, 
(Halfmdne (M) 28), Z^des 36; 3rd Division Wismar 44, 
Sodervnanland (M) 38, Oster-gotland (M) 36. 

Second Squadron. 1st Division Victoria 74, Morgonstjerna 
(M) 48, (Goteborgsfalk (M) 24), SvfiwZ 44; 2nd Division 
Krona 74, Merkurius 46, Pelikan 40, Mars 44; 3rd Division 
Mane 46, Samson (M) 32, 0m 38. 

Third Squadron. 1st Division Drake 66, Nordstjerna (M) 
40, (Jdgare 26), Samson 36; 2nd Division Carolus 54, St. 
Johannes (M) 36, Konung David '(M) 42, (Leopard 36) ; 3rd 
Division ^zZ& 40, Delmenhorst 36, KalmarJcastell (M) 32, 
#a/<zeZ 36. 

Fourth Squadron. 1st Division Herkules 58, (.Rose (M) 
40), #6& 22, Smdland (M) 46; 2nd Division I/arm 46, Fem# 
30, (Angermanland (M) 20), *Si;an 36; 3rd Division Svenska 
Lejon 40, Salvator 30, Fortuna 30. 

Forty-five ships, 1,838 guns. 

The Swedes got under way about the same time as the Dutch, 

* Or Wapen van Holland. 

f Or Munnick. 

From Land. 149. Guns as before. Garde Eft. i. i., 157, gives the first three 
ships as of fifty-four guns each. The account in Tidskrift i Sjovasendet agrees 
with this, and says they carried fifty guns each in the previous year. 

From a list in Tidskrift i Sjovasendet 1900, pp. 122/4. Spelling and guns 
from the list in Zettersten ii., 414/5. Zettersten gives the squadrons in the order 
2, 3, 1, 4. This list shows the organisation of each squadron into divisions. 
Each division consisted in theory of one large ship and two smaller. Extra 
ships were detailed as " scouts." These are shown in brackets in the list. In 
the 2nd Squadron, 2nd Division, there are apparently four ships. The Krona 
was a late arrival, and took the place of the Merkurius as second flagship of 
this squadron, and apparently she came in as a supernumerary. In the 3rd Squad- 
ron, 2nd Division, the list gives the Konung David also as a " scout," but appends 
a query. In most other cases the second small ship is the " scout," so possibly 
the brackets should really be given to the Konung David. The only other case 
where the second small ship is not the scout is in the 4th Squadron, 1st Division, 
where the first ship is thus indicated. As the first ship, the Rose, is a ship of 
forty guns, and the Hdk only twenty-two, there may well be a mistake here. 



and formed line on the port tack. According to the Swedish 
account the wind was north-west, according to the Dutch 
it was north, but the question is not important. Was- 
senaer passed Helsingborg and Kronborg unharmed in spite 
of a heavy fire, and at about 9 a.m.* the two fleets met. 
Wrangel had at first steered towards Helsingborg, but had gone 
about shortly before the moment of contact and received the 
charge on the starboard tack. The Dutch came on without 
much order, and in the strong wind and current a melee was 
the natural result. De With, in the Brederode 59, attacked 
the Swedish commander-in-chief , in the Victoria 74, but on the 
arrival of Wassenaer, in the Eendracht 72, de With relinquished 
the place of honour and engaged the Drake 66, Bjelkenstjerna's 
flagship, and the Leopard 36. He drove off the Leopard so 
much damaged that she had to be put ashore on Hven and 
burnt, but soon after the Drake and Brederode went ashore 
together on the Danish side of the Sound. The Drake got off, 
but the Brederode remained fast and was now attacked by the 
Wismar 44. After two hours' raking fire the Swedes boarded. 
De With was killed and the Brederode taken, but almost 
directly afterwards she slipped into deeper water and sank. 
Meanwhile the Drake had gone to relieve the Victoria, which 
was hard pressed by the Eendracht and other Dutch ships. 
She was, in fact, so much damaged that when at last she was 
freed Wrangel had to take her out of action to Helsinger and 
anchor for repairs. He was followed by the Drake, also badly 
damaged. Now Wassenaer was surrounded in his turn by 
several Swedish ships, including the Cesar 50, Pelikan 40, 
Morgonsijerna (M) 48, and Johannes (M) 36; the Cesar had 
previously beaten off the Josua 50 and killed Vice-Admiral 
Floriszoon, commander of the Dutch rear squadron. The 
Morgonstjerna and Pelikan attacked Wassenaer to starboard, 
the Cesar aft, and other ships to port, but he was well seconded 
by his captains. The Wapen van Rotterdam 40, Dordrecht 40, 
and Halve Maen 40, under Captains Van Nes, de Liefde, and 
Van Campen, came to his rescue and succeeded in relieving 
him. Sjohjelm, in the Cesar, was wounded, and took his ship 
out of action, the Pelikan was takenf by the Wapen van Rot- 

* Wassenaer, in his Journal (Journalen 23), says he passed Kronborg about 
nine o'clock. The Swedish account in the Journal of the Victoria (Tid. i Sjo. 
117) says the action began about eight, but Tornquist (i. 216) says 9.30. 

t Journalen 26 says she was sunk, but on page 28 she is said to have been 
captured. Zettersten (ii. 417) gives her as captured, de Jonge (i. 567) says she 
was sunk, the Journal of the Victoria (Tid. i Sjo. 119) captured, but Torn- 
quist (i. 129) apparently gives the explanation. He says she was run into by 
a Dutch ship and began to sink, and after mentioning the Rafael as suffering 
the same fate, says : " These wrecks were later towed by the Dutch into Copen- 
hagen and 450 men saved." Still, she seems to have been of no further use 
to her captors. 

1658. 85 

terdam, the Morgonstjerna taken by the Eendracht just before 
sinking, and Wassenaer at last got clear. Two other Swedish 
ships were captured the Delmenhorst 36, taken by the Hol- 
landia 38 and Castel van Medenblick 28, and the Rose (M) 40, 
by the Landman 40; but on the other hand, the Dutch ship 
Breda 28 was captured, though the Swedes abandoned her on 
an outbreak of fire, and she was afterwards recovered by the 
Dutch. At last, as the wind freshened, the Dutch fleet got 
clear of the Swedes at about 2 p.m., and ran down to Copen- 
hagen, while very few of the enemy were in a condition to 
follow. The Swedes, indeed, claimed a victory on the score 
of the Dutch retreat, but since the first object of the Dutch 
fleet was to reach Copenhagen it is hard to see any justification 
for this claim. 

The losses on both sides were, as far as is known, as 
follows : 

Dutch. Brederode 59 captured and sunk, one galiot sunk, 
four fireships expended. Total loss in fighting ships : one ship 
with fifty-nine guns. 

Swedish*. Morgonstjerna (M) 48 captured and sunk, Del- 
menhorst 36 captured, Pelikan 40 captured, Leopard 36 run 
ashore and burnt, Rose (M) 40 captured. Total loss in fighting 
ships : five ships with 180 guns. 

The losses in men are not known with any certainty. The 
Swedes are said to have had about 500 killed and wounded, 
but this is probably exclusive of those in the ships lost. The 
Dutch landed 450 men for burial, but the number of their 
wounded is not given. 

Off Hven, in the evening, six Danish shipst joined Was- 
senaer, but for the time being the Dutch fleet was too fully 
occupied with repairs to be able to take any further steps 
against the Swedes. The latter were ordered by the King to 
proceed to Landskrona to refit, and in spite of the lack of wind 
on the 30th they proceeded in that direction by kedging and 
towing. The Allies made no move against them that day, but 
on the 31st the Danish ships and ten or twelve of the least 
damaged Dutch vessels* sailed for Landskrona to attack such 
Swedes as had not yet entered the harbour. They arrived off 
Landskrona early in the afternoon, and found there six Swedish 
ships ; four escaped to Kronborg, and one, the Samson (M) 32, 

* The following list from Hollandsche Mercurius, November, 1658, gives the 
Dutch claims: Captured Konung David 70, Oldenburgh 42, Wapen van 
Schagen 32, Scepter van Wismar 30; sunk Morgenster 28, Pelicaen 28, Roose, 
Admirant 32, Drievuldigheid, Engel; burnt or wrecked Karolus V. 50, Samp- 
son 30, two others. 

t The H0jenhald apparently joined later (Tid. i Sjo. 127). 

Wassenaer left the Eendracht and hoisted his flag in the Duyvenvoorde 40 
(Journalen 29). 


was so close under the fort that she could not be touched; but 
the sixth, the Amarant 46, commanded by Major Speck, en- 
gaged the enemy for some time before retiring close inshore. 
Both she and the Samson entered .the harbour safely that night, 
but the day had not been without loss for the Swedes, since the 
Svard 44 went ashore in the harbour itself and sank, though 
most of her men were saved. 

The Allies now returned to Copenhagen, but on November 
5th twenty-three Dutch and Danish ships took up their position 
off Landskrona and established a blockade. Wassenaer him- 
self remained at Copenhagen, and apparently the Dutch in 
general took little interest in the subsequent operations, but, 
at any rate, they supplied by far the greater portion of the 
fleet. Certainly two more Danish ships were commissioned, 
the Sorte Rytter 48, taken over by the Dutch Captain Coulerye 
and the crew of the badly damaged Staveren 40, and the Tre 
Kroner 40, also under a Dutch captain, though in this case one 
who entered the Danish service in the ordinary way; but, on 
the other hand, three of the original squadron were told off 
under Bredal to proceed to Holstein in company with two 
Dutch ships.* This only left five Danish ships off Landskrona, 
so that there must have been eighteen Dutch ships there. The 
Danes prepared ships laden with stones to sink in the entrance 
to Landskrona, but this scheme failed. The first attempt was 
made on November 18th, in the presence of both Frederik III. 
and Karl Gustaf. A fireship was sent in, but was towed to 
one side by the Swedish boats, and of the two ships that fol- 
lowed one was sunk too far out and the other, the old Justitia 
24, ran aground and had to be burnt. Another attempt was 
made on the 21st, but with no more success. Wassenaer had 
left Copenhagen on the 20th, in the Josua, with four other 
ships, for Landskrona, but, delayed by fog, he got no further 
than Hyen, and returned the same day. Thirteen of the 
blockading fleet, probably Dutch ships, withdrew to Hven on 
the 22nd, and on the 26th the remainder also withdrew, coming 
into Copenhagen for the winter on December 3rd. 

One result of the Dutch victory had been the retreat of the 
Swedish army from before Copenhagen to Brondshej, and now 
Frederik III. began to think of attacking in his turn. The 
idea was to bring over from Holstein to Sjaelland part of the 
army under Friedrich Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg, who 
in conjunction with Imperial and Polish troops had invaded 
Holstein and occupied both it ^and the greater part of Slesvig 
and Jylland. It was with this object that Bredal had been 
ordered to take a small squadron to Holstein, but as soon as 

* Tre Lever, Graa Ulv, Johannes, Danish. Boge or Cogge, Wagh, Dutch. 

1658. 87 

the requisite number of transports had been collected the 
Elector thought better of the idea, and on November 17th it 
was definitely abandoned. Instead, the Elector decided to 
attack Als, a small island on the east coast of Holstein, and 
Bredal was sent with four ships to co-operate. The Swedes, 
of course, took steps to interfere with this project, and soon 
had a considerable fleet in the Belt. In spite of the so-called 
blockade seven ships* had left Landskrona on November 15th 
for Knudshoved, at the northern end of the Great Belt, and 
on the 29th these were joined by five others. t Major Uggla 
took this squadron to Kiel, but on December 4th, the day of 
his arrival, the Elector had crossed to Als and attacked Sonder- 
borg. In this attack Bredal was mortally wounded, but his 
successor, Koningk, withdrew the squadron safely to Flensburg, 
on the mainland, so that all Uggla could do was to take off the 
garrison of Sonderborg on December 8th and land them in 

Meanwhile, on finding that the Dutch intended to side with 
Denmark, the English Government decided to send a fleet to 
help Sweden. It was almost as disadvantageous for England 
as for the Netherlands that the Baltic should become a Swedish 
lake, but it would be even worse for it to pass into the power 
of the Dutch and Danes. Steps were therefore taken to give 
some assistance to Sweden, and with this object Sir George 
Ayscue was authorised to accept a commission as a Swedish 
admiral. He was sent, accompanied by a fleet of twenty-one 
sail, and Goodsonn, in charge of the fleet, seems to have had 
instructions to act under Ayscue's orders even after he had 
joined the Swedish service.! The fleet was, however, of little 
use. It was not ordered to start till the middle of November, 
and then, delayed by head-winds and bad weather, it did not 
reach the Sound until the beginning of winter made it neces- 
sary to go home again, leaving Ayscue in Sweden. 

Still, the King of Sweden saw in the arrival of the English 
fleet a chance to get back the " command of the sea." He 
therefore ordered Uggla to take five of his ships, the Amarant, 
Mane, Wismar, Rafael, and Svan, back to the Sound to join the v 
English, leaving the others under Henriksson at Korser, on 
the west of Sjaelland. Uggla was unable to leave Sonderborg 
before December 21st, and four days later he had to put into 
Nyborg, in Fyen. Here the Svan had to be left to repair 
serious leaks, but the other four ships sailed again on January 

* Rafael 36, Wismar 44, Svan 36, Salvator 30, Hok 28, Jagare 22, Svarta 
Hund 8. 

t Amarant 46, Mdne 46, Talk 40, Hjort 36, Sjoblad (transport). 

+. The older English naval historians, Campbell, Lediard, etc., put this in 
1657, but Thurloe's Papers prove this wrong. 


6th, and after a terrible voyage three of them reached Bran- 
nosund, near Gothenburg, on January 19th, with 106 dead and 
148 sick out of a total complement of 328. The fourth ship, 
the Mane, reached Landskrona on January 25th. Another 
small Swedish isquadron of five ships had been sent under Speck 
to Frederiksedde, in Jutland, on December 5th, but by the end 
of the year he returned, leaving two ships there.* About this 
time Trondhjem, in Norway, ceded to Sweden by the Peace of 
Roeskilde, was recovered by the Norwegians. The Norwegian 
ship Samson, with the chartered Dutch ship Adam en Eva and 
eight small craft, took a considerable share in the attack, and 
on December llth the Swedish garrison capitulated; the 
Swedish armed merchantman Gotland (or Lam) was captured. 

The arrival of the Dutch squadron and the consequent 
transfer of the command of the sea from Karl Gustaf to his 
enemies had put him in an awkward position. The reduction 
of Copenhagen by siege was rendered impossible, and the 
situation of the Swedish army in Sjaelland became very in- 
secure. In these circumstances the Swedish King decided to 
make an attempt to take Copenhagen by storm, and on the 
night of February lOth-llth the attack took place. It was 
unsuccessful; the Swedes were repulsed with heavy loss, and 
retired to their lines at Brondshej, leaving Copenhagen for 

The naval operations of 1659 began with a success 
by the Dutch. One of their ships, the Zeeridder 22, Captain 
Banckaert, was carried by the ice from her position off Copen- 
hagen on February 28th, and was eventually driven ashore 
on the island of Hven. On March 14th the Swedes sent the 
Merkurius 46, Fides 30, a fireship, and four boats to attack 
him, but he sank the fireship, repulsed all attacks by the 
Swedish ships and the men they had landed in Hven, and 
finally damaged them enough to force them to withdraw with 
twelve men killed. After this he got his ship afloat again, and 
brought her to Copenhagen on March 18th, with a loss of only 
three killed and seven wounded. In the meantime other Swedish 
ships had got to sea. The Herkules 58 and Merkurius 46 had 
been sent from Landskrona on February 3rd to join Henriksson 
and attack the Danish and Dutch ships at Flensburg, but they 
had been driven ashore by the ice, and had returned damaged 
on February 20th. In their place the Maria 46, Vestervik 44, 
and Halfmdne (M) 28 left Landskrona on March 13th. These 
ships joined Henriksson, who had the Falk 40, Svan 36, 
Jdgare 26, and Danska Falk 16, and only head winds pre- 

* Svenska Lejon 40, Merkurius 46, Maria 46, Angermanland (M) 20, and Oote- 
borgsfalk (M) 24 (the two last-named being left at Frederiksodde). 

1659. 89 

vented him from reaching Flensburg Fjord on March 26th. 
The next day two Danish and ten Dutch ships left Copenhagen 
under the Danish Vice-Admiral Helt to join the ships in 
Flensburg. He might, as far as the ice was concerned, have 
got to sea on the 18th, but he had been detained by contra- 
dictory orders, and when at last he did sail, on March 27th, 
three of his ships, the Spes 66, his flagship, and the two 
Dutch ships Duyvenvoorde 40 and Jonge Prins 30, ran aground 
near Drager. Helt, however, shifted his flag to the Dutch 
ship Son 40 and went on, leaving the grounded ships to follow 
as soon as possible. Henriksson, finding that he could not get 
into Flensburg, had proceeded to the southern end of Lange- 
land and there Kelt's fleet met him on March 30th. The 
Swedes retreated, but about 9 a.m. their rearmost ships were 
brought to action. The Vestervik 44 and $van 36, both 
damaged, ran ashore on Acre, an island west of Langeland, 
but the other ships escaped through the Little Belt; the Svan 
surrendered and was got off by her captors, but the Vestervik 
drove off all attacks and had to be left.* Helt took his fleet 
into Flensburg and joined the ships there. 

Meanwhile the following Swedish fleet had left Landskrona 
on March 29th under Bjelkenstjerna: Viktoria 74, Drake 66, 
Carolus 54, Herkules 58, Cesar 54, Mane 46, Apollo 46, 
Merkurius 46, Mars 44, Orn 38, Svenska Lejon 40, Fides 36, 
Fortuna 30, Danska Svan 10, Smdland (M) 46, Johannes (M) 
36, Sol (M) 20, Nordstjerna (M) 40, Ostergotland (M) 36, 
Sodermanland (M) 38, 3 galiots, and two fireships. Sailing 
north of Sjaelland, Bjelkenstjerna had to anchor for four days 
at the northern end of the Great Belt, but on April 5th he 
was off Aere. Here K. G. Wrangel, Admiral of the Fleet, 
took over the command, and moved with the fleet to the mouth 
of Flensburg Fjord, where he was joined by Henriksson's five 
remaining ships, t and by two under Uggla.i In the face 
of this fleet it was impossible for reinforcements to reach Helt. 
The two Dutch ships which had gone aground had got off next 
day, but probably neither of them had joined him, and his 
original flagship, the Spes 66, had certainly not done so. She 
was, indeed, afloat on March 30th, but it was not until April 5th 
that she sailed for the Belt, and consequently neither she nor 
the six Dutch ships which followed her on the 10th got 

* She was refloated by the Swedes on April 7th and sent to Faaborg in Fyen 
for repairs. 

t Maria 46, Falk 40, Jdgare 26, Danska Talk 16, Halfmdne (M) 28. 

Amarant 46, Wismar 44. The Goteborgsfalk (M) 24 had joined previously. 

Landman 40, Duyvenvoorde 40, Wapen van Medenblick 36, Oroeningen 36, 
Caleb 40, Hollandia 38. The Duyvenvoorde was one of the two Dutch ships 
which had been aground. The other, the Jonge Prins 30, may have joined Helt, 
but was more probably under repair. 


further than Meen. For the moment, therefore, the Swedish 
fleet, superior to Helt's squadron and the reinforcements even 
if these were combined, was completely master of the waters 
near Fyen. An unsuccessful attempt was made on Sonderborg, 
in Als, and the fleet then moved to a position south of Lange- 
land, where it remained from April 16th to 27th, sending 
out various small detachments. King Karl Guistaf naturally 
took advantage of this opportunity. He sailed from Korser, 
in Sjaelland, to Nyborg, in Fyen, picked up five ships and a 
number of small craft, went to Vordingborg, in the south of 
Sjaelland, embarked a considerable army, landed it on 
April 27th at Guldborg, in Lolland, and soon took both that 
island and Falster. The same day Bjelkenetjerna, again in 
command of the Swedish fleet, left his anchorage south of 
Langeland and worked eastwards, anchoring on the 29th 
between Lolland and Femern. Here he was found next day 
by a new Dutch and Danish fleet. 

Wassenaer had up to now been as inactive as possible, but 
at last the critical position of a large portion of his fleet in 
Flensburg Fjord roused him to action. Two Danish ships 
under Bjelke left Copenhagen on April 26th, and Wassenaer 
followed next day with all his remaining ships, some seventeen 
in number. The two Danish ships were the Trefoldighed 66 
and the Svan 44 (formerly the Hannibal); Bjelke hoisted his 
flag in the Trefoldighed, while the Svan was under Niels Juel.* 
Off Meen on April 28th the fleet picked up the Spes and the six 
Dutch ships, and on the 30th, entering the strait between 
Lolland and Femern, it sighted the Swedes. The exact com- 
position of the allied fleet is unknown ; the three Danish ships 
were the Trefoldighed 66, Spes 66, and Svan 44, and there 
were apparently twenty-three Dutch ships, since the total 
strength of the fleet is said to have been twenty-six ships. The 
Swedes had twenty-four ships Bjelkenstjerna's original 
squadron, and the Maria 46, Amarant 46, Halfmdne (M) 28, 
and Goteborgsfalk (M) 24. The other vessels which had joined 
had been again detached on various duties. t 

As the allied fleet came down before a stiff breeze from 
E.N.E. the Swedes formed line to receive them, and about 
noon the action began. It was impossible to use the lower- 
deck guns because of the heavy sea and strong wind, and for 
the same reason boarding was out of the question. The battle 

* Garde (Hist. i. 234) speaks of Juel as being " in the recently captured 
Svan." That ship was of course in Flensburg with Kelt. Garde overlooked 
the fact that the name of the Hannibal had been changed to Svan. (Lind 153.) 

t Zettersten (ii. 426) says the Swedes had only 20 ships, but the particulars 
which he gives of arrivals and departures lead to the result that they had 24, 
and this agrees with Wassenaer's statement (Journalen 77). 

1659. 91 

was therefore little more than a running fight, in which the 
opponents passed one another twice on opposite tacks. 

Bjelkenstjerna was badly wounded at the beginning of the 
action, and Gustaf Wrangel took command. In the second 
encounter the Trefoldighed, Bjelke's flagship, lost her fore top- 
sail, and was thus temporarily disabled. Wassenaer, with the 
Dutch ships, hove to to support her, and this, coupled with a 
shift of wind to E.S.E. enabled the Swedes to get to wind- 
ward. However, the wind now freshened so much that fight- 
ing became impossible, and the fleets parted. The Swedes 
anchored for the night between Lolland and Langeland, and 
the Allies somewhat further west, between Langeland and the 
coast of Holstein. The affair had been little more than a 
skirmish. No ships had been lost or even badly damaged, and 
the loss on the Swedish side was only thirty-six killed and 
wounded; that of the Allies is not known, but was certainly 
very slight.* On the following day the Allies went to the 
mouth of Flensburg Fjord to join the thirteen ships there. 
Gustaf Wrangel, now in command of the Swedish fleet, retired 
northwards through the Great Belt. On May 5th, when off the 
north coast of Sjaelland, he was joined by the Rafael 36 and 
Fenix 30. His progress was slow, and it was not until the 
17th that he passed Kronborg. On the 20th he entered Lands- 
krona, but sent Uggla with five shipst to blockade Copenhagen. 

In the Sound was a powerful English fleet of sixty ships 
under Admiral Montagu, sent with the idea of mediating if 
possible, but, at any rate, of putting some check on the Dutch. 
This fleet had arrived in the Sound on April 6th. A list 
follows : 

Naseby 70 (f), George 54, Unicorn 52, Lyme 50, Langport 50, 
Tredagh 50, Essex 46, Bristol 40, Kentish 38, Phoenix 34, Dover 
38, Jersey 36, Maids tone 36, Nantwich 36, Tiger 34, Amity 30, 
Mermaid 22, Basing 26, Cheriton 22, Merlyn 12, Resolution 80, 
Andrew 54, Rainbow 52, Speaker 50, Plymouth 50, Worcester 
46, Colchester 54, Newcastle 40, Centurion 38, Portland 36, 
Reserve 36, Taunton 36, Ruby 36, Hampshire 34, Elizabeth 34, 
Providence 28, Pembroke 22, Portsmouth 22, Sparrow 14, 
Truelove 12, Swiftsure 54, James 56, Fairfax 50, Newbury 50, 
Bridgewater 50, Entrance 42, Torrington 54, Winsby 40, 
Dragon 34, Laurel 38, Advice 36, Foresight 36, Diamond 36, 
Portsmouth 34, Assurance 30, Guinea 28, Pearl 22, Oxford 22, 
Norwich 22, Nonsuch 8. Sixty ships, 2290 guns. (Thurloe's 
State Papers, VII., 637. Another list on the previous page gives 
45 ships, many of them not appearing in the longer list.) 

* The Duyvenvoorde 40, had seven wounded, her captain mortally, 
t Amarant 46, Maria 46, Mane 46, Mars 44, Halfmdne (M) 28. 


As a reply the Dutch sent out Ruyter with a second fleet 
consisting of the following thirty-nine ships : 

Ships belonging to the Admiralty of Amsterdam: 't Huis 
te Zwieten (f) 64, Amsterdam 54, Stad en Landen 50, Gouda 
40, de Tromp 40, Kampen 40, de Burgt van Leiden 40, 
Haarlem 40, Osterwijk 60, Tijdverdrijf 50, Prins te Paard 52, 
de Vreede 40, 't Raadhuis van Haarlem 40, Marsseveen 40, 
't Zuiderhuis 40, Gelderland 40, Kruiningen 54, Koevorden 
50, Hilversum 52, o'e Ztom van Uitrecht 40, de Provincien 40, 
Hollandia 44, Doesburg 40, Leeuwarden 36. 

Ships from the Maas. Prins Maurits 44, Klein Hollandia 
48, Uitrecht 44, Gelderland 40. 

From Noord Holland. d'Oranjeboom 36. 

From Zeeland. ' Scfo'p van Zeelandia 54, Middelburg 42, 
Zierixzee 40, Vlissingen 42, Feere 42, Uitrecht 44, Dordrecht 

From Yriesland. Oostergo 54, Weser#o 45, de Steeden 42. 

Thirty-nine ships, 1,743 guns. 

(Tromp 198/9, de Euiter 159/60.) 

Both Powers, however, in conjunction with France agreed 
to try to force the combatants to come to terms on the basis 
of the Treaty of E/oeskilde, and to give opportunity for nego- 
tiations they arranged that their fleets should remain neutral 
for three weeks from May 21st to June 7th. As a matter of 
fact, Ruyter's fleet was not at first in a position to effect much. 
It did not round Skagen till May 22nd, and then stayed at 
anchor for several days in the Kattegat between Laese and 
Anholt, so that it was not until May 31st that it anchored 
between Hielmen and Vaere at the northern end of the Great 

Nothing of any great importance had happened at sea in the 
meantime. The Swedes kept a small squadron off Copenhagen, 
but the blockade was by no means effective, and small Danish 
vessels came and went more or less as they liked. On the 
other hand, though several ships* were fitted out in the 
harbour and put into position for defence, nothing was done 
to drive off the Swedish blockaders for fear of the support they 
mig-ht get from Landskrona. In the Belts and thereabouts 
little more was done. The Swedes in Lolland besieged the 
town of Nakskov from the end of April onwards, but owing to 
Wassenaer's sluggishness and the contradictory orders from 
Copenhagen no steps were taken to relieve it. The combined 
fleet left Flensburg Fjord on May 6th and anchored on the 18th 

* Sorte Eytter 48, Lindorm 46, two small craft. Danish. Rotterdam 40, 
Breda 28. Dutch. At the end of June the Trekroner 40 replaced the two Dutch 
ships. (Lind 171/2.) 

1659. 93 

off Nyborg on the eastern side of Fyen, where they remained 
till the end of the month. 

Still, on the mainland the Elector was more active. On 
May 17th he took the last Swedish position, Frederiksedde, and 
at once prepared to attack Fyen, supported by three Danish 
and three Dutch ships. To prevent this Karl Gustaf sent a 
fleet from Landskrona under Gustaf Wrangel.* He sailed on 
May 27th with ten ships northwards, but as soon as he was 
clear of the Sound the wind went to west, and he had to 
anchor. Finally, as the wind kept in the same quarter, he 
went south again on the 29th past Copenhagen, intending to 
reach the Little Belt that way. On June 3rd he was off 
Femern, where he was joined by three ships from Wismar.t 
The wind was still foul, and knowing that the Dutch neutrality 
was due to come to an end on June 7th he returned to M0en, 
and sent for orders. The King at once ordered him angrily 
to go on, and sent the information that the armistice was 
extended to the 18th. Wrangel could not get away till the 
llth, when he went through the Sound again, and landed his 
troops on the north-east of Fyen on the 13th. After this he 
moved to Ebele, north of Fyen, and finally into the northern 
entrance of the Little Belt. 

The Elector had meanwhile occupied Faeme, a small island 
in the narrowest part of the Little Belt; but for the moment 
he was without sufficient naval support. On the day of the 
capture of Faeme Wassenaer recalled his ships from the Little 
Belt and began to move north to join Ruyter, who had, as has 
been seen, arrived on the previous day at the northern end of 
the Great Belt. Bjelke seems to have remained with the Danish 
ships off Nyborg, but was not strong enough to accomplish 
anything unaided. On June 3rd Wassenaer anchored just 
south of the little island of Roms0, near the north-east corner 
of Fyen. Four days later Ruyter brought his fleet to a position 
just north of the island, and on the 13th the two fleets joined 
off Nyborg. J Wassenaer at once took the combined fleet to 
the north of Fyen, between that island and Samse, to cut off 
the retreat of the Swedish squadron under Wrangel. In the 
interval Wrangel had chased away two Dutch ships, the Jonge 
Prins 30 and Deutecum 24. The former escaped into Horsens 
on the Jylland coast, but the latter ran aground in Veile 
Fjord, and had to be burnt. 

Wrangel was now in an awkward position. To the south 

* Wrangel sailed with: Herkules 58, Goteborg 48, Amarant 46, Merkurius 
46, Mane 46, Maria 46, Falk 40, one fireship, one bojort. 

. t He was joined by: Wismar 44, Hjort 36, Svan (M) 38. (Uggla had all 
these except the Herkules and Svan.) 

+ The fleet was then organised in four squadrons under Wassenaer, Ruyter. 
Evertsen, and Meppel. 


of him was a very narrow passage with both sides in hostile 
hands, while to the north was a fleet which, though for the 
moment neutral, would almost certainly be able to overwhelm 
him before he could reach any friendly port. At this juncture 
K. G. Wrangel, the Admiral of the fleet, ordered him 
definitely to go home northwards. The English fleet saved 
him. As the Dutch turned westward towards Ebele on the 
16th they had sighted the English north of Rosnaes, the 
westernmost point of Sjaelland. Next day Montagu wrote to 
Wassenaer and Ruyter proposing joint action in the interests 
of peace, and the Dutch admirals replied accepting the 
suggestion in theory; but on the English moving in towards 
the Belt Wassenaer also weighed, and proceeded in the same 
direction to prevent being cut off from the Danish ships 
which, with a few Dutch, lay off Nyborg. Montagu anchored 
off Kallundborg, in Sjaelland, and Wassenaer to the north of 
Romse. This cleared the way for Wrangel, and he reached 
Landskrona in safety on June 20th. Here he was deprived 
of his command and dismissed the service for disobedience to 
orders, though it is hard to see what more he could have done 
under the circumstances. 

The same day Bjelke joined Wassenaer with four Danish 
ships and two Dutch, the Trefoldighed 66, Spes 66, Tre Lever 
60, Svan 44, Landman 40, and Duyvenvoorde 40. After a 
great deal of parleying and discussion Montagu sailed for the 
Sound on the 26th, and the Allies moved southwards. They 
were off Femern on the 28th, and Wassenaer suggested an 
attempt to relieve Nakskov, but this time Bjelke said it was 
useless, and the idea was finally dropped. Ruyter was left off 
Femern, but Wassenaer and Bjelke sailed for Copenhagen on the 
30th with thirty-seven ships. On the way part of their fleet 
(twenty-three ships) was sighted by Uggla, who had left Lands- 
krona on July 23rd in command of what had been WrangeFs 
squadron with orders to go to the Little Belt and frustrate the 
Elector's designs on Fyen. Uggla, however, with only ten ships 
and two small craft,* thought it useless to try to move eastward 
in the face of the allied fleet. He therefore kept on into the 
Baltic, and did even less than Wrangel towards helping the 
garrison of Fyen. Wassenaer and Bjelke went on northwards, 
raised the blockade of Copenhagen, and anchored off Drager 
on July 3rd.f The agreement had been that neither 
Montagu's nor Ruyter's fleet should approach Copenhagen, 
but Wassenaer found that Montagu was at anchor south of 

* See notes to page 93. 

t With them came the Danish ships F0niks 32 and Sorte Bj0rn 36, which had 
been on a trading voyage to Portugal. The Hvide Bj0rn 40 had been lost on 
the way. (Lind 176.) 

1659. 95 

Hven not more than ten miles off. Further, the Swedish 
squadron in Landskrona had been reinforced by three ships* 
from Stockholm, and Ayscue was able to take twelve large 
shipsf to join Montagu besides leaving three* to defend the 
harbour. Still, on July 6th E-uyter's fleet arrived in Kjoge 
Bay and joined Wassenaer, and this brought the Dutch and 
Danes once more into a position of superiority. Uggla with 
his small Swedish squadron went to Bornholm and thence 
to Bodekull, near Karlskrona. He stayed there from July 5th 
to 12th, and then sailed towards Falsterbo; but in Kjoge Bay 
he sighted thirty-three ships of the combined fleet, and at once 
returned to Bodekull and remained there for another week from 
July 15th to 22nd. He took in provisions at Ystad on the 
23rd, sailed to Eiigen, cruised in those waters for some days, 
and reached the southern end of the Great Belt on August 1st. 
After sending a report of his lack of provisions and large 
number of sick he received orders to send the Mane 46, Maria 
46, and Rafael 36 to Kronborg for repairs and to take the 
other vessels to Grensund, between M0e*n and Falster. Here 
he was superseded by Henriksson. 

Meanwhile a second squadron sent out under Major Coxe to 
reach the Little Belt from the north had sailed from Lands- 
krona on July 6th. In spite of continued westerly winds 
Coxe reached Ebele on the 20th. Wrangel now sent him 
to Ebeltoft, on the Jylland coast, about 40 miles north of 
Fyen, to attack a small Danish-Dutch squadron under 
Koningk. This squadron had been sent there to see about 
transporting troops for a second attack on Fyen, since an 
attempted landing on June 26th had been repulsed with 
considerable loss and a good deal of damage to the Dutch 
flagship. Coxe reached Ebeltoft in the morning of July 23rd, 
and at once attacked. The Danes and Dutch fought well, but 
were overmatched. The Wapen van Enckhuysen 27 blew up, 
and the other four vessels surrendered. All the transports 
were burnt and 1,000 soldiers captured. The fleets were as 
follows : 

Swedes. Mars 44, Apollo 46, Vestervik 44, Fides 36, 
NordstjernaJM) 40, Fortuna (M) 30, Engel (M) 24, one fire- 
ship, one bojort. 

Danes. Graa Ulv 36, Johannes 20. 

Dutch. Wapen van Enckhuysen 27, Prins Willem 28, 
Munnickendam 32. 

* Scepter 58, Oldenburg 48, Engel (M) 24. 

f Viktoria 74, Drake 66, Scepter 58, Cesar 54, Herkules 54, Carolus 54, Mars 
44, Apollo 46, Vestervik 44, Fides 36, Engel (M) 24, Nordstjerna (M) 40. 
Oldenburg 48, Orn 40, Salvator 22. 
Here he lost his fireship. 


Following up his success Coxe burnt thirty more transports 
at Aarhuus and then returned to the Sound. He arrived there 
on the 29th, and was promoted to Vice- Admiral next day. 

As before, the Danes and Dutch had been wasting time. 
Preparations were at last made for an expedition to relieve 
Nakskov ; but it was not until July 23rd that the fleet put to 
sea. Eighteen ships had been sent on the previous day to 
convoy merchantmen to Danzig and Konigsberg. The expedi- 
tion consisted of about sixty warships, three being Danish, and 
totalled, with merchantmen, transports, &c., about 300 sail. 
As a matter of fact, Nakskov had capitulated on the 15th, and 
even when the fleet did sail Wassenaer received orders the next 
day to consider his fleet neutral again; he therefore lay idly 
at anchor north of Meen, and the Danish ships remained with 
him. On August 9th the ships that had been sent to Danzig 
under Meppel returned with a Swedish prize, the Konung 
David (M) 19. On the 13th the fleet set sail, leaving 
Meppel's squadron at anchor. On the 15th he rejoined, and 
the fleet anchored off Femern on the 18th. Two days later 
came a letter from the Dutch ambassadors at Copenhagen with 
orders for Ruyter and Evertsen to bring their squadrons to 
Copenhagen, and for Wassenaer to convoy merchantmen 
through the Belt as far as Anholt or Skagen. Twelve ships 
were transferred from the other two squadrons, and Ruyter 
and Evertsen got under way on August 23rd. They reached 
Copenhagen on the 26th, and the same day two other important 
events took place. Firstly, the King of Sweden refused defi- 
nitely all offers of mediation, and, secondly, the English fleet 
left for home. Montagu advanced the familiar excuse of lack 
of provisions; but there is no doubt that his real reason was 
the wish to participate in Booth's Royalist rising. 

These two events completely changed the aspect of affairs, 
since Ruyter at once received orders to take active measures, 
and there was now no English fleet to interfere. Ayscue's 
squadron had, of course, returned to Landskrona on the change 
of circumstances, and there were now twenty-two ships there. 
Euyter went from Copenhagen to the entrance of the Sound, 
where he blockaded Kronborg and Helsingborg, and, at the 
same time, detached Banckaert with six ships to watch off 
Landskrona. A fireship attack on Landskrona in the night of 
September 4/5th was unsuccessful, and a projected bombard- 
ment of Kronborg and Helsingborg on September 13th had to 
be abandoned because of heavy weather. On the 23rd Ruyter 
returned to Copenhagen. Wassenaer had meanwhile remained 
near Femern with his own and the Danish ships until 
August 27th; Juel, in the Danish Svan 44, went aground off 
Wismar, but was refloated by the help of some Dutch ships. 

1659. 9T 

On the 27th Wassenaer sent off Commodore Cornells Evertsen 
with four ships to join Ruyter, and started to take his convoy 
northwards through the Belt. Arriving on September 2nd 
between Hielmen and the town of Grenaa on the Jylland 
coast, he sent off his merchantmen with a few ships to convoy 
them home, and detached Meppel to escort this convoy for a 
short distance. He then continued his way north as far as 
Lim Fjord, where he stayed from September 6th to 14th. 
After this he began to return, but head winds and heavy 
weather made his progress very slow, and on September 24th 
he had only just reached the northern end of the Great Belt. 

The Allies now decided to make another attempt to retake 
Fyen. For this purpose troops were to be taken from Kiel 
and convoyed by the entire Dutch and Danish fleet. However, 
the preparations took a long time, and in the interval the 
Swedes were free to move their ships as they liked. As has 
been said, Henriksson, in Grensund, had seven vessels* from 
Uggla's squadron which he had repaired and refitted. Three 
more shipsf joined him on August 22nd and two early in 
September. J Orders arrived on September 4th for him to take 
his squadron to the southern end of Langelan'd, leaving the 
new arrivals to take his place in Grensund. He was to meet 
Major Bar with three ships from Gothenburg, and then go to 
Kiel to destroy the transports which were waiting ^to carry 
troops to Fyen. On September 13th Bar joined him, but 
instead of going to Kiel they were ordered back to Gr0nsund. 
Here they were overtaken by a severe storm, which dismasted 
the Half mane and damaged some of the other ships. Henriks- 
son now split up his forces ; he sent the Hopp (M) $4 to Middel- 
fartsund, the narrowest part of the Little Belt, and, leaving 
the Fenix, Folk, and Engel in Grensund, put to sea with five 
ships. He was immediately sighted by six Dutch ships out 
cruising, and promptly retreated to Wismar, where he arrived 
on September 27th. 

A few days later, on October 1st, the Danes and Dutch left 
Drager for Kiel. The whole expedition consisted of 116 sail, 
forty being Dutch warships uncler Euyter, there being also 
three Danish warships, the Spes 66, Sorte Bjorn 36, and Foniks 
30, with several small Danish privateers. On October 6th off 
Femern they met Wassenaer and Bjelke. The Danish Admiral 
thereupon joined Ruyter and took charge of the van of the 

* Got eb or -q 48, Amarant 46, Merkurius 46, Wismar 44, Falk 40, Svenska Lejon 
40, Fenix 30. 

t link 28, Jdgare 26, and Johannes (M) 36 (detached to Riga Sept. 2nd). 

Vestervik 44, Engel (M) 24. 

With the Halfmdne (M) 28 and Hopp (M) 24. The Gdteborgsfalk (M) 24 
was damaged and left at Gothenburg. 



combined fleet; but Wassenaer went with his fleet to Copen- 
hagen, and anchored there on the 10th. Twelve days later 
he sailed for home with twenty-one warships escorting a 
number of merchantmen, and on November 3rd he anchored 
at Hellevoetsluis. The Allies reached Kiel on October 12th, 
and began at once to embark the troops, though it was not till 
the 27th that they got to sea again. A surprise attack on 
Nyborg proposed for the night of the 29th-30th failed because 
the boats, with 2,000 men embarked, could not find their way 
ashore in the dark. The soldiers were landed on the 31st. 
Some Dutch ships were left in the Belt, but the bulk of the 
fleet went back to Kiel to fetch more troops. Another landing 
was arranged to take place at Middelfart. Eberstein was wait- 
ing with 5,000 men to get across, but his passage was opposed 
by the Swedish Hopp (M) 24, Sorte HundlQ, and Vaegtere 4. 
Rodthsten was sent to help him with the Spes 66, Raadhuis van 
Haarlem 40, and four privateers. He captured the three 
Swedes on November 3rd and took their place in Middelfart- 
sund, so that Eberstein was able to cross next day. On the 
other hand, Henriksson managed to leave Wismar on Novem- 
ber 4th ; he captured the Danish Feniks 30, and reached Kron- 
borg safely on the 10th. Still, the landings in Fyen were 
successful. The Swedes were defeated and driven back to 
Nyborg, which surrendered on November 15th with 5,000 men 
after a brisk bombardment by fourteen of Ruyter's smaller 
ships. Three days later the greater part of the fleet had to 
go to Travemunde, the port of Liibeck, to provision ; on Decem- 
ber 1st they set sail again, and on the 5th they anchored off 
Copenhagen. As before, in the absence of Ruyter, the Swedes 
had occupied the Sound in force. Ayscue put out from Lands- 
krona, and was joined by several ships from Gothenburg and 
by Henriksson's squadron from Wismar.* The intention was 
to attack a convoy of provisions from the Netherlands for 
Copenhagen; but the convoying fleet was strong, and the ex- 
pectation of Ruyter's return prevented anything being done. 
Ayscue took the whole fleet into Landskrona for good on 
November 18th. By the middle of December the harbours on 
both sides of the Sound were frozen up. 

Before any action could be taken on either side in 1660 
Karl Gustaf died. This was on February 13th. The whole 

* His full force seems to have been as follows: 

Drake 66, Cesar 54, Carolus 54, Krona 68, Hollandska Prins 28 (ex Dutch 
Prins Willem) (from Landskrona) ; Herkules 54, Mdne 46, Maria 46, Apollo 46, 
Andromeda 46, Fides 36 (from Gothenburg) ; Ooteborg 48, Merkurius 46, Wismar 
44, Svenske Lejon 40, Jagare 26, Danska Fenix (Prize) 30 (from Wismar). 
Besides these the Amarant 46 and Halfmdne (M) 28 were cruising north of 
Sjaelland, and the Vestervik 44, Fenix 30, Falk 40, and Engel (M) 24 off M0en. 

1659-1660. 99 

aspect of affairs was altered by his death. Ruyter had received 
orders from home to assume a vigorous offensive, and had taken 
up his position outside Landskrona on February 23rd, havuig 
sent Cortenaer home on the previous day with twelve warships 
and a number of merchantmen. He had twenty-nine Dutch 
ships and six Danes; but on March 8th he received orders to 
take no further part in the war. On the 10th he returned to 
Copenhagen, and two days later a Swedish squadron* under 
Sperling left Landskrona for the Belt, but on reaching Kron- 
borg Sperling was sent back to blockade Copenhagen. On the 
23rd six more shipst joined him, and Copenhagen was closely 
blockaded north and south. However, on April 9th Ruyter 
informed Sperling that any further movements on the part of 
the Swedes would compel him to attack them. Accordingly 
Sperling withdrew to Landskrona, only leaving the Goteborg 
48, and Svenska Lejon 40, at Drager, and the Amarant 46, and 
Andromeda 46 at Kronborg. A fortnight later six Swedish 
ships* left Landskrona for Stockholm; but R-uyter, thinking 
peace in no way certain, decided to stop them. He therefore 
took part of his fleet to Drager, and sent Evertsen with 
another squadron to the mouth of the Sound to prevent their 

foing northwards. He also stationed twelve ships off Lands- 
rona to intercept any attempted reinforcement. Of course, 
in the face of such odds the Swedes made no attempt to con- 
tinue their voyage. They anchored off Saltholm, and stayed 
there until the conclusion of peace. 

The treaty was signed at Copenhagen on May 27th. Its 
terms were the same as those of the Treaty of Roeskilde, except 
that Sweden gave back Bornholm and the Norwegian territory 
of Trondhjem, which the Norwegians had already retaken. 
The question of preventing foreign fleets from entering the 
Baltic was dropped. Sweden had also concluded peace with 
Poland, the Empire, and Brandenburg by the Treaty of Oliva, 
signed on April 23rd, whereby Sweden gained Livonia, but 
gave up Curland. Directly after the conclusion of peace the 
Swedish ships were allowed to pass. Three others joined them, 
and the rest of the fleet went back to Stockholm a fortnight 
later. Some of the Dutch ships sailed for home at the begin- 
ning of June ; but Ruyter with the rest stayed until August 3rd 
to see that the terms of the treaty were carried out. He then 
left Copenhagen, and arrived in the Ylie on August 24th. 

* Herkules 54, Carolus 54, Goteborg 48, Amarant 46, Merkurius 46, Moniken- 
dam (ex Dutch) 32. The last two were sent to blockade Rostock on March 29th. 

^Scepter 58, Cesar 54, Maria 46, Andromeda 46, Apollo 46, Svenska Lejon 40. 

t Mane 46, Oldenburg 40, Fides 36, Salvator 30, Smdland (M) 46, Soderman- 
land (M) 38. 



The Treaty of Copenhagen only gave Denmark peace for a 
few years, for on the outbreak of the second wa'r between 
England and the United Provinces in 1665 Denmark soon had 
to take a part. At first the tendency of Frederik III. had been 
to side with England, but an untoward event soon threw him 
into the arms of the Dutch. It had been arranged that a 
British fleet should enter the port of Bergen and attack the 
Dutch fleet of some sixty merchantmen, which were waiting 
there for convoy home after coming round by the north of 
Scotland. Bergen was, of course, a neutral port ; but the King 
of Denmark agreed, in return for half the proceeds, to do 
nothing to oppose the attack. The scheme failed utterly ; the 
English detached Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Tyddiman from 
the North Sea fleet with a force of fourteen small battleships, 
three fireships, and four ketches for the purpose ; but either by 
accident or by design on one side or the other, the attack was 
made before the Governor of Bergen had received orders to 
allow it. As a result, when the English ships arrived on 
August 3rd, 1665, they were met by a heavy fire, not only 
from the Dutch vessels, but also from the shore forts, so that 
after about four hours' fighting they had to retreat with heavy 
losses.* This made a breach between Denmark and England 
almost inevitable, and on February 1st, 1666, an agreement 
was signed between Frederik III. and the United Provinces, 
whereby they undertook to pay a subsidy of 600,000 dollars a 
year towards the expenses of the Danish fleet, provided that 
the Danes kept forty ships in commission from April to Decem- 
ber to prevent any English vessels, whether warships or 
merchantmen, entering Danish waters. It was also arranged 
that the Danish fleet should be strengthened by chartering 
eight ships from Dutch owners. However, England was far 
too busy with the French and Dutch to be able to attack 
Denmark, and though the English representative left Copen- 
hagen in March, 1666, no further steps were taken save the 
seizure of all Danish ships in English ports, and it was not 
until October that Charles II. declared war on this third 

Meanwhile, directly on the conclusion of the agreement 
with the United Provinces, the Danish General-Admiral Kort 
Adelaer was sent to fetch the chartered Dutch ships. After a 
great deal of difficulty and disputing! he reached Copenhagen 
on July 8th with eight hired ships, besides one ship bought for 
10,200 dollars, and 200 guns hired for the duration of the war. 

* A few days later Ruyter reached Bergen with the Dutch Beet and convoyed 
the merchantmen home, but lost several of them and some of his warships in 
heavy weather on the Dutch coast. 

tThe Dutch wanted to use the ships in their own waters instead of sending 
them to Denmark. < 

1665-1666. 101 

The total force in commission in Danish waters was then 
as follows* : 

Danish Ships: Norske Love 86, Tre Kroner 74, Trefoldig- 
hed 66, Tre Lover 60, Viktoria 56, Naeldeblad 56 (ex Tre 
Kroner), Svan 56 (ex Hannibal), Kurprinds 52 (ex Slesvig), 
Prins Jorgen 52, Oldenborg 47, Delmenhorst 46, Norske Love 
46 (old), Spes 46, Sorte Rytter 46, Lindorm 46, Gyldenlove 
36, t Kjobenhavn 36, f Hummer 32, Sorte Bjorn 30, Forgyldte 
Fisk 28, Si. MifezeZ 26, #flw;/rw 24, Vildmand 14, Flyende 
Hjort 14, Egern 14, _5Za Mynde . 

Chartered Dutch Ships: Doesburgh 48, Groeningen 48 or 
40, Middelburgh 46, Harderinne 38, Faisant 38, Leeuwarden 
36, Damiaten 32, .Bwr^r van- Leyden 42, Agatha 32.+ 

At the end of July the States General wrote to Frederik ask- 
ing for sixteen or eighteen of his best ships to be sent to join 
the Dutch fleet, but Frederik replied that this required further 
consideration, and, as Lind puts it, " It was not till Novem- 
ber 13th that an agreement was reached as to the Danish fleet's 
joining the Dutch next year" 

Still, the Danes were not altogether idle; in the middle of 
August they had a small squadron in the Kattegat consisting of 
the Middelburgh 46, Damiaten 32, Flyende Hjort 14, with the 
Unge Lam and Gamle Lam,, armed merchantmen ; and shortly 
afterwards they began to send various ships on convoy duty. 
On September 10th the Middelburgh 46, Faisant 38, and 
Damiaten 32 left Copenhagen to convoy Dutch merchantmen 
to the Vlie, and on the 24th the Groeningen 40, and Leeu- 
warden 36 followed on a similar duty. The first detachment, 
under Captain Hakro of the Middelburgh, was convoyed as far 
as Skagen by the Kjobenhavn 36, Hummer 32, Havfru 24, 
and Flyende Hjort 14; and from October llth onwards Vice- 
Admiral Helt cruised in the North Sea with the following 
squadron : 

Norske Love 86, Oldenborg 48, Hummer 32, St. Mikael 26, 
Havfru 24, Doesburgh 48, Harderinne 38, Faisant 38 (detached 
from Hakro's division), Leeuwarden 36. 

At the end of October a tremendous gale raged in the Katte- 
gat and North Sea. Helt's flagship, the Norske Love 86, was 
wrecked in Egersund, south of Stavanger, but without loss of 
life, while the St. Mikael 26 drifted across to the Scottish 
coast and sank at anchor there. The rest of the squadron 
reached Copenhagen in December much damaged and with a 

* Lind. 254, 256. Guns from Lind. 241/2. Spelling of Dutch ships and number 
of guns from De Jonge i. Ap. XXVIIIa, Lev. C. Tromp, 214 and 420, and Grove 
Ap. D. 

fBoth these ships carried later upwards of 50 guns. 

+ A Dutch ship bought and renamed Faer0; she afterwards carried 42 guns. 


large proportion of sick, and the Dutch vessels returning from 
their convoy work were little better. Hakro was sent with 
these latter to winter in Norway, leaving two of them at 
Christiansand and taking the rest to Bergen, where the Olden- 
bora and Havfru also wintered. 

The first move next year was to concentrate these ships from 
Norway at Copenhagen. The Groeningen and Leeuwarden 
arrived on April 16th, the Oldenborg, Havfru, Burg Van 
Leyden, Faisant, and Harderinne on May 20th and 21st, and 
the Middelburgh and Doesburgh on June 1st. The Damiaten 
seems to have wintered at Copenhagen. Two of the Dutch 
ships, the Faisant and Harderinne, had fought on May 17th a 
brisk action with the English ship Princess 52, near Marstrand 
on the Swedish coast; both sides had suffered considerable 
losses both in men and gear, and they had parted by mutual 
consent after about three hours' fighting. Dawes, captain of 
the Princess, and Van Dprt, captain of the Faisant, were 
among those killed. During May and June three Danish 
frigates* cruised in the North Sea under Captain Madsen, but 
though they took an English privateer, the Espion (Spy?), 
they were unable to prevent the loss of a convoy of eighty 
merchantmen, and a Dutch warship taken or forced ashore 
by five English ships off Skagen. On June 4th Hakro was sent 
on convoy duty with the following seven ships : 

Middelburgh 46, Doesburgh 48, Burg van Leyden 42, 
Damiaten 32, Leeuwarden 36, Hummer 32, and Vilmand 14. 

His duty was to escort as far as the Texel the two new 
battleships, Frederik 84, and Sofia 84, built at Copenhagen for 
France, to join them in any action against the English on the 
way, and at the" same time give convoy to a number of 
merchantmen bound for Dutch ports. On reaching the Texel 
he was to send the Hummer and Vilmand to Gluckstadt, on the 
Elbe, and bring the other ships back to Copenhagen. Early 
in July several other Danish ships put to sea. The Oldenborg 
48, and Faere\ 42, originally intended to sail to the Faero 
Islands and Iceland, were kept back and joined to the three 
frigates and the prize already in the Skaggerack, and at the 
same time Helt was ordered to take another convoy to the Texel 
with the four ships, Tre Lever 60, Delmenhorst 46, Harderinne 
38, and Kjobenhavn 32, and, on meeting Hakro, to take his 
ships also under his orders. Helt's squadron got no further 
than the Sound ; sickness broke out, and, finally, Helt himself 
died on August 7th. Hakro was then ordered to take com- 
mand of the squadron on his return from the Texel, but these 
arrangements were rendered unnecessary by the news of the 

* Forgyldte Fisk 28, Havfru 24, Flyende Hjort 14. 
t Formerly the Dutch Agatha. 

1667. 103 

conclusion of the Peace of Breda on July 21st. The chartered 
Dutch ships were therefore sent home under the escort of the 
three Danish vessels of Helt's former squadron. On the return 
journey Hakro's new flagship, the Tre Lever 60 was damaged 
in a gale and forced to put in on the Norwegian coast, where 
an epidemic broke out on board and finally killed Hakro him- 
self. All other Danish ships at sea were also recalled on the 
news of the conclusion of Peace. 




Almost immediately after the end of the second Anglo-Dutch 
war these two countries became allies. Mutually suspicious 
of the designs of Louis XIV., and anxious to prevent his 
further acquisitions in the Spanish Netherlands the United 
Provinces and England formed with Sweden in January, 1668, 
a Triple Alliance specially designed to check the French King. 
However, the rapid conquest of Tranche Comte in February 
gave Louis XIV. something to offer in exchange for the recog- 
nition of his conquests in the Netherlands, and accordingly in 
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, concluded in May, 1668, by 
giving up Franche Comte ne obtained a considerable accession 
of territory to the north of his kingdom. Angered by the 
opposition of the Dutch he set to work to plan their destruction. 
Charles II. of England was personally inclined to his side, 
but the greater part of the English people were opposed to the 
idea of an alliance with France, and Charles could only be 

Eersuaded to attack the United Provinces by the promise of a 
irge subsidy and a slice of Dutch territory. 

Early in 1671 the Dutch, seeing their danger, began to mobi- 
lise. The English thereupon attacked the Dutch Smyrna 
fleet. On March 17th, 1672, the United Provinces declared 
war on England, and on the 27th Louis XIV. declared war 
on them.* After two years of war, in which the English 
received little help from the French squadron sent to join 
them, they concluded a separate treaty of peace with the 
Dutch, who almost simultaneously became allied with Spain, 
the Emperor, and most of the German States, in addition to 
Brandenburg, previously their only supporter. Meanwhile 
Louis XIV., though losing the Emperor's support, had 
managed to get Sweden to his side, so that in May, 1675, 
Karl XI. of Sweden declared war on Brandenburg and the 
United Provinces. The Emperor at once joined the other 
States against this new enemy, as well as against France, and 
finally Denmark, in pursuance of treaty obligations with Bran- 
denburg, was added to the list of Sweden's enemies. 

As soon as Sweden declared war on Brandenburg the United 

* Denmark commissioned eight warships in 1672 to prevent any violation of 
neutrality by the English. 

1668-1675. 105 

Provinces had decided to send a fleet to the Baltic, but for the 
moment, exhausted by two years' defensive warfare by land 
and sea, and with the necessity of helping Spain in the Medi- 
terranean they were only able to send a small squadron. This 
consisted of nine ships and some small craft under Commodore 
Jacob Binckes, and reached Copenhagen in June, but 
Christian V. of Denmark had not yet definitely committed him- 
self to the war, and it was therefore not until August 13th 
that a Danish fleet of fourteen ships (soon raised to sixteen) 
left Copenhagen for the Baltic in company with seven of the 
Dutch ships.* The combined fleet was under the orders of the 
Danish General-Admiral Adelaer, who had his flag in the 
Prinds Georg 80. It was, as usual, divided into three divisions, 
under the command of Admiral Niels Juel in the CJiarlotta 
Amalia 54, Adelaer himself, and the Dutch commodore in the 
Calandsoog 70. 

About the same time Admiral Markuor Rodstehn was ordered 
to take the Tre Lover 60, Delmenhorst 46, Kjobenhavn 50, the 
two remaining Dutch battleships, and the frigates Anthonette 
34, and Hvide Folk 28, to the Kattegat, while his brother, 
Admiral Jens Rodstehn, was stationed in the Sound with the 
Anna Sophia 60, 3 frigates and a galley. t 

War was at last declared on September 2nd, 1675, and four 
days later M. Rodstehn sailed for his station. Adelaer had 
meanwhile been cruising in the Southern Baltic without seeing 
anything of the Swedes. They, as a matter of fact, did not 
get to sea until October 9th when Admiral of the Fleet Count 
Stenbock left Elfsnabben with no less than sixty-six ships of 
all sizes, carrying 2,222 guns, J but this great force accom- 

* List of the fleet given in Holl. Merc. Sept. 1675 p. 197. Danes : Prinds 
Georg 80; Charlotta Amalia 54; Christianus V. 86; Lindorm 50; Oyldenl0ve 
56; Havfru 24; Falck 32. Dutch : Calandsoog 70; Waesdorp 70; Gideon 60; 
Amsterdam 60; Drie Helden Davids 44; Waakende Kraan 44; Caleb 40. 
2 fireships, 1 despatch vessel, 5 galiots. Guns of the Dutch ships from " Reso- 
lutions of the Admiralty of Amsterdam." May ll/21st, 1675, and from Binckes' 
letter of July 6/16th. The other two large Dutch ships carried 70 and 60 guns. 
(Secret Resolutions of the States General). 

t Jaegere 24 ; Loss 26 ; Vindhund 14 ; Concordia galley. 

t 1st Squadron: Krona 128 (Ad. of the Fleet Count Stenbock); Sol 70; 
Drake 66 ; Venus 68 ; Herkules 54 ; Neptunus 44 ; Sundsvall 32 ; Nordstjerna 22 ; 
Postiljon 20 ; Enhorn 20 ; Jernvdg (M) 24 ; Perla 18 ; 4 storeships (40) ; 2 fire- 
ships. 2nd Squadron: Svdrd 90 (Ad. Brahe) ; Viktoria 74; Jupiter 70; 
Hieronymus 70; Vestervik 40; Hjort 32; Utter 30; Hand 12; Sol (M) 40;S<. 
Maria (M) 40; Caritas (M) 30; 4 storeships (38); 2 fireships. 3rd Squadron: 
Nyckel (84) (Ad. Stjernskold) ; Apple 90; Wrangel 64; Spes 48; Wismar 58; 
Svenska Lejon 48; Jagare 22; Flygande Varg (M) 36; Trumslagare (M) 32; 
Konung David (M) 30; Leopard (M) 20; 3 storeships (18); 2 fireships. 4th 
Squadron: Merkurius 68 (Ad. Uggla) ; Mars 70; Saturnus 66; Cesar 54; 
Carolus 54; Orn 40; Fredrika Amalia 34; Abraham 30; Salvator (M) 30; 
Constantia (M) 30 ; 3 storeships (24) ; 2 fireships. 44 ships ; 14 storeships ; 8 fire- 
ships. 2,222 guns. (Zettersten ii. 461/3). 


plished nothing whatever, and the record of its cruise is simply 
a chronicle of mishaps. Some indication of the state of in- 
efficiency in the fleet is given by the fact that it took the Krona 
128 and Svdrd 90 (both flagships) as much as eight hours to 
weigh anchor. Naturally, accidents happened. The very 
next day the Jupiter 70 collided with the Postiljon 20, and 
the smaller ship had to go to Visby in Gothland for repairs. 
On October 10th Stenbock had to anchor at the Karl's Islands 
off the south-west coast of Gothland to collect his scattered 
fleet. Next morning, on trying again to weigh anchor the 
Krona carried away a cathead and lost anchor and cable. 
Stenbock at once let go the other anchor preparatory to trying 
to pick up the one he had lost, but apparently never thought of 
cancelling the order to sail. As a result the other ships put 
to sea and stayed there till the evening- when they returned 
to look for their commander-in-chief, with the exception of 
the fourth squadron under Uggla, which went for a short 
cruise on its own account and did not return until nightfall on 
the 12th. On the 16th it blew a northerly gale. The Elefant 
20 (storeship) dragged her anchors, collided first with the Mer- 
kurius 68, IJggla's flagship, and then with the Drake 66, dis- 
masting both of them, and finally went ashore and broke up. 
The Saltsack 12 (storeship) was also wrecked. The Jupiter 70, 
which for some reason had set sail to go home, tried to anchor, 
but could get no hold and drifted out to sea. Next morning a 
council of war was held, and it was unanimously decided to 
go home. The fleet sailed on the 20th and reached Elfsnabben 
next day. It is interesting to note that three ships were left 
" to fish up the anchors the fleet had lost."* 

The Allies also suffered from bad weather and sickness, but 
kept at sea until recalled on November 1st. They had been 
cruising off Warnemunde, the port of Rostock, to support the 
Danish army in Mecklenburg. t Adelaer himself was taken ill, 
and in fact went ashore on November 2nd and died on the 5th. 
There is no doubt that his death was a great loss. Not only 
was he a very able man, with great and varied experience of 
sea-fighting, but he was also in all probability one of the few 
men qualified to ensure the proper co-operation of Danes and 
Dutch. Born in 1622 in Norway, he went to the Netherlands 
at the age of fifteen and served for two years as a cadet in the 
Dutch Navy, being probably present at the Battle of the Downs 
in 1639. After this he sailed in Dutch merchantmen to the 
Mediterranean, and in 1648 entered the Venetian service with 
his ship the St. Jergen 38, leaving it in 1661 after more or less 
continuous fighting against the Turks. He then returned to 

* Zettersten ii. 467. The foregoing is condensed from his account. 

t The Swedish Talk 40 was taken at the fall of Wismar in December. 

1675-1676. 107 

the Netherlands, but two years later King- Frederik II. of 
Denmark offered him the post of General- Admiral. He was 
thus a man calculated to satisfy both Danes and Dutch as a 
leader, and had he lived there would probably have been little 
if any of the disputes and unpleasantness that arose during the 
next few years. 

Shortly after his death Binckes sailed for home, convoying 
Dutch merchantmen, and the Danish fleet was laid up about 
the same time. Meanwhile the Elector of Brandenburg had 
done something towards taking a share in the naval operations. 
For the last few years E-aule, a merchant of the Dutch town of 
Middelburg, had had ten ships sailing under letters of marque 
from the State of Brandenburg,* but Frederik' s allies had com- 
plained of the harm these privateers did to their trade, and 
accordingly in 1675 a new arrangement was made with Raul 
whereby the letters of marque were cancelled, but he was instead 
to supply three " frigates ' of 16, 12, and 6 guns and one 
pinnace and these ships were to be considered as the Navy of 
Brandenburg. This was done, but that year, though joined 
by three Dutch ships, the new fleet did little save for an unsuc- 
cessful attack on Karlstad, a Swedish fortress at the mouth of 
the Weser. 

On March 30th, 1676, Niels Juel, who had taken Adelaer's 
place as General-Admiral, left Copenhagen with the following 

Battleships. Churprinds 76 (f), Christianus IV. 56, Gylden- 
leve 56, Nelleblad 54, Christiania 54, Lindorm 50, Delmen- 
horst 46, Svenske Folk 40. 

Frigates. Havmand 34, Hummer 34, Havfru 24, Loss 28, 
Spraglede Falk 16, two fireships, five small craft. 

He first sailed to Riigen, where he took some cattle, but was 
shortly driven by stress of weather to Bornholm. On April 
23rd the two Swedish vessels Constantia (M) 48 and Caritas 
(M) 32 were sighted off the coast of Blekinge and chased into 
the harbour of Steenshamn. Here the Havmand 34, Hummer 
34, and Spraglede Falk 16 were sent in to attack them, and 
did it with such effect that the Swedes set fire to their ships 
and abandoned^ them. The Danes instantly boarded and 
managed to save the Caritas and add her to their fleet, but the 
Constantia was too well alight, and had to be left, though some 
of her guns were taken. After this the fleet anchored at the 
Karl's Islands on the 28th, and landed 2,000 men in Gothland 
next morning. The Swedish garrison of 600 men retired to the 
citadel of Visby, and the town opened its gates without re- 

* Some of these privateers were: Churprinz, Berlin, Potsdam, 16-20; Biele- 
feld, Bulle, 6-10; (Jordan. Geschichte der brandenburgisch-preusischen Kriegs 


sistance. During the night of April 30th the Gyldenleve 56, 
Delmenhorst 46, and Hummer 34 took up their positions and 
opened fire on the citadel at daybreak on May 1st, with the 
result that the Governor, Count Oxenstjerna, was forced to 
capitulate. Juel at once made arrangements for occupying the 
island ; he left a garrison of 529 men, and intended to put to 
sea again, but bad weather kept him at Karl's Islands till 
May 16th, when he left to cruise between Bornholm and 

About this time he received considerable reinforcements. 
The Dutch had agreed to send fifteen battleships this year, but 
had had to send on nine of these under Schoutbynacht (Rear- 
Admiral) Almonde without waiting for the others. Three of 
these joined Juel on May 14th under Almonde himself with 
the Havfru 34, which had been detached, and the rest, under 
Admiral Jens Rodstehn, arrived on the 19th with the four 
Danish battleships Tre Lover 60, Fredericus III. 60, Enighed 
62, and Kjobenhavn 50. Two days later Juel received the un- 
pleasant news that Cornelis Tromp, the famous Dutch Admiral, 
had been appointed General-Admiral of the Danish Navy, and 
that he himself would therefore have to take second place. 
This was no doubt a severe blow. Thirteen years before he 
had been superseded by Adelaer, and now that he had regained 
his former position, he found himself put aside again to make 
room for another man,, and in this case one who had not even been 
born a Danish subject. Probably Christian V. had been largely 
influenced by the advice of his allies, and certainly Tromp's 
reputation was enough to make him an acquisition to any navy ; 
but, still, there is no denying that his appointment was a great 
injustice to Juel. Still, he took it very well. True, he wrote 
on May 22nd to Bjelke, the Danish Admiral of the fleet, com- 
plaining of his treatment; but even so, he ended his letter with 
assurances of faithful service, and there is nothing to show 
that he ever failed in the least degree to co-operate faithfully 
with Tromp. 

Meanwhile the Swedish fleet, under Admiral Lorens Creutz, 
had left Dalaro on May 4th, and finally got away from Elfs- 
nabben on the 19th. The two fleets met between Bornholm 
and Rtigen on May 25th. 

Swedish Fleet.* Battleships t :Krona 124 (Ad. Creutz), 

* From Zettersten (ii. 472). He gives the original organisation in four 
squadrons. Bergenstjerna commanding the fourth squadron died on May 20th, 
and his ships were distributed among the others. The fleet is therefore given 
hero without squadronal arrangement. 

t The Swedish Navy had as yet no distinction of battleships and frigates, but 
it is possible to draw a fairly clear line for purposes of comparison with other 

1676. 109 

SvardM (Ad. Uggla), Apple 86, Nyckel 84 (Ad. Bar), Viktoria 
80, Sol 74, Mars 72, Jupiter 70, ZMz&e 66, Merkurius 64, 
Hieronymus 64, Saturnus 64, Ferms 64, Carolus 60, Cesar 60, 
Wrangel 60, Herkules 56, Wismar 54, ^ 54, SoZ (M) 54, 
Svenska Lejon 48, GSteborg 48, /Spes 48, Abraham 44, ^Vep- 
tatrms 44, Marza 44, Flygande Varg (M) 44. 

Frigates. /^em^ 36, ///ori 36, Fredrika Amalia 34, Trums- 
lagare (M) 34, Sundsvall 32, Konung David (M) 32, Salvator 
(M) 30, Nordstjerna 28, Per/a (M) 28, ETtter 24, Jernvdg 
(M) 24; two small craft, eleven storeships, eiglit fireships. 

Twenty-seven battleships, eleven frigates, two small craft, 
eleven storeships, eight fireships, 2,194 guns. 

Allied Fleet: 

Danes. Battleships: Churprinds 76 (Gen. -Ad. Juel), 
Enighed 62, Tre Lover 60 (Ad. Rodstehn), Fredericus HI. 60, 
Christianus IV. 56, Gyldenleve 56, Nelleblad 54, Christiania 
54, Lindorm 50, Kjobenhavn 50, Delmenhorst 46, Svenske 
Falk 40. 

Frigates : Havmand 34, Hummer 34, Charitas 32 (ex- 
Swede), Loss 28, Havfru 24, Spraglede Falk 16; six small 
craft, two fireships. 

Dutch.* Battleships: TFaesdor-p 68 (J), Justina 64 
(S.b.N. Almonde), Z?e//* 62 (J.), 0ter0o 60 (F), tfwZecm 60 (J.), 
Ac7<:er&00m 60, Northolland 44 (F), Co/e6 40. 

Frigate: Utrecht 38. 

Twenty battleships, seven frigates, six small craft, two fire- 
ships, 1,328 guns. 

The Allies were about ten miles north of Jasmund, the 
north-east corner of R-iigen, when the Swedish fleet was sighted 
at 6 a.m. on May 25th coming down before a light north- 
easterly breeze. In the face of such superiority it was 
obviously Juel's duty to avoid action if possible, more espe- 
cially since he knew that reinforcements would shortly be leav- 
ing Copenhagen. Nevertheless, wanting to avoid any appear- 
ance of flight, and also probably with the hope of getting in a 
blow on his own account before Tromp's arrival, he formed 
line, not on the starboard, but on the port tack, thus heading 
away from Copenhagen. 

* No list gives the names of the nine Dutch ships which came on in advance. 
We know (de Jonge ii. 519) that they were the ships of Amsterdam, the Maze 
and Vriesland. Garde (Eft. i. 190) gives a list of the fleet with captains in the 
next action. Working from this we know by mention of these captains in de 
Jonge (524) that those ships marked (J) were present. The two ships marked 
(F) are mentioned in a Dutch account reproduced by Bruun (Niels Juel 19). 
The only other information we have is that the Dordrecht 46 was not present, 
since her captain was a Rotterdam man (de Jonge ii. 524). The other four ships 
were in Almonde's squadron a week later ; while two others were under Tromp. 
Probably as little alteration as possible would have been made. 


He kept close-hauled on the port tack, but meanwhile the 
wind gradually veered, so that when Creutz got level and bore 
away to attack, the allied fleet was four miles east of Jasmund, 
heading S.S.E. The Swedes were in some disorder, partly 
through the fault of Creutz, who had never commanded a fleet 
before, and partly through lack of skill in the handling of 
individual ships. Juel took the opportunity given him. He 
tacked his fleet in succession, stood N.N.E. with a freshening 
breeze, and managed at about 9 p.m. to cut off the last five 
Swedish ships, apparently small-craft, but it was too dark to 
do much. A little later Creutz tacked also, and the action 
ended. During the night both fleets kept on the starboard 
tack, and next morning the action was renewed. Details of 
the fighting are very uncertain. Each of the three nations 
concerned has an entirely different account of it; but it is 
possible by the selection of portions of each story to piece 
together a fairly plausible narrative. In the following account 
mention is made of the sources from which the various details 
are drawn. The wind was S.S.E. (Tornquist, Garde). The 
Swedes were in a general way to windward, but very much 
scattered (Tornquist). Juel began to beat to windward to cut 
off the most leewardly of the Swedes, who did the same in 
order to re-unite (Bruun, Juel's report). The Dutch squadron 
formed the van of the Allies and sailed in general better than 
the Swedes, who were in turn better than the Danes (de Jpnge). 
As a result, when Almonde got up to the Swedish line at 
7 a.m. he was supported by only three of the Danish ships in 
addition to his own squadron (de Jonge). On the other hand, 
only a part of Creutz's fleet was in position to receive him 
(Tornquist). The fleets passed twice on opposite tacks. The 
first time Almonde was only just within range, but the second 
time he ran along the whole Swedish line as close as possible. 
His ships suffered severely. According to a Swedish eye- 
witness his flagship, the Delft 62, had a hole made in her " big 
enough to drive a horse and cart through" (Zettersten). At 
any rate, she was evidently very much damaged, since Almonde 
had to shift his flag to the Gideon 60, and in addition to the 
flagship the Waesdorp 68 was driven out of action (de Jonge) 
and the Ostergo 60 and Northolland 44 considerably knocked 
about (Bruun, Foppe's account). Meanwhile, some of the 
Danes had got to windward of the Swedish lee ships and cut 
them off from the main body (Tornquist). Juel, however, 
thought he had done enough for appearance's sake, and seeing 
that Creutz showed signs of coming down to their relief (Torn- 
quist) he bore up at 2 p.m. and retired, covering his retreat 
by sending in a fireship. This, of course, compelled Almonde 
to withdraw also, and the allied fleet proceeded in good order 

1676. Ill 

with the Dutch astern (de Jonge) to Falsterbo, East of Kjoge 
Bay, where they anchored. Creutz started to pursue, but 
seeing the Merkurius 64, commanded by his son Major Creutz, 
in danger from the Danish fireship, he backed his foretopsail 
with the idea of helping her. This threw the fleet into even 
worse confusion than before, and it was not until Uggla came 
on board the flagshrp (Tornquist) that any sort of order was 
restored. The pursuit was then begun again, but it was too 
late, and the Swedes were too scattered to do any good. As 
night fell Creutz took his fleet to Trelleborg and anchored 
about ten miles east of the Allies. 

The Swedes lost two ships. The Konung David 10 (store- 
ship) was cut off from the fleet on the 25th and captured and 
burnt by a Dutch ship next day. The Leopard fireship* was 
taken by the Brandenburg squadron of three frigates, two 
galiotst, and six "sloops " (very small craft), which was on its 
way from Copenhagen under feaule to join the Allies. The 
Allies had a loss of fifty men killed and fifteen wounded. + That 
of the Swedes is not known. It can hardly be said that either 
side had won a victory, though the Swedes had, of course, 
every reason to feel dissatisfied. With a superiority in force 
of more than three to two, with the advantage of the single 
nationality, and with the weather position, they had failed 
to capture a single ship or to prevent Juel from reaching 
a position where he could get reinforcements unhindered. 
Probably much of their want of success was due to Creutz's 
inexperience, but there is no doubt that he was not properly 
supported by his subordinates. On the other hand, though 
the result of the fight wa>s> in a way as creditable to the 
Allies as it was discreditable to the Swedes, the natural 
jealousy and distrust of the two different nationalities showed 
themselves very clearly. Almonde reported that he had not 
been properly backed up by the Danes on the 26th, and 
accused Rodstehn in particular of lack of support, while the 
Danes stated that the Dutch had deliberately kept out of 
action for some time during the first day's fighting. Be this 
as it may, there can be little doubt that, in spite of the fact 
that the Swedes held thanksgiving services for their " victory," 
the advantage of the two days, such as it was, rested with 
the Allies. 

* She was a merchantman able to carry 20-30 guns, but was now used as a 
fireship. German accounts give her 22 guns (Wislicenus, Jordan), but probably 
mean " ports." 

t Churprinz von Brandenburg 26 ; Konig von Spanien 18 ; Berlin 15 ; Potsdam 
galiot ; Cleve galiot (Jordan). 

JHoll. Merc. 1676, June, p. 116. 

Vice-Admiral Boye of the Apple was dismissed his ship for failing to do 
his best. 


Two days after Juel's arrival at Ealsterbo Tromp joined with 
six Danish and three Dutch ships* from Copenhagen. At 
the same time the King of Sweden, acting on the advice of 
Uggla and Gustaf Horn, ordered his fleet to retire towards 
Stockholm so as to be more favourably placed in the event 
of a second battle. Both fleets weighed anchor early on the 
30th with a good south-westerly wind, sailing first east and 
then north-east. During the night the Swedes kept rather 
more to the east again, so that next morning they were not 
to be seen. Tromp, however, soon regained contact by means 
of his frigates, and by noon the two fleets were again in sight 
of one another. At eight o'clock in the morning of June 1st 
the Swedish fleet sighted the southern point of Oland, and 
kept on a course N.N.E. as close in shore as was considered 
safe; but the Allies kept even closer, and as the wind backed 
to west at the same time, they came up on the weather side 
of the Swedish line. 

The Swedish fleet, save for the loss of the Konung David 
and Leopard, was the same as in the previous action. It had, 
therefore, 26 battleships, 12 frigates, 10 storeships, and 7 fire- 
ships, with 2184 guns. The Allies were organised according 
to the following list, and had 25 battleships, 10 frigates, 7 
small craft, and 5 fireships, with 1727 guns. 

Danish-Dutch Eleet, June 1st, 1676 : Van. Churprinds 76 
(Juel), Christianus IV. 56, Gyldenleve 56, Anna Sophia 56, 
Delmenhorst 46, Nelleblad 54, Kj0benhavn 50, Lindorm 50, 
Anthonette 34, Hummer 34, Svenske Charitas 32, 2 small 
craft, 2 fireshipHs. 

Centre. Christianus V. 86 (Tromp), Tre Lever 60 (Rod- 
stehn), Ostergo (Dutch) 60, Charlotte Amalia 54, Enighed 62, 
Fredericus III. 60, Svenske Falk 40, Christiania 54, Campen 
(Dutch) 44 Frisia (Dutch) 36, Havmand 34, Havfru 24, 
Spraglede Falk 16, 3 'small craft, 2 fireships. 

Rear. Delft 62 (Almonde), Waesdorp 68, Dordrecht 46, 
Ackerboom 60, Gideon 60, Justina 64, Northolland 44, Caleb 40, 
Utrecht 38, Loss (Danish) 28, flvide Falk (Danish) 28, 2 
small craft, 1 fireship. 

Somewhere about noon Tromp's flagship, the Christianus F., 
was nearly level with the Krona 126, flagship of the Swedish 
fleet. About now the Krona opened her aftermost lower-deck 
ports and began firing, possibly at a Danish firetship, though 
this is uncertain. The Allies also fired a few shots, but the 
range was too long for any effect to be produced. A little later 
Uggla, in command of the Swedish Van, seeing that an action 
was inevitable fired a gun forward to recall his advanced ships, 

* Christianus V. 86; Enighed 62; Anna Sophia 56; Charlotte Amalie 64; 
Anthonette 34; Hvide Falk 28; Dordrecht 46; Campen 44; Frisia 36. 

- ^ 

16T6. 113 

Creutz took this to mean that Uggla was going about, mis- 
taking the signal for that giving the order to tack, which was 
a gun fired aft. Exclaiming, " Where the deuce is Uggla 
going ? " he ordered the rest of the fleet to tack as well. How- 
ever, not being a seaman, he failed to make allowances for the 
circumstances. His fleet had previously been sailing with the 
wind abaft the beam, whereas on the starboard tack he would 
be close-hauled. Further, the after lower-deck ports, which 
were still open, would on the other tack be on the lee side. 
The Swedes had been carrying all the sail that the masts would 
stand, and it was of course imperative in the strong wind then 
blowing to shorten sail and close what would be the leeward 
lower- deck ports before attempting to sail close-hauled. 
Creutz did neither. He luffed up, and with the way the ship 
had on she was off on the starboard tack even before the guns 
on the port side could be run in. The Krona heeled to such 
an angle that the port-sills went under water, and it became 
impossible to move the leeward guns up the sloping decks. 
Gyllenspak, the Master of Ordnance, who was on board and 
had gone below to see about running in the guns, rushed up 
on deck to beg Creutz to shorten sail. Getting no answer, 
he started to let go the main halliards himself, but he was 
too late; a squall struck the ship, she went right on to her 
beam ends, and the water rushed in everywhere. A few 
moments later fire, probably from the matches for the guns 
or from a broken lamp, reached the magazine, the entire star- 
board side of the ship was blown into the air, and she sank at 
once. Out of 842 officers and men on board, only 3 officers 
and 38 men were saved. 

Uggla, in the Van, signalled to his squadron to tack as soon 
as he saw Creutz's intention, but as he came to the wind the 
catastrophe of the Krona occurred, and to avoid running into 
the wreckage he had to bear away and wear again to his 
original course. Meanwhile the other two squadrons had 
tacked, and the fleet was thus partly on the one tack, partly 
on the other; and the confusion was increased by the fact 
that the Svard, Uggla' s ship, lost her mainmast in wearing, 
and was therefore more or less disabled. Tromp saw his op- 
portunity, and before Uggla could do anything to straighten 
things out he bore away and attacked. He himself got close 
alongside the Svard, and was followed by E/odstehn in the 
Tre Lever 60 and by Juel in the Churprinds 76. Uggla was at 
first supported by the Sol 74 and Saturnus 64 until Admiral 
Clerck, in the Sol, was wounded, and his ship left the line 
with the loss of her main topmast ; but now the Hieronymus 64, 
Neptunus 44, and Jernvdg (M) 24 tried to relieve the Svard 
and joined in the action round the two flagships. At the same 


time, the rest of the allied fleet had come up, and the action 
became general. The Swedish Venus 64 lost her main topmast, 
the Merkurius 64 was badly hit between wind and water, 
and the Mars 72 and other ships also had to retire. TJggla, 
in the Svard, held out for about two hours, and twice set 
the Christianus F. on fire, but at last had to strike. Just as 
Tromp was sending a boat on board, a Dutch fireship came 
up, and in spite of signals and hails her captain laid her along- 
side the Swedish flagship and fired her. In a very short time 
the Svard blew up, and of her crew of 670, all but 51 were 
killed or drowned, including Uggla himself. 

This second disaster was too much for the Swedes. Several 
ships, including the Herkules 56, Wismar 54, Fenix 36, and 
Utter 24, had fled after the loss of the Krona, but now the 
panic was complete. Every ship that could get away did so 
without any thought for those most hotly engaged. The three 
ships that had come to Uggla's help all had to surrender after 
a long resistance. The Hieronymus, however, escaped in the 
dark before she could be taken possession of. The Neptunus 
struck to Juel in the Churprinds, but his ship was so much 
damaged that he could not take possession of his prize, and 
accordingly the Dutch Gideon 60 did so. The Jernvdg was 
captured by the Anna Sophia 56, and the Ekhorre 8 was also 
taken. Such of the Danes and Dutch as were in a condition 
to do so pursued the retreating enemy right into Dalaro. On 
the way the Dordrecht 46 took the Enhorn 16. Both the 
Drake 66 and the Trumslagare (M) 34 had to be beached on 
the coast of Oland to prevent their sinking, but they got off 
again after repairs, and reached Kalmar on the 3rd. The Sol 
(M) 54 fled to Vestervik, where she also went aground, but was 
refloated later. The Rodkrita fireship had to be burnt to save 
her from capture by the Brandenburgers. Finally, on June 5th, 
the Apple 86 dragged her anchors at Dalaro, struck on a reef, 
and sank, though without much loss of life. 

The Swedish Navy thus lost on June 1st and the following 
days its three largest ships, four smaller vessels, and a fire- 
ship.* The loss in men is not known on either side, though 
Tromp reported that the Christianus V. lost about 100 killed 
and wounded. Of course the Swedes lost far more than the 
Allies, since over 1,400 perished in the Krona and Svard alone. 

As the result of the battle of Oland the command of the sea 
now rested with the Allies. This being the case, they were, of 
course, able to move troops by water as they pleased, and a 
landing in Skane was therefore arranged. The fleet had 

* Krona 126 ; Sv&rd 94 ; Apple 86 ; Neptunut 44 ; Jernvag (M) 24 ; Enhorn 16 ; 
Elehorrc 8; Rodkrita (fireahip). 

1676. 115 

reassembled in Kjoge Bay by June 19th, and a small squadron 
was detached under the orders of the two Rodstehn brothers to 
escort the main landing force, while Tromp with the rest of 
the fleet was sent to draw off the Swedes' attention by the 
capture of Ystad. Leaving Kjoge Bay on June 21st, he was 
off the town on the 26th. The Swedish garrison refused to 
surrender, and he therefore sent in four frigates and three 
galiots to bombard. A little later he sent in four more 
frigates and landed over 2,000 men. On June 27th the town 
and fortress capitulated. Two days after this the Danish army 
was landed at Raa, just south of Helsingborg. It was about 
9,000 men strong, and was convoyed from Copenhagen by 
Rodstehn's twelve warships.* On July 4th Helsingborg sur- 
rendered, and Landskrona soon followed. Markuor Rodstehn 
was sent on July llth to blockade Gothenburg with part of this 
squadron. Up to now the Swedish ships there had been able 
to do as they liked, and had, in fact, been at sea for the whole 
of May and the beginning of June on an unsuccessful expedi- 
tion to the Elbe to relieve Stade. Rodstehn had only six 
ships, while Sjoblad, the Swedish commander, had eleven, but 
the Swedes made no move. Hearing that the enemv was 
expecting reinforcements from England, Rodstehn left his post 
to return to Copenhagen. On getting under way the Kjeben- 
havn 50 ran aground, and as the Swedish vessels were approach- 
ing she had to be burnt. On his return to the Sound Rodstehn 
was put under arrest, and the squadron sent back to Gothen- 
burg under Commodore Wibe, a Dutchman. On August 17th 
it was again off the harbour. t The Swedes were too much 
undermanned to do anything, and the only activity on the 
Danish side was an unsuccessful fireship attack on October 1st. 
After this they withdrew for the winter. 

In the Baltic Tromp had taken his fleet to Riigen, but the 
Elector could not spare enough men to effect a landing in the 
face of the Swedish garrison, and the idea had to be abandoned. 
Tromp returned to Ystad, picked up four frigates which he 
had left there, and cruised in the Baltic looking for the Swedes. 

* Tre Kroner 70 (Ad. M. Rodstehn); Christianus IV. 56; Klein Vrieslant (or 
Frisia) 36 (Dutch); Charlotta Amalia (M) 34; Wandhund 12; Store Praam ; 
Tre L0ver 60 (Ad. J. Rodstehn) ; Caleb 40 (Dutch) ; Kjobenhavn 50 ; Tiger (M) 
34 (?); Kj0benhavns Waaben (M) 34; Hummer 34. 

t Rodstehn's squadron had been as follows: Tre Kroner 70; Caleb 40; 
Kj0benhavn 50 ; Frisia 36 ; 3 " Defensions Skibe " (armed merchantmen). He 
lost the Kj0benhavn, but under Wibe the squadron was reinforced by the 
Kj0benhavns Waaben (M) 34, and Charlotta Amalia (M) 34. The Swedes 
had: Andromeda 52; Amarant 46; Wrangels Pallats 44; Kalmarkastell (M) 
72; Gustavus (M) 48; Rosa (M) 46; Hafsfru (M) 46; Engel Gabriel (M) 32; 
Helsingfors (M) 40; St. Johannes (M) 24; St. Peter (fireship). 

+ Evertsen arrived in July with three more Dutch ships. 



He then went to Kjoge Bay early in September and sent out 
two small squadrons under Bjelke and Jens Rodstehn. The 
former cruised in the Baltic, but the latter first retook on 
September 25th Christianopel, which had been captured by the 
Swedes, and then, proceeding to Bodekull or Karlshamn, 
landed his troops on October 4th, and captured that town on the 
7th. The Dutch fleet had gone home, but Tromp landed with 
3,000 men from the fleet to reinforce the King's army in Skane, 
and finally took part in the battle of Lund on December 4th. 
The Danes were by no means decisively beaten, but King 
Christian thought it best to retire and confine his attention to 
holding the towns he had taken already. He therefore with- 
drew his army to Sjaelland, save for garrisons in the coast 

During the winter Denmark and France, which had, 
of course, been fighting on opposite sides for over a year 
though still nominally at peace with one another, abandoned 
this pretence and mutually declared war. In consequence of 
this, with the possibility of Louis XIV. giving active aid to 
Sweden at sea, it appeared more than ever necessary that Den- 
mark and Brandenburg* should be supported in the Baltic by 
a Dutch fleet. Tronic was therefore sent to the Netherlands 
in January, 1677, to do what he could to persuade William of 
Orange to send a fleet to help against Sweden. For some time 
there was little response to his request. The Dutch, who were 
fighting France in the Mediterranean^ and bound to keep a 
fleet at home, could not easily spare ships to join in a struggle 
which was apparently of little direct importance to them, and 
besides this they realised that it would do them no good to 
make Denmark too strong or Sweden too weak. What they 
wanted was a situation in which the two countries were about 
evenly matched, so that whichever side they supported would 
always be able to overpower the other. Still, at last they 
recognised that supporting Denmark would help Brandenburg 
and thus indirectly weaken France. A fleet was therefore 
equipped,! and sailed from the Texel on June 18th under 
Lieutenant-Admiral Bastienze Schepers. Tromp sailed as a 
passenger in the flagship. 

Before this fleet arrived the Danes had done much to make 
its coming unnecessary. Sjoblad, the Swedish commander in 
Gothenburg, was ordered to take his ships into the Baltic to 
join those at Stockholm, doing what harm he could to Danish 

* In the latter part of 1676 a Brandenburg squadron of 2 frigates, 2 galiots, 
1 yacht (Bracke), and two ships had blockaded Stralsund, while 1 frigate and 
1 galiot cruised in the Baltic. 

t 1 of 76, 1 of 70, 4 of 60-68, 1 of 50, 3 of 40-46, 2 snows, 3 fireships, 1 galiot. 

16T6-16T7. 117 

trad and territory on the way. He left Gothenburg on 
May 20th, and anchored three days later off Knudshoved in 
the Great Belt. The same day a Danish squadron under Juel 
left Copenhagen. For some days a calm prevented Sjoblad 
from moving, and he accordingly landed men and did all 
possible damage ashore. News of his presence soon reached 
Copenhagen, and a galley was sent off to tell Juel. She found 
him on May 28th at anchor off Gjedser, the southernmost 
point of Falster in a flat calm. Juel got under way next day, 
but had to anchor again, though the same day Sjoblad 
managed to pass Langeland, Lolland, and Femern. On the 
30th he had to anchor between Femern and Warnemiinde in 
sight of the Danish fleet. 

List of the two fleets follows : 

Swedes. Amarant 46 (Ad. Sjoblad), Andromeda 52, 
Wrangels Pallats 44, Kalmarkastell (M) 72, Gustavus (M) 
48, Rosa (M) 46, Hafsfru (M) 46, Engel Gabriel (W) 32, Grip 
(bojort) 8, Diana 6, Venus 4, 1 fireship, 8 ships, 3 small- 
craft, 1 fireship, 404 guns. 

Danes. Christianus V. 86 (Ad. Juel), Churprinds 74, 
Gyldenlove 56, Enighed 62, Christianus IV. 54, Christiania 
54, Nelleblad 52, Lindorm 50, Neptunus 42, Christiansand 40, 
Hummer 37, Havmand 34, Havfru 30, 1 galiot, 1 galley, 2 
fireships, 13 ships, 2 small craft, 2 fireships, 671 guns. 

Besides the apparent superiority in ships and number of 
guns, the Danes carried by far the heavier artillery. None of 
Sjoblad's ships had anything heavier than a twelve-pounder, 
whereas several of the Danish vessels carried twenty-four and 
eighteen-pounders. The Danish superiority in ships was 62 
per cent., in guns 70 per cent., while in weight of broadside it 
was probably quite 100 per cent. 

At noon on May 31st a light breeze sprang up from the 
south-west. Juel at once got under way, and Sjoblad retreated 
north-east. The breeze became very light, so that both sides 
lowered their boats to tow. As almost invariably happens in 
a chase, the fastest of the pursuing vessels gained upon the 
slowest of the pursued. At about 7 p.m. firing began, and went 
on till midnight, when the Wrangels Pallats 44 struck to the 
Enighed 62. At 2.30 a.m. on June 1st the fight began again. 
The wind was now stronger, and from the south-east. The 
three leading Danes were Juel's flagship, the Christianus Y. 
86, the Lindorm 50, and the Nelleblad 52, while the sternmost 
of the Swedes were the Gustavus (M) 48, Rosa (M) 46, and 
Havsfru (M) 46. At first the Christianus V. was unsupported, 
but soon the Lindorm got alongside the Hafsfru. The 
Nelleblad made no effort whatever to come into action, but the 
GyldenUve 56 came up later to help the Lindorm, and after 


some hours' fighting the Hafsfru surrendered.* The Chur- 
prinds 76 attacked the largest Swede, the Kalmarkastell (M) 
72, and was backed up in succession by the Christianus IV. 
54, Christiania 54, and Havfru 30 ; the Kalmarkastell was over- 
powered and forced to strike, but she was so much injured 
by her captain's device of firing guns down the main hatch that 
she had to be put ashore and was of no further use to her 

Meanwhile Juel, in the Christianus V. 86, had gone on 
after the Swedish flagship and her immediate neighbours. 
At about four o'clock he came up with the Amarant 46, 
Sjoblad's ship, and in about two hours took not only her, but 
also the Engel Gabriel (M) 32, which came to her help. The 
rest of the Swedes escaped, in spite of Juel's repeated signals 
to his ships to chase. The Rosa (M) 46 and Grip 8 went 
through the Sound under the English flag, while the Andro- 
meda 52 and Gustavus (M) 48 went on into the Baltic and 
anchored south of Oland. The Diana 6 and Venus 4 also tried 
to go through the Sound, but were taken by the Danish ship 
Svenske Falk 40. t The Danish fleet, with its prizes, reached 
Kjoge Bay the same evening, and came up to Drager on the 
7th. Juel accused several of his captains of cowardice and 
disobedience, and eventually the chiefs of the Gyldenleve, 
Nelleblad,^. Neptunus,+ Chrvstiansand, and Hummer were all 
found guilty and punished. Still, the Danes had won a very 
decided victory, and though it was of course against a very 
inferior foe, the result encouraged them to try and repeat it 
against the main Swedish fleet from Stockholm. With this 
object Juel was reinforced with every available ship, and on 
June 24th he put to sea again with 24 battleships and frigates 
with the knowledge that the Swedes had left Elfsnabben on 
the llth. Lack of wind forced him to anchor off Stevns, and 
at daybreak on June 29th, while at anchor between Stevn and 
Falsterbo, he sighted the Swedish fleet, also at anchor off 

This fleet had left Dalaro on June 9th. Its original com- 
position was according to the following list. 

First Squadron. Victoria 84 (Ad. Gen. Horn), Wrangel 60, 
Saturnus 64, Mars 72, Carolus 56, Wismar 58, Riga 45, 
Hjort 34, Fredrika Amalia 34, Flygande Varg (M) 56, Trums- 
lagare (M) 18, Elisabet (M) 18, 4 storeships (30), 2 fireships. 

Second Squadron. Sol 72 (Ad. Clerck), Venus 64, Mer~ 

* Swedes say 7 a.m. Danes 5 a.m. 

t The Swedes thus lost : A marant 46; Kalmarkastell (M) 72 (run ashore after 
capture) ; Hafsfru (M) 46 ; Diana 6 ; Wrangels Pallats 44 ; Engel Gabriel (M) 32 ; 
Venus 4. 

t Dutchmen. 

1677. 119 

kurius 66, Herkules 54, Svenska Lejon 52, Lax 50, Spes 46, 
Fenix 34, Grip (M) 60, Konung David (M) 32, Per/a (M) 18, 
4 storeships (30). 

Third Squadron. Nyckel 84 (Ad. Wachtmeister), Jupiter 
68, Z>nz&e 64, Cesar 60, Hieronymus 72, Goteborg 52, 3/an'a 50, 
Abraham 44, Nordstjerna 32, SoZ (M) 32, Salvator (M) 32, 
Forgylda Folk (M) 10, 3 storeships, 2 fireehips. 

This is not, however, quite the fleet that went into action. 
For some reason the Lax 50, Abraham 44, Nordstjerna 32, 
and Grip (M) 60 were left at Dalaro. On June 13th, off Oland, 
Horn was joined by the new ship Kalmar 62 from the town 
of the same name, and also by the Andromeda 52 and Gustavus 
(M) 48, the survivors of Sjoblad's squadron. After cruising 
off the Blekinge coast, he anchored off Meen on the 24th. 
Thence he went to Bornholm, and returned to Meen. The 
Carolus 56, Maria 50, and Goteborg 52 were out cruising, and 
did not rejoin the fleet in time for the battle. The Swedish fleet 
therefore went into action with a strength of 31 ships, ex- 
clusive of 11 storeships, and a total of 1,701 guns. 

Against this the Danes could put the following fleet : 

First Squadron. Lindorm 50, Norske Leve 86, Fredericus 
HI. 52, Anna Sophia 58 (Ad. M. Rodstehn), Christianus IV. 
54, Hummer 37, Delmenhorst 50, Havmand 30, 2 galiots, 1 

Second Squadron. Christiansand 40, Churprinds 74, 
Eniqhed 62, Christianus V. 84 (Ad. Juel), Neptunus 42, Maria 
30, Tre Lover 58, Postillion 18, 1 galiot, 1 " scout," 1 fireship. 

Third Squadron. Svan 58, Gyldenlove 56, Loss 30, Chris- 
tiana 54, Tre Kroner 68 (Ad. J. Eodstehn), Nelleblad 52, Char- 
lotte Amalie 44, Hvide Folk 26, Svenske Folk 40, 3 galiots, 1 
" scout." 

They had therefore 25 ships and eight small craft, with 
1,267 guns, so that in material, at any rate, they were con- 
siderably inferior to the Swedes. Still, this was probably 
more than made up for by the fact of their victory in the last 
action and the consequent confidence on the Danish and dis- 
trust on the Swedish side. Besides this, Horn, the Swedish 
commander-in-chief, though possibly an excellent soldier (he 
was a Field-Marshal), had had no previous experience at sea, 
and was therefore quite unfitted to handle a fleet against an 
enemy with any knowledge of tactics. This Juel certainly had. 
Garde, in his history of the Danish navy, specially mentions 
that " he practised tactical evolutions for the first time in our 
Navy both with boats and with his ships," a fact that partly 
accounts for the result of the action which followed. 

Apparently both sides were anxious to fight. Horn wanted 
to avenge Sjoblad's defeat before the arrival of the Dutch 


fleet, while Juel was of course willing to fight if there was 
a chance of winning a victory before Tromp superseded him. 
There is some doubt exactly what his orders were, but ap- 
parently he had been told not to fight if it could be avoided 
until the Dutch could join him, though, natually enough, he 
did little to prevent Horn from attacking him, and in fact gave 
him every chance to do so.* About eight o'clock in the morn- 
ing of June 30th, the wind being S.S.W. and the Swedes 
therefore to windward, Horn left his anchorage and approached 
the enemy. He sent two ships to try and draw Juel, who in 
his turn sent two ships to attack them. The Swedish fleet 
kept off and formed line, whereupon Juel weighed and did 
the same. All night the Danes tried in vain to get the weather- 
gauge; at daybreak on July 1st the Swedes were still to wind- 
ward. Both fleets were then on the port tack a little off the 
wind, heading north-west towards the coast of Sjaelland. 
Several Danish ships had dropped to leeward during the night, 
but Juel decided to accept battle at once without waiting for 
them to rejoin, and therefore hauled to the wind. At the 
same time the Swedish fleet bore up to attack, and about 5 a.m. 
the action began. Horn sent in his fireships, but they were 
towed aside harmlessly. 

As the two lines approached the shore Juel bore away a 
little so as to run along the coast close in, seeing that if Horn 
wanted to keep to windward he must stay on the port side 
of the Danes, especially since the wind was slowly veering, 
and might therefore very probably run aground. The plan 
succeeded well; the Drake 64 went hard aground off Stevns. 
Horn at once ordered the Mars 72, Cesar 60, Merkurius 66, 
Kalmar 62, Hieronymus 72, and Flygande Varg (M) 56 to help 
her, and with the rest of his fleet wore and stood to the east- 
ward to get into more open water. 

Juel had to make a quick decision. If he took the whole 
of his fleet against the ships round the Drake he would be 
more or less certain of taking or destroying seven ships, but the 
rest of the Swedes would escape untouched, while if he took 
a sufficient force to attack the main body of the Swedish fleet 
with any hope of success he would not be able to spare enough 
ships to make certain of those seven vessels. He decided to 
take the more risky course. Leaving the detached Swedes to 
his ships to leeward and sending Markuor Rodstehn in the 
Anna Sophia 58 with the Norske Leve 86 to help, he wore his 

* Garde (Hist. i. 283) says that Juel sent to the King asking for leave to fight, 
and that his brother Jens Juel arrived on the 28th with this permission. Bruun, 
however (Niels Juel 63), shows that this is apparently wrong. At any rate, 
Jens Juel did not reach the fleet till the 30th, and then probably without any 
such leave. 



167T. 121 

fleet also and kept on in action, though now to port of the 

In the action round the Drake the Danes did well. The 
Anna Sophia and Norske Love attacked the Drake and forced 
her to surrender with the aid of artillery fire from the shore, 
while the Churprinds 74 took the Cesar 60, and the Tre Lover 58 
captured the Mars 72. The rest of the Swedes fled. Three 
ships got away to Malmo and anchored outside the harbour, 
but the Flygande Varg (M) 56 went after the rest of the fleet 
and ran on to Falsterbo Beef. She was captured that night 
by the Charitas 32, which, with the Wrangels Pallats 44 and 
Gluckstadt 36 had been sent out from Copenhagen to re- 
inforce Juel. In the other part of the action a further shift 
of wind to about W.N.W. gave Juel the windward position, and 
he used it to cut off the sternmost Swedish ships and con- 
centrate on them. At this moment Eodstehn joined him with 
some of the detached ships and increased his force most op- 
portunely. Still, the Danes suffered severely. Juel's flagship, 
the Christianus V. 86, was so much damaged that he had to 
shift his flag to the Fredericus III. 52. The Norske Love 86 
loist her main topmast, and eventually the Swedes managed 
to get clear, though in utter disorder, and fled towards Born- 
holm. This was about noon. Juel, finding his second flagship 
too much knocked about to pursue, shifted again to the 
Charlotte Amalie 54, and followed them with such of his ships 
as were in a condition to do so, but the only result of the 
pursuit was the capture of the Svenska Lejon 52 by the 
Enighed 62. Next morning the Swedes were out of sight, 
so Juel returned and anchored again in Kjoge Bay on July 4th. 

The very day of the action the Butch fleet had reached the 
Sound, and on the 2nd Tromp sent the Campen 40, Oosterwijk 
and a fireship to attack the three Swedish ships off Malmo. 
The fireship ran alongside the Merkurius 66, and the Swedish 
crew instantly deserted their ship. The Campen, coming up, 
ordered the fireship off and captured the Swedish vessel. 
Following this, she took the ffieronymus 72 after about a two 
hours' engagement, while the Kalmar 62 was burnt, either by 
the fireship or by her own crew, to prevent her capture by the 

The total Swedish loss was thus as follows* : Mars 72, 
captured; Hieronymus 72, captured; Merkurius 66, captured; 
Drake 64, captured; Kalmar 62, burnt; Cesar 60, captured; 
Svenska Lejon 52, captured; Flygande Varg (M) 56, cap- 
tured; Gro'na Drake 8, captured; Grip 8, burnt. 

* Several accounts, both Danish and Swedish, say that the Saturnus 64 blew 
up and the Jupiter 68 was sunk or wrecked. As a matter of fact, both were in 
commission next year. The Swedes may have lost one or two more small craft. 


On the whole, Juel had gained little by his boldness. As 
a result of the second phase of the action, only one Swede 
was taken, while three of those near the Drake managed to 
escape. True, they were dealt with next day by the Dutch, 
but they might very well have escaped altogether. Had Juel 
confined hi attentions to the seven Swedish ships and let the 
rest go he would in all probability have captured them all, and 
would certainly have suffered far less severely himself. Still, 
the moral effect of his pursuit of the Swedish main body must 
have been great, and he undoubtedly won a great victory. For 
a fleet of 25 ships to defeat an enemy of 31 and inflict such 
a severe loss must be considered a very noteworthy perform- 
ance, and the battle of Kjoge Bay, 1677, properly takes its 
place as one of the most glorious episodes in Danish Naval 

Juel sent in a detailed report of his losses, giving them as 
76 killed and 211 wounded,* but this did not include the 
figures for the Norske L0ve 86, Churprinds 74, Tre Kroner 68, 
and Postillion 18. These three battleships had to be sent with 
the Christianus V. to Copenhagen for repairs, and had pre- 
sumably suffered severely. Probably an estimate of 400 for 
the total Danish loss will not be far out. No figures were 
published on the Swedish side, but the Cesar had 110 and the 
Mars 214 killed and wounded before surrendering, and the 
whole loss in killed, wounded, drowned, and captured has been 
reckoned at about 4,000. 

Some argument as to the relative positions of Schepers and 
Juel in the combined fleet resulted in the latter' s keeping his 
place as next after Tromp. A fleet of 21 Danish battleships 
and frigates was sent under his orders on July 18th to attack 
the Swedish iships in Kalmar. These were 13 ships and four 
small craft, mainly from the third squadron of the Swedish 
fleet, and had reached Kalmar on July 2nd under Wacht- 
meister. The rest of the fleet had gone on northwards, and 
arrived at Dalaro on the llth. Juel was joined off Bornholm 
on July 22nd by Schepers with his ten battleships and seven 
small craft, and on August 1st the combined fleet anchored 
in Kalmar Sound a little north of the harbour. Two days 

* Christiania, 5 killed, 7 wounded ; Qyldenl0ve, 3 killed, 16 wounded ; Delmen- 
horst, 3 killed, 12 wounded ; Christianus IV., 7 killed, 10 wounded ; Enighed, 4 
killed, 32 wounded ; Anna Sophia, 6 killed, 17 wounded ; Nelleblad, 5 killed, 
10 wounded ; Tre L0ver, 3 killed, 5 wounded ; Lindorm, 9 killed, 2 wounded ; 
Neptunus, killed, wounded; Svan, 9 killed, 13 wounded; Maria, 2 killed, 
I wounded; C hristiansand, killed, 3 wounded; Svemke Falk, 2 killed, 
8 wounded; Hummer, 2 killed, 8 wounded; Charlotta Amalie, 4 killed 13 
wounded; Fredericus III., 3 killed, 13 wounded; Havmand, killed, 
wounded; Hvide Falk, 1 killed, wounded; Loss, 1 killed, 1 wounded; 
Christiana V., 8 killed, 36 wounded. 

1677. 123 

later Tromp arrived in the Prins Georg 80, with the Chur- 
prinds 74 and Svenske Charitas 32, and took over the command. 
He left the Danish fleet north of Kalmar and stationed the 
Dutch to the south, but after several reconnaisances it was 
found that the entrance to the harbour was too well protected 
to make an attack possible. Disappointed in this, Tromp and 
Juel landed men in Oland and on the coast near Kalmar, and 
did a considerable amount of damage, but on August 26th 
Tromp returned to Copenhagen with all the Dutch ships and 
six of the larger Danes under Markuor Kodstehn. 

On land the Danes had not been so successful. Helsingborg 
had been recaptured by the Swedes on December 30th, 1676, and 
Karlshamn on March 8th, 1677. Kristianstad, twenty-five miles 
wesit of Karlshamn, was then besieged by the Swedish army. 
The Danes laid siege to Malmo on June 9th, but had to abandon 
it again on the 27th, and on July 14th was fought the battle 
of Landskrona. Like the battle of Lund in 1676, it was in- 
decisive, but resulted in the retreat of the Danes. Christian V. 
decided that he could do more good in Skane, and merely 
left garrisons in Landskrona and Kristianstad. The plan now 
was to effect a landing in Riigen in conjunction with the 
Brandenburgers. Tromp, with his 16 battleships, left Copen- 
hagen on September 6th, convoying 40 transports with Danish 
and German troops. Christian V. sailed with him. The 
troops were duly landed on September 8th and the island easily 
captured. The fleet was back at Copenhagen by the middle 
of October. 

Juel had returned on October 6th. He had continued the 
descents on the Swedish coast, and a detachment of six of 
his frigates had taken Yestervik on September 1st after a brisk 
bombardment. Two Swedish warships were destroyed in the 
harbour. After this he had sailed to Gothland and regarrisoned 
that island. The Dutch left for home on October 27th, escort- 
ing some merchantmen, and at the same time the Danish 
ships were laid up for the winter with the exception of two 
small squadrons which were left at sea as long as the ice 
allowed. The Swedes had made no attempt to do anything 
more at sea. Their fleet had been lying at Dalaro in the ex- 
pectation of an attack on Stockholm. After Juel left the 
neighbourhood of Kalmar all save three* of the ships there 
were sent to Stockholm for the winter. 

This year the Brandenburg fleet had acted separately. The 
Elector's operations centred in the 'sieges of Stettin, Stralsund, 
and Griefswald, and the little fleet was wanted to help here. 
Eaule supplied six ships ; three frigates of 24, 20 and 18 guns, 

* Andromeda 52; Spes 46; Nordstjerna 32. 


2 galiots of 6 each, and 1 scout of 2 guns.* He also fitted out 
privately seven small craft with 26 guns, while the Elector 
sent from Kolberg a few ships with 57 guns. A Dutchman, 
Claes van Beveren, was engaged as Admiral, and under his 
orders a very successful blockade of Stettin was maintained. 
Two ships, the Berlin 18 and Prinz Ludwig 10 cruised in the 
Baltic and took the Swedish Ekorre 12. On August 4th eight 
Swedish ships from Stettin attacked three of the smaller 
Brandenburgers and took one of them of six guns. At the end 
of the month Yan Beveren was sent with the Churprinz 24, 
Maria 6, and Eichhorn 12 (ex Ekorre) to the mouth of the 
Elbe, with orders to capture any French ships and take them 
to Copenhagen or Karlistadt, now a Brandenburg fortress. 
On December 16th Stettin was taken. 

The Dutch were now beginning to treat with France and 
took no further part against Sweden. Christian V. there- 
fore, seeing that Tromp's presence was a source of friction, dis- 
missed him and made Juel Commander-in-Chief for 1678. Most 
extensive preparations were made, and a number of small 
squadrons stationed at various important pointst, while the 
main fleet of 31 battleships, 9 frigates, 10 small craft, and 3 
fireshipst with 2,006. 

Juel landed at Ystad on June 4th, but found that the stores 
which he hoped to capture had been removed. He then sailed 
northwards to look for the Swedish fleet, and found it just 
south of Kalmar. This year for the first time it was com- 
manded by a seaman. Aamiral Hans Wachtmeister had left 
Dalaro on June 6th and Elfsnabben on the 9th. He had 
anchored off the south of Oland on the 12th, and taken up 

* Probably the same six ships as in 1676. 

t A. Riigen and neighbourhood: Jaegere 28; Spraglede Talk 16; Tre S0stre, 
Fire Kronede Lillier 4; Crocodil 4; T0nsberger Fl0it (M) 10, St. Johannes, 
Diana 4; Venus 4. B. Blockading Malmo : Wismarske Ref 6; St. Peter (M), 
S0ehest (M). C. Landskrona to support the army: Pram 22, a merchantman. 
D. Between Landskrona and Copenhagen : Krone 4 ; S0ehund 4 ; Hvide 
Due, Adrians Jagt (Maage) 4. E. The Belt : Wildmand 16. F. The Sound: 
Faer0e 40; Hvide Falk 26; Loss 30 (Garde Eft. i. 229). 

Garde Hist. i. 298. The ships of the fleet are not given. Still a list of the 
whole navy for this year is given in Garde Eft. i. 200/6, and this with the 
omission of the ships detached gives almost exactly the figures above. The 
larger ships of the fleet are thus given conjecturally as follows: Norske L0ve 
84 ; Christianus V. 84 ; Tre Kroner 68 ; Prinds Oeorg 80 ; Churprinds 74 ; M art 
*72; Charlotta Amalia 54; Tre L0ver 68; Drage *64 ; Enighed 62; Merkurius 
*60; Hieronymus *56 ; Anna Sophia 58; Julius Caezar *58 ; Svan 58; Oylden- 
love 56; Christiania 56; Christianus IV. 56; Fredericus III. 53; Lindorm 52: 
Amirante *54 ; Nelleblad 52; Flyvende Ulf *52 ; Delmenhorst 46; Wrangels 
Palais *46; Engel *46 ; Svenske Haftru *44 ; Svenske L0ve *44; Victoria 44; 
Svenske Falk *44 ; Neptunus *42 ; Christiansand 40; Hummer 36; Oluckstadt 
36; Hafmand 34; Charitas *34 ; Anthonette 30; Haffru 30; Sj0 Ridder 20; 
Sorte Rytter 16. ( Ex Swede.) 

1677-1678. 125 

his position in Kalmar Sound next day. With the vessels 
which joined him from Kalmar he had a fleet of 28 ships, 
13 small craft, and 6 fireships with 1,491 guns.* The Danish 
fleet, with a superiority of about four to three, would probably 
have made short work of the Swedes in the open sea, but 
Wachtmeister had anchored in a strongly fortified position and 
Juel could not get at him. Seeing that this was so, he with- 
drew, and cruised between Bornholm and Riigen, hoping to 
lure the Swedes out to sea, but Wachtmeister merely sent put 
detachments of five ships or so for a week at a time during 
June and July. The Danish fleet effected a few more landings 
on the Swedish coast, and appeared again in Kalmar Sound 
on August 9th. By this time the Swedes had retired right in to 
Kalmar Harbour, and Juel therefore took his fleet to E/iigen 
to help in the great attack that had been arranged. This had 
been rendered necessary by the fact that in January the 
Swedes from Stralsund had landed in the island and recog- 
nised it, taking 4,000 prisoners. In the summer they achieved 
another success on land by the taking of Kristianstad. 

Trpmp, now in the service of the Elector of Brandenburg, 
was in charge of the combined fleets off Eiigen. Eaule, the 
originator of the navy of Brandenburg, had collected as many 
as 350 vessels of all sizes to act as transports, and these, con- 
voyed by nine Brandenburg warshipst and two Danish frigates, 
took troops from Peenemunde on the Pomeranian coast. The 
Danes landed at Wittow on the northern side of the island, 
and the Brandenburgers at Putbus, to the south, on August 
12th; the Swedish garrison was forced to retire to Stralsund, 
and the island passed into the power of the Allies. Stralsund 
was then besieged and blockaded by the Brandenburg fleet 
and the Danish ships in those waters, while Juel, with the main 
Danish fleet returned to Copenhagen on September 30th and 
laid up all save a few small ships. 

Meanwhile peace had been concluded between France and 
the United Provinces at Nimeguen on July 31st and between 
France and Spain on September 7th. During the winter the 
Emperor followed the example of his allies on January 26th, 
1679, and the Bishop of Munster on March 19th. The Dutch, 
too, though still formally at war with Sweden, had obviously no 
intention of taking any further part in operations in the 

*Nyckel 84; Viktoria 84; Wrangel 60; Sol 72; Venus 64; Saturnus 64; 
Carolus 56; Herkules 54; Jupiter 68; Wismar 58; Goteborg 52; Lax 50; Maria 
50; Spes 46; Mane 46; Andromeda 46; Riga 45; Abraham 44; Fredrika Amalia 
36 ; Hjort 34 ; Fenix 32 ; Utter 28 ; Delfin 24 ; Grip (M) 60 ; Gustavus (M) 48 ; 
Sol (M) 32 ; Salvator (M) 32 ; Trumslagare (M) 18 ; 13 small craft (104) ; 6 fire- 

t Seven were supplied by Raule and carried 107 guns. Two belonged to the 


Baltic. Denmark and Brandenburg were thus left alone, and 
would have been prepared to come to terms had not Louis XIV. 
persuaded Karl XL of Sweden to insist on all their territorial 
gains being relinquished, and promised to support him in this 
with a fleet and an army of 10,000 men. 

Christian V. and the Elector of course refused to consider 
such terms. The Elector went on with his conquest of 
Pomerania, and the Danish fleet of thirty-two battleships and 
frigates, with twenty-six smaller vessels, was stationed in the 
Sound from April onwards to intercept the expected French 
fleet. Two ships from this fleet, the JUelmenhorst 50 and Fly- 
vende Hjort 44, were sent to Bornholm at the end of April to 
bring Swedish prisoners to Copenhagen. They were attacked 
on May 3rd by five Swedish ships from Kalmar, the Fredrika 
Amalia 36, Fenix 34, Delfin 24, Fama 16. and Kastor (jagt), 
but after an action lasting to nightfall Barfod, the Danish 
commander, got away and returned to Copenhagen. 

The Elector, now hard pressed by France from the west and 
the Swedes from the east, had to give in and agree to the 
condition of giving up his conquests. This was on June 19th, 
but the Danish King still refused to accede to any such terms 
and prepared to continue the war alone.* Seeing that the 
French fleet was evidently not coming he ordered Juel into the 
Baltic. The Danish Admiral was off Bornholm on June 20th 
with thirty-five battleships and frigates, carrying 1,836 guns. 
Keeping his fleet to the southward, he sent seven ships towards 
Kalmar as a bait for Wachtmeister. The latter had been rein- 
forced by the Carolus XI. 82 and Stenbock 32 from Stockholm, 
and put to sea on the 24th to attack the Danes. He chased 
them from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., but a shift of wind saved them. 
In the night a squall scattered the Swedes, and some of them 
came into contact with Juel's fleet ; he pursued them vigor- 
ously, and on their rejoining their fleet on the 26th he chased 
the entire Swedish force right into Kalmar. Some fighting 
took place, and the Swedish Lax 50 was taken by the Norske 
Love 86. Juel tried to get at the enemy on June 28th with 
his small craft and fireships, but the weather was too bad to 
achieve any result. A little desultory fighting went on for 
the next few days, and on July 2nd, under cover of a second 
fireship attack Captain Dreyer managed to sink the old battle- 
ship Enighed, which had been specially prepared for the pur- 
pose, in the southern entrance to the harbour.* On July 8th 

*At the conclusion of peace the Brandenburg Navy was distributed as fol- 
lows : The Leopard 28; Rather Lowe 20; and 5 galiots took prisoners back to 
Sweden. The Prim Ludwig 10, and Maria 6, were sent to Konigsberg. The 
Churprim 26, Berlin 15, and Konig von Spanien 18, cruised in the Baltic 

* He was promoted to Schout-by-nacht on Juel's special recommendation. 

1679. 127 

Juel went to Gothland for water and provisions, and on return- 
ing on the 20th he found six Swedish ships t and a fireship 
at the northern end of Kalmar Sound. He at once sent Vice- 
Admiral Span in the Victoria 46, with ten moderate-sized ships 
and three fireships, to attack. The Swedes retreated, but the 
Nyckel 84 ran aground just outside the harbour. She was 
attacked by the Victoria 46, Christianus IV. 54, Neptunus 44, 
and Flyvende Hjort 44; the Danish fireships failed in their 
attack and Span had to shift his flag to the Christianus IV., 
but at last, after three hours' fighting the Nyckel caught fire 
and blew up. The Danes lost 114 men killed and wounded. 

This was the last action of the war. Now that Branden- 
burg had come to terms Louis XIV. was in a position to 
threaten Denmark with direct attack on land in Oldenburg, 
and the only course possible was to agree to the French pro- 
posals. Two treaties of peace were accordingly signed, the 
first at Fontainebleau on August 13th, and the second at Lund 
on September 6th, and in these Christian V. had to agree to go 
back to the " status quo ante bellum." Curiously enough, the 
Danish fleet, which suffered so little, relatively speaking, 
during the war, lost two ships at the moment of the conclusion 
of peace. Starting for home on August 16th, from the north 
end of Oland, it lost the Norske Leve 84 off Bornholm, and 
soon after reaching Copenhagen suffered a further loss in the 
burning of the Loss 36. 

Even so, the losses of the Danes during the four years of war 
were in no way comparable to those of Sweden. From the 
beginning of hostilities Denmark, whether in conjunction with 
the Dutch or alone, had been more or less uniformly successful. 
So much so, in fact, that starting the war with twenty-one 
ships of forty guns or over, as opposed to thirty-six, Denmark 
emerged from the struggle with thirty, having lost two, con- 
demned two, and sunk one on purpose, but having during the 
same period built one and captured thirteen, while Sweden, 
though building six ships, lost no less than twenty, and ended 
the war with twenty- two. 

t Nyckel 84; Saturnut 64; Venus 64; Jupiter 68; Goteborg 52; Fama 16. 






Directly after concluding peace with France and Sweden on 
.June 29th, 1679, the Elector of Brandenburg looked for some 
* further use for his new navy. He had successfully sent a 
few ships earlier in the year to blockade Hamburg and enforce 
the payment of a subsidy of 100,000 thalers which was owing 
to him, and he now proceeded to try the same methods against 
a much more formidable enemy, Spain. Here he was owed no 
less than 1,800,000 thalers as subsidy in the late war, and as 
there seemed little chance of getting the money he decided to 
recoup himself by sending ships to cruise against Spanish 
trade. Accordingly, on August 14th, 1680, seven ships, carry- 
ing in all 166 guns,* left Pillau under Claes van Beveren. A 
month later, on September 18th, this squadron met and took 
the Spanish frigate Carolus II. in the Channel. Yan Beveren 
brought his prize back to Pillau, but sent his second in com- 
mand, Cornelis Raes, to the West Indies with three ships to 
look for the Spanish silver ships. 

Next year another squadron of six ships and 102 
gunst was assembled in the Channel. Adlers the commander 
of the fleet, sailed to Cape St. Vincent and cruised there in 
the hope of intercepting the Spanish treasure fleet, but met 
instead a squadron of twelve warshrps and three fireships 
which had been commissioned in Spain to drive him off. 
Adlers, thinking that this was the fleet for which he was 
looking, attacked them on September 30th, but after two hours' 
fighting he had to retreat to the Portuguese harbour of Lagos 
with a loss of forty killed and wounded. This victory enabled 
the silver ships to get into Cadiz safely, and though Adlers' 
ships made a few prizes later in the year, it was found on their 
return home that they had barely covered expenses, while E-aes 
returned from the West Indies after a year's absence with 
only one prize. This was the last important action of the 
navy of Brandenburg. The Elector now turned his attention 

* Friedrich Wilhelm 40 ; Churprinz 32 ; Dorothea 32 ; Bother Lowe 20 ; Fuchi 
20; Berlin 16; Salamander (fireship) 6. 

t Markgraf von Brandenburg 28 (ei Carolus H.) ; Rother Ldtoe 20 ; Fuchs 
20; Eichhorn (ex Swede) 12; Prinzess Maria 12; Wasserhund 10. 

1680-1683. 129 

to founding colonies in Africa and elsewhere, in spite of the 
opposition of the Dutch, but after his death in 1688 both the 
colonies and the Navy were starved, and soon disappeared 

Apart from the doings of Brandenburg, twenty years of 
very precarious peace ensued in the Baltic. There were, as a 
matter of fact, two considerations that were liable to bring 
about war at any time. The first was the ambition and activity 
of Louis XIV., the second the everlasting question of Slesvig- 
Holstein. These two Duchies were under one ruler, but were 
respectively fiefs of the Empire and of Denmark. For years 
there had been an intention in Denmark of annexing Holstein 
if possible, while Sweden opposed this and hoped to be able to 
make use of the Duke of Holstein in any further war against 
Denmark. In preparation for the war that was more or less 
inevitable both Sweden and Denmark set to work to build and 
organise. The Swedes, also having found the inconvenience 
of trying to carry on operations against Denmark from a base 
at Stockholm, decided to establish a new naval port nearer the 
probable sphere of action. Accordingly, in 1680, a new town 
was founded at Karlskrona, on the coast of Blekinge, forty 
miles S.S.W. of Kalmar, and great efforts were made to equip 
a satisfactory arsenal and base there. 

In 1683 hostilities very nearly began. Louis XIV. had 
succeeded in setting nearly the whole of Europe against him, 
and among his more active opponents were Sweden and the 
United Provinces. As some slight counterpoise to this he 
managed to bring about an alliance with Frederik IV. of 
Denmark, and the Danish King commissioned a force of 26 
battleships, 4 frigates, and 4 fireships to support the French 
if necessary. The Dutch fitted out 20 battleships and frigates 
as a reply, and on hearing in August that a French squadron 
of 13 battleships, 2 frigates, and 4 fireships had sailed to join 
the Danes they added nine more ships to their fleet. 

Lists of these fleets follow : 

French Fleet,! Glorieux 62, Illustre 74, Entreprenant 62, 

* The following list of ships of the Navy of Brandenburg is mainly taken from 
that in the German " Taschenbuch der Kriegsflotten " : Berlin 16, Clevesche 
Lindenbaum 10; Churfurstliche Leibjagd 10; Churprinz 40; Eichhorn (ex 
Swede) 12; Falke 6; Friede 10; Friedrich Wilhelm zu Pferde 50; Konig von 
Spanien 18 ; Littauer Bauer 6 ; Maria 6 ; Mohrian 12 ; Prinz Ludwig 10 ; 
Prinzess Maria 12; Mummelpot 8; Spandow 6; St. Jean Baptists 4; Wappen 
von Brandenburg 44; Cleve 6; Churfiirst von Brandenburg 14; Churprinz von 
Brandenburg 26 ; Dorothea 40 ; Einhorn (ex Swede) 12 ; Fortuna 20 ; Friedrich 
Wilhelm 40 ; Guldener Lowe 32 ; Leopard (ex Swede) 28 ; Maria 4 ; Markgraf 
von Brandenburg (ex Spanish) 28; Potsdam 6; Prinz Philipp ; Mother Lowe 
20 ; Salmander 6 ; St. Joseph 10 ; St. Peter 6 ; Wasserhund 10 ; Fuchs 20. 

t Jal. Du Quesne ii. 477/8. Guns from Troude i. 198/9 (1690). 


Content 68, Courageux 56, Pendant 56, Apollon 60, Fort 62, 
Temeraire 60, Prince 62, Bon 58, Precieux 60, Arrogant 62, 
2 l frigates, 4 fireships. 

Danish Fleet.* Christianus V. 84, Churprinds 74, Norske 
Leve 84, Svan 64, Prinds Georg 80, Mercurius 78, Mars 74, 
idnna Sophia 64, Charlotta Amalia 64, Drage 66, Christianus 
IV. 56, Fredericus III. 54, Lindorm 50, Gyldenleve 50, Nelle- 
blad 52, Neptunus 42, #n#eZ 42, Wctort'a 36, Svenske Folk 44, 
Delmenhorst 44, Flyvende Ulf 40, W rang els Palais 36, #a/f m 
30, Dragoner 30, Spada (?) 30, Z?eZ/m 30, 5 smaller (70), 3 
fireships (14). 

Dutch Fleet List of August 1st. Vriheijd 80, Westfrisia 
80, Hollandia 76, WWden 70, Z>eZ/ 60, Noordholland 60, 
Gideon 60, Tijdverdrijf 52, Prins te Paard 52, Leeuwen 50, 
Zeelandt 46, Jupiter 46, Gorcum 44, Rotterdam 44, Ztom van 
Utrecht 42, Jaarsvelt 42, 6Wda 42, Z>eZ/ 36, Tergoes 36, 
Harderwijk 32, Mercurius 32. There were also, according to 
de Jonge's figures (iii. 10-11), 3 ships of 72 guns, 2 of 62, and 
3 of 44-46. Two of these were the Wapen van Monnikendam 
72 and Zeven Provincien 72; another was the Enckhuysen. 

The French fleet, under the Marquis de Preuilly, reached 
Copenhagen on July 1st. The Dutch put to sea early in 
August, and cruised till the end of the month between New- 
castle and the South of Norway; the Danes and French left 
Copenhagen under Niels Juel on August 2nd, but cruised 
only in the Baltic, so that no meeting took place. After 
returning to the Dutch coast, Schepers was sent with the 
Dutch fleet to Gothenburg, and arrived there on October 12th. 
The French left Copenhagen on October 3rd, and reached 
Brest on the 15th, and the two fleets must therefore have 
passed one another somewhere in the North Sea. The idea 
of the Dutch fleet's visit to Gothenburg had been to transport 
a Swedish army to Germany, but Schepers found no prepara- 
tions made for this, and therefore left again for home almost 
at once. After a long struggle with head winds he at last 
reached the Dutch coast, only to lose no less than eight of 
his shipst there in a succession of gales at the beginning of 
November. The Swedes do not seem to have mobilised any 
fleet to help their Dutch allies. 

Next year Denmark again made preparations for war with 
Sweden. Thirty thousand troops were assembled in Den- 
mark and 20,000 in Norway, while a fleet of 22 battleships 
and frigates were put in commission from April to September. 

* List from Holl. Merc. 1683 p. 149 (T). Names corrected where possible. The 
list is not a very probable one, but is given as the best obtainable, 
t See appendix. 

1683-1689. 131 

Sweden also mobilised, but nothing of interest took place. 
Trouble occurred this year in Heligoland, but the island was 
easily subdued by a Danish squadron from the Elbe. In 1686 
a defensive alliance was signed at Augsburg by Spain, the 
Empire, Sweden, and various German States to check 
Louis XIV. Denmark thereupon commissioned 21 battleships 
and frigates as a precaution. 

Meanwhile, in 1685, James II. had succeeded to the English 
throne. His unpopularity encouraged William of Orange, 
Stadtholder of the Netherlands, in the idea of deposing James 
in favour of his wife Mary, James's daughter. The Dutch, 
however, hesitated to agree to this plan from fear of 
Louis XIV., but were soon brought to favour it by Louis's 
mistakes. First, in November 1687, he withdrew the com- 
mercial concessions made to the Dutch at the Peace of Nime- 
guen, and then, instead of attacking them by land and sea 
and using his fleet to prevent William's crossing to England, 
he left William unimpeded and turned on the Empire, de- 
claring war in September, 1688. The Dutch at once gave 
William a large fleet, and on November 5th he landed in 
Torbay without any opposition from the English Navy. On 
December 12th James II. abdicated, and left the country 
without attempting to use either his own fleet or that of 
Louis XIV., who had declared war on the United Provinces 
directly William's expedition started. 

Nothing happened in the Baltic this year, though the Danes 
had thirteen battleships in commission, but in 1689, fearing 
that William now King of England might support the Duke 
of Holstein Gottorp against them, they equipped their entire 
available force of 24 battleships* and 20 smaller vessels and 
stationed this fleet under Juel in Kjoge Bay. Sweden as a 
reply commissioned a fleet of 30 battleshipst under Wacht- 
meister, but these two fleets did not meet and the Treaty of 
Altona guaranteed by England, the Netherlands, and the 
Empire settled the Holstein question for the moment by 
securing the two Duchies to the house of Holstein-Gottorp. 

* Christianus V. 100; Elephant 84; Prinds Frederik 84; Tre Kroner 84; 
Merkurius 74; Norske L0ve 82; Mars 74; Churprinds 74; Prinds Oeorg 80; 
Drage 66; Anna Sophia 62; Svan 62; Christianus IV. 56; Fredericus III. 56; 
Gyldenlove 56; Nelleblad 54; Svaerdfisk 52; Tomler 52; Lindorm 50; Slesvig 
50; Engel 50; Delmenhorst 46; Svenske Falk 44; Neptunus 44. 

t Drottning Hedvig Eleonora 90 ; Carolus XI. 82 ; Sverige 82 ; Drottning 
Vlrika 80; Prinsessa Vlrika 80; Prins Carl 76; Gota 76; Bdhus 74; Sol 72; 
Smdland 70 ; Karlskrona 70 ; Victoria 70 ; Bleking 70 ; Wrangel 70 ; Upland 70 ; 
Stockholm 68; Finland 64; Hercules 62; Oland 56; Holland 56; Estland 56; 
Gotland 56; Lifland 56; Osel 56; Wachtmeister 56; Carolus IX. 56; Goteborg 
48; Andromeda 48; Spes 46; Mane 42. Only an approximate list, compiled from 
lists for 1675 and 1697, but probably fairly exact. 



Meanwhile England had joined the enemies of Louis XIV. 
and the French King found himself again opposed to prac- 
tically the whole of Europe. Both the Scandinavian kingdoms 
were more or less directly affected by this war. Sweden was 
called upon by the Dutch in 1689 to help against the common 
enemy, but nothing was done till next year. In the meantime 
Sweden and Denmark laid aside their differences for the 
moment and signed a defensive alliance by which either 
country was bound if called upon to send the other a squardon 
of six ships, two of 60 guns, and four of 30-50. In May, 1690, 
a Swedish squadron of 12 ships* left Karlskrona to help the 
Dutch, but got no further than Marstrand, north of Gothen- 
burg, and was back at Karlskrona in August. Besides this, 
Denmark, in spite of leanings already shown towards France, 
lent William some 7,000 soldiers under the Duke of Wurtem- 
burg and convoyed them from List to Hull in November, 1689, 
with seven warships. t 

To protect their trade during the war Sweden and Denmark 
agreed in 1691 to send joint convoys through the Channel. As 
usual this arrangement led to friction with England. On August 
12th, 1694, the Danish battleship Gyldenleve 56, lying in the 
Downs, failed to strike to the flag of Sir Clowdisley Shovel, and 
was attacked by the English Stirling Castle 70. Barfod, the 
Danish captain, resisted until the arrival of a second English 
ship, when he surrendered with a loss of 20 killed and wounded. 
The ship was sent to Sheerness, but released in November. In 
May, 1685, the Danish Lindorm 50, returning through the 
Channel with a convoy, together with a Swedish frigate, was 
attacked by English warships for the same reason, but managed 
to beat them off. After 1695 the joint convoys ceased . 

The most important event of 1694 was the death of Chris- 
tian, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. He was succeeded by his 
son Frederik, who was far more Swedish in inclinations than 
his father. As a result, difficulties arose as to the interpreta- 
tion of various clauses in the Treaty of Altona, and a confer- 
ence therefore assembled at Pinneberg in 1696 to discuss and 
settle the points at issue. All might have gone well had it not 
been for the changes which followed on the thrones of Sweden 
and Denmark. In 1697 Carl XI. of Sweden was succeeded by 
his son Carl XII., a boy of fifteen, who soon showed himself 
to be possessed of a fiery and uncontrollable spirit, so that 
though the Peace of E/yswick in the same year ended the War 
of the League of Augsourg and left the southern Powers free 

* Wrangel 70; Kicking 68; Finland 64; Bdhus 72; Lifland 56; Estland 56; 
Oland 56 ; Holland 56 ; Wachtmeister 56 ; Stenbock 36 ; Riga 32 ; Delphin 30. 

t Chrittianus IV. 56; Engel 50; Svenske Falk 44; Neptunus 44; Loss 26; 
Hey re 24 ; 0rn 20. 

1689-1700. 133 

to intervene, it became obvious that war must come sooner or 
later. Another factor tending towards war was the accession 
of Frederik IV. to the throne of Denmark in 1699. The three 
rulers in question were first cousins, and, besides this, Frederik 
of Holstein had married the sister of Carl XII.* 

It was not long before hostilities began. The Duke of Hol- 
stein-Gottorp, relying on Swedish support and on the unwilling- 
ness of Christian V. to fight, had begun to rebuild certain 
fortifications on the frontier between his dominions and Den- 
mark. Frederik IV., however, on coming to the Danish throne, 
demanded the immediate cessation of the work and the destruc- 
tion of what had been done already. At the same time, he 
strengthened his position by renewing the alliance against 
Sweden made by his father with Peter I. of Kussia and 
Augustus II. of Poland and Saxony. Carl XII. at once 
promised to help Duke Frederik. He sent troops into Holstein 
from Pomerania and commissioned a squadron of 12 battle- 
ships and 6 frigates. These ships left Karlskrona in October, 
and took up a position off Riigen. Denmark also fitted out a 
fleet of 12 battleships and 4 frigates, but heavy weather 
prevented the two fleets from meeting. Early in November 
the Danish ships were laid up at Copenhagen, and a little later 
the Swedes returned to Karlskrona. 

Great efforts were made during the winter by England, the 
Netherlands, and other countries to restore tranquillity, but in 
vain. Frederik IV. threatened both in Denmark, and Norway 
decided to strike the first blow. On March 17th, 1700,t a 
Danish army crossed the border into Holstein, and a month 
later laid siege to Tonning, a town on the Eider garrisoned b; 
4,000 Swedes. At the same time the fleet was mobilised, an 
left Copenhagen on May 24th, under the command of General- 
Admiral Lieutenant Count Gyldenleve (or Guldenlew), a natu- 
ral son of Christian V. He had under his orders twenty-one 
battleships, and intended to blockade the Swedes in Karlskrona, 
but on the receipt of news of the approach of a combined Anglo- 
Dutch fleet he was recalled. On June 12th he returned to 
Copenhagen, and was at once reinforced by eight more battle- 

England and the Netherlands, acting in conjunction, had 
decided to send a fleet to enforce the stipulations of the Treaty 

* Frederik III. (Denmark) 

Christian V. (Denmark) Frederica Amalia= Christian (Kolstein) Ulrika Eleonora=Carl XI. (Sweden 

I I I 

FREDERIK IV. (Denmark) 

FREDERIK (Holstein) =Hedvig Sophia CARL XII. (Sweden) 

t Dates are henceforth in " New Style." 


of Altona by compelling the Danes to withdraw from Holstein. 
This fleet had assembled off the Dutch coast, and reached 
Gothenburg on June 19th. Admiral Sir George Rooke was in 
supreme command with Lieutenant Admiral Almonde, the 
senior Dutch officer, as his second in command. At the same 
time the Swedish fleet was preparing to leave Karlskrona. 
Details follow of the three fleets : 

English Fleet*: Shrewsbury 80, Nassau 70, Eagle 70, 
Portland 50, Crown 50, Salisbury 50, Hampshire 50, Carlisle 
50, Worcester 50, Severn 50. 

10 battleships (570 guns), 2 frigates, 4 small craft. 

Dutch Fleet :Unie 94, Eerste Edele 72, Dordrecht 72, 
Katwijk 72, Wappen van Alkmaar 72, Aemelia 66, Wapen van 
Aernhem 66, Gouda 64, Veluwe 64, Wapen van Utrecht 64, 
Vlissingen 50, Batavier 50, Provincie van Utrecht 50. 

13 battleships (856 guns), 3 frigates, 7 small craft. 
Combined fleet: 23 battleships (1,426 guns). 

Danish Fleet t : Christianus V. 100, Dannebroge 94, Tre 
Kroner 84, Prinds Frederik 84, Elephant 84, Norske L0ve 82, 
Mars 80, Tre Lover 78, Prinds Christian 76, Sophia H edema 
76, Churprinds 74, Mercurius 74, Dronning Louisa 70, Prinds 
Geprg 70, Anna Sophia 60, Charlotte Amalie 60, Gyldenleve 56, 
Christianus IV. 56, Fredericus III. 56, Prinds Carl 54, Prinds 
Vilhelm 54, Oldenborg 52, Nelleblad 52, %vaerdfi,sk 52, TWZer 
52, Engel 50, Slesvig 50, Delmenhorst 50, Neptunus 44. 

29 battleships (1,922 guns), 4 frigates, 19 small craft. 

Swedish Fleet! : Carolus 110, Enighet 94, Drottning 
Hedvig 90, Sverige 82, Prinsessa Ulrika 80, Prins Carl 80, 
Drottning Ulrika 80, Prinsessa Hedvig 80, Gotha 76, Bdhus 74, 
72, Smdland 70, Carlskrona 70, TFrn^eZ 70, Upland 

70, Bleking 70, Stockholm 68, Finland 64, S/wrce 64, 
Zes 62, Westmanland 6"2, Fredrika Amalia 62, Holland 56, #s- 
Zand 56, Pomern 56, $seZ 56, Wachtmeister 56, Gottland 56, 
Lifland 56, Sodermanland 56, Norrkoping 52, TFrede 52, Oland 
50, Goteborg 50, Wismar 46, Calmar 46, Stfetaw 46. 

38 battleships (2,510 guns), 10 frigates. 

The Anglo-Dutch fleet stayed at Gothenburg until June 25th, 
when it weighed and proceeded towards the Sound, anchoring 
on July 2nd twelve miles from Kronborg. Gyldenleve was now 
at anchor between Kronborg and the island of Hven, while the 
Swedes had left Karlskrona under Wachtmeister, and reached 

* "The Journal of Sir George Rooke." N.R.S. 24. 

t Garde Eft. ii. 47. 

$ Tornquist ii. Ap B. 

From de Jonge iii. App. xx. (Evertsen's Journal). Rooke gives " Vtreght 
Amst" instead of Gouda, and calls the Unie a 74. Tornquist gives "Utrecht 
Amalia " instead of Gouda. 

1700. 135 

Ystad on June 29th. Sailing thence on July 1st, they arrived 
off Drag0r on the Tth. The Allies had passed the Sound and 
anchored two miles south of Kronborg on the previous day. 
Now, however, a difficulty arose. The easier channel, the 
Drogden between Amager and Saltholm, was protected not 
only by the removal of all navigation marks and by batteries 
on the two islands, but also by the Danish fleet, which had left 
its anchorage at the same time as the Allies passed the Sound 
and had taken up a new position north-east of Copenhagen, 
ready to attack the Swedes as they came through. This made 
the Flinterenden channel between Saltholm and Malmo the 
only available passage, but here there was certainly too 
little water for the largest of the Swedish ships, while the 
channel was intricate and little known. 

Finally, after a good deal of hesitation, much letter-writing, 
and some consultation with Rooke and Almonde, Wachtmeister 
decided to send his biggest ships home and try to pass with the 
others. Four ships were sent back to Karlskrona, and on 
July 13th the rest of the Swedes passed Flinterenden and 
anchored off Malmo, but four ships went ashore, and, though 
easily refloated, were sent back to Karlskrona for inspection 
and repairs. Next day Rooke weighed anchor, passed between 
Hven and the Swedish shore, and anchored two miles south of 
Hven. Here Wachtmeister joined him on the 16th.* On the 
following day hojth fleets began to beat up towards the Danes, 
but Gyldenleve saw the hopelessness of trying to fight an 
enemy of nearly twice his own strength, and retired into the 
harbour of Copenhagen. On July 19th the Allies moved in 
close to the harbour, with the Swedes to the south. They sent 
in four bomb ketches, but without much success, and accord- 
ingly, at a council of war on the 20th it was decided that the 
best way to bring Denmark to terms would be to land Swedish 
troops and attack Copenhagen. Twelve battleships and three 
frigatest were therefore sent on the 24th to Gothenburg to 
convoy troops, but while waiting for their return the bomb 
vessels, supported by twelve battleships and frigates, + carried 
out another more or less resultless bombardment on the 25th. 

The landing took place on August 4th at Humlebek, six miles 

* The following ships had been detached: Carolus 110; Enighet 94; Drott- 
ning Hedvig 90; Prins Carl 80; Drottning Ulrika 80; Upland 70; Oland 50; 
Stettin 46. The Wismar 46 was transferred to the frigate line. Wachtmeister 
therefore had in line 29 battleships with 1828 guns. (Rooke's Journal 73. Line 
of Battle received from Wachtmeister. Some ships are given gun totals 
slightly different from the previous list). 

t Carlisle 50; Provincie van Utrecht 50; Vlissingen 50; Uriel 34; Lowestoft 
30 ; 9 Swedish battleships, and 1 frigate. 

Portland 50; Salisbury 50; Batavier 50; Beschutter 38; Aurore 28; Queen- 
borough 24; 6 Swedish battleships and frigates. 


south of Kronborg. It was covered by ten battleships and 
frigates* of the allied fleets, and went off without difficulty. 
Twelve of the smaller Danish ships from Copenhagen got under 
way to disturb the landing, but put back into the harbour on 
the approach of the Hampshire 50. Nothing more took place. 
Frederik IV. saw that he must give way and finally the 
-J?eace of Travendal was signed on August 18th. The English 
anil Dutch thereupon declared their co-operation with the 
Swedes at an end, but decided to help in the transporting of 
the Swedish troops back to Skane. On August 29th the Danish 
fleet came out of harbour again, and formed line between the 
Allies and Copenhagen. It was then arranged that the Anglo- 
Dutch fleet should stay until all the Swedes were out of Sjael- 
land, but that the Swedish fleet should pass the Drogden 
Channel at the first opportunity. If the Danes attacked it the 
English and Dutch were to join in and afterwards to be rein- 
forced by enough Swedish ships to secure their retreat through 
the Sound. If, however, the Danes made no attack, E/ooke 
and Almonde were to go towards Kronborg to cover the trans- 
port of the Swedish army. On September 8th the Swedish fleet 
sailed southwards unmolested, and on the same day the Allies 
beat up towards Hven. Next day they anchored north of the 
Sound, and on the 10th and llth they went home separately. 

The interest now shifts to the eastern end of the Baltic and 
centres in the rise of a new naval power. Peter I. of Russia, 
in accordance with his alliance with Denmark and Poland, had 
invaded the Swedish province of Ingria, and was besieging 
Narva with 50,000 men. Directly after the Peace of Tra- 
vendal Carl XII. decided to relieve this town, and left Karls- 
krona on Oct. llth, 1700, with 8,000 soldiers and a fleet of nine 
battleships and two frigates, t Landing on the 16th at Pernau, 
he marched on Narva, and in spite of the enormous disparity 
in strength, not only defeated, but routed the besiegers on 
Nov. 30th. Next year he turned on Poland. Troops were 
landed at Bevel, and in May Carl XII. invaded at the head of 
60,000 men. He was uniformly successful. Cracow fell in 
1702, and in 1704 Augustus fled to Saxony; Stanislaus, Palati- 
nate of Posen, was made King in his stead by order of the 
Swedish conqueror. Even now Augustus was not safe. He 
was followed into Saxony, defeated again and again, and 
forced in 1706 to sign the treaty of Altranstadt whereby he 
gave up the Polish throne and agreed to take no further action 
against Sweden. 

* Frederica Amalia 64; Skdne 64; Westmanland 64; Estland 52; Norrkoping 
52 ; Lifland 50 ; Wachtmeister 50 ; Fama 16 ; 1 Dutch ship ; 1 English ship. 

t Westmanland 62; Wachtmeister 48; Gottland 50; Osel 50; Norrkoping 50; 
Wrede 50 ; Calmar 46 ; Wismar 46 ; Stenbock 36 ; Fama 16 ; Neptunus 16. 

1700-1702. 137 

In 1701 a Swedish expedition was sent to attack Archangel, 
at that time Russia's only port. On June 7th Commodore 
Lewe left Gothenburg with seven ships, the Warberg 42, Elfs- 
borg 42, Marstrand 26, Falk 6, Tofva-lite 4, and Mjohund 6. 
Arriving off Archangel under English and Dutch flags Lewe 
sent his three smallest vessels up the Dvina on July 6th to 
attack. The Russian prisoners who were acting as pilots ran 
the ships aground under the guns of a fort at the mouth of 
the river, and here they were attacked by two Russian boats 
full of soldiers. After an action lasting most of the night the 
Swedes abandoned the Mjohund and Falk and escaped in the 
Tofva-lite with the loss of one officer killed and two men 
wounded. The rest of the Swedish squadron remained in or 
near the White Sea capturing fishing boats and burning 
villages until July 21st, when they sailed for home. On 
August 25th they were back at Gothenburg. 

Except for this expedition the Swedish fleet could do little 
against Russia, though the army might have done much. Carl 
XII., however, was foolish enough to despise Peter, and the 
latter, undismayed by his failure at Narva, was left undis- 
turbed to set about the conquest of the Swedish territory 
between Russia and the Baltic. In pursuit of this object he 
built numbers of small craft on every river and lake in his 
hands, so that it was not long before naval operations of a 
sort began in the Baltic provinces. Two actions took place in 
1702 on Lake Ladoga. The first was on June 26th at the 
southern end of the lake, and took the form of an attack by 
400 Russian soldiers in 18 small unarmed boats on a Swedish 
squadron of three brigan tines, three galleys, and two boats. 
Part of the Swedish crews were ashore pillaging. The flag- 
ship Gjoa 12 and one of the boats were damaged, and Nummers, 
tne Swedish commander, had to retreat. On Sept. 7th the same 
Swedish squadron was attacked near Kexholm by 30 Russian 
boats with a similar result. Finding his position untenable, 
Nummers decided to evacuate Ladoga and took his ships to 
Yiborg. Meanwhile, on May 31st four small Swedish vessels* 
on Lake Peipus in Ingria, were attacked by nearly 100 Russian 
boats. They beat them off and sank three of them besides 
capturing a battery of six guns ashore, but had to withdraw 
from the narrow strait which divides the lake into two parts 
and thus allowed the Russians to reach the northern half. On 
June 20th the Flundra 4 was sent for ammunition to Derpt or 
Dorpat, a Swedish town on the river Embach, which flows into 
the northern part of the lake on the western side. As soon as 
she was separated from her consorts the Russians attacked; 

* Carolus 12; Vivat 12; Wachtmeister 14; Flundra 4. 


there was not enough wind for her to escape or for the other 
Swedes to help her, and eventually after her guns had been 
thrown overboard, she was run asnore and abandoned. Los- 
chern, commanding the Swedish squadron, now took his ships 
to the mouth of the Embach to be sure of his communications 
with Derpt. From here on July 21tst he sent the Vivat 12 to 
reconnoitre. As before the wind failed. The Vivat anchored 
in an inlet and was attacked by about 100 Russian boats. After 
a desperate fight the Russians boarded and Hokeflycht blew up 
his ship. After this the Swedes went up the Embach to Derpt 
and the Russians to Pskov at the southern end of the lake. 

Next year Loschern with 13 small vessels defeated the 
Russians on Aug. 7th with the loss of 20 of their boats. They 
thereupon retired to Pskov, and left the Swedes masters of the 
lake. In 1704 the position was reversed. The Russians moved 
first, landed 9,000 troops at the mouth of the Embach, made a 
boom across commanded by batteries, and waited with 200 
boats for the Swedes to come down. On May 17th Loschern 
arrived with his 13 ships. He knew that the Russians were 
waiting for him, but seems to have taken no steps to find out 
their force or position. Coming down with a strong stream 
the Swedish ships drifted up against the boom and the Russian 
batteries opened fire. The soldiers on board landed and took 
one of the batteries, but were driven out again and finally cut 
their way through the Russians back to Derpt. One by one 
the Swedish ships were taken or destroyed. The flagship, the 
Carolus 12, was blown up by Loschern in imitation of the Vivat. 
This extinguished the Swedish force on the lake, and as a 
natural result both Derpt and Narva were taken by the Russians 
later in the year.* 

During these years the Russians had also been building small 
craft on Lake Ladoga, but here the Swedes had no longer a 
naval force to dispute the command of the lake. Early in 
1702 Nyenskans, the Swedish fortress at the mouth of the 
Neva, was taken, and Russia thus regained access to the Baltic. 
In May a Swedish fleet under Von Nummers, appeared off the 
mouth of the Neva, and sent the brigantine Astrild 8 and the 
galley Gadda 10 up the river to investigate. Peter at once 
collected all his available forces at the mouth of the river, 
attacked the Swedes on their return, and took them after a 
stubborn defence. This was on May 17th. 

Peter now had the position in the Baltic that he wanted. 
At once he decided to build his capital at the mouth of the 
Neva and to begin the construction of seagoing ships. On 

* The Swedish fleet was as follows : Carolus 12 ; Wachtmeister 14 ; Ulrika 10 ; 
Dorpat 10; Victoria Vatblat 10; Vivat 10; Elephant 8; Narva 6; Horn 4; 
Summers 4; Slipenbach 4; Strofeld 2; Shutte 2. 

1702-1705. 139 

May 27th, 1703, he founded Petersburg, and in the following 
winter he began to fortify the island of Kotlin (Kronstadt), 
building a fortification called Kronslot. In February, 1703, a 
dockyard had been founded at Olonyets on Lake Ladoga, and 
sea-going ships were built there, but just a year later ship- 
building began at Petersburg as well, and the newer yard soon 
superseded the old, though in the 'summer of 1704 the Olonyets 
yard was in a position to fit out no less than six frigates, four 
snows, one galliot, one transport, four galleys, and 24 half 

The Swedes attacked the new Russian positions in 1704, both 
by land and sea. An army of 8,000 men reached the north 
bank of the Neva, but could not cross, and an attack on Krons- 
lot about the middle of June by a battleship, five frigates and 
six small craft was easily repulsed.* About the same time the 
Russians sent supplies by water to their army besieging Narva. 
Swedish small craft attacked but were driven off. Two small 
Swedes were taken on June llth, and on the fall of Narva on 
August 20th ten galliots fell into Russian hands. In 1705 the 
Swedes renewed their attacks. An attempted surprise attack 
in January failed, but a considerable fleet was sent in the 
summer to endeavour to reduce the Russian fortifications and 
annihilate the new Russian fleet. Admiral Baron Anckarst- 
jerna was put in charge of a fleet of seven battleships, t five 
frigates, and ten smaller vessels, and arrived off Kotlin on June 
15th. The Russians had made all possible preparations for 
defence. Eight frigates were moored as a first line of defence 
between Kronslot and another new battery on Kotlin, and in 
two lines behind them came the snows and smaller craft. A 
boom was placed in front of the line.* The combined defences 
were under the general command of Kruys, a Dutch officer in 
the Russian service. Two attacks were made on June 15th, 
the first by six frigates, and the second by four battleships. 
Both were repulsed. Next day the whole Swedish fleet bom- 
barded, but without result. This was repeated on the 21st. 
The Swedes withdrew on July 2nd. They returned on the 21st 
and tried to land in Kotlin on the 25th; the attempt failed, 
and they lost 560 men killed or drowned, and 114 wounded. 
The Russians had only 29 killed and 50 wounded. After this 
the Swedish fleet confined itself to blockading the mouth of the 

* The Swedish Vice-Admiral de Prou had 5 battleships and 8 frigates in the 
Gulf of Finland. 

t Halland 50 ; Wrede 50 ; Osel 50 ; Gotheborg 50 ; Wachtmeister 48 ; Revel 36 ; 
Norrkoping 50. 

t The bigger ships of the Russian fleet at this time were as follows: 
Shtandart 28; Michail Archangel 28; Shlisselburg 28; Kronshlot 28; Triumph 
30; Derpt 28; Narva 28; Fligel-Fam 28; Peterburg 28; Hunker 14; Sant 
Yakim 14; Legas 14; Eopore 14; Tamburg 14. 


Neva. On August 28th the Revel 36 was attacked in a calm 
by seven Russian galleys. The action lasted three hours, but 
finally the wind rose and the Swedish ship retired. One 
Russian galley was badly damaged. In October the Russian 
fleet went up to Petersburg, and the Swedes returned to 

The next few years saw but little activity in the Gulf of 
vJFinland. Seven to nine battleships and some frigates were 
sent each year from Karlskrona under Anckarstjerna, but 
accomplished nothing. In 1706 the Russian fleet lay at Kotlin 
and sent a few ships out on short cruises. This year an unsuc- 
cessful attempt was made to take Viborg from the Swedes, and 
during the siege operations the Swedish Esper 4 was captured 
by five Russian boats on October 23rd. In 1707 the Russians 
had a force of eleven frigates, seven snows, and many smaller 
vessels at Kotlin. Nine of the captured Swedes and 40 new 
boats reached Kronslot from Narva, and two detachments of 
rowing vessels went as far west as the island of Hogland. The 
following year the Russians got to sea early and did a certain 
amount of damage on the coast of Finland, while the Swedes 
were kept in Revel by head winds. However, at the beginning 
of September 22 Swedish vessels appeared off Kronslot simul- 
taneously with the arrival of an army of 13,000 men near 
Petersburg. Nothing came of this great assembly. Leuwen- 
haupt, the Swedish general, marched into Ingria, and finally 
embarked on October 23rd in Anckarstjerna's fleet. Apraksin 
came up with the Russian army in time to cut off the retreat 
of the last of the Swede, and killed or captured 1,100 of them. 
On the way home the Swedish battleship Norrkoping 50 was 

This same year Carl XII. again moved against Russia. 
Collecting 43,000 men he crossed the boundary, carried every- 
thing before him, and defeated Peter at Smolensk in September. 
Now he made a mistake. Instead of going on to Moscow he 
went south to join Mazeppa chief of the Don Cossacks. This 
new ally promised to bring 30,000 men, but only produced 
4,000, and after Leuwenhaupt's failure Carl XII. had to stay 
in the Ukraine for the winter. Next spring he marched on 
Moscow, but was checked by the town of Poltava, where on 
July 8th. 1709, he was utterly defeated by Peter, and only juist 
managed to escape with a few followers into Turkish territory. 

This period of the war coincided roughly with the war of the 
Spanish succession in western and southern Europe. Louis 
XIV. and the Emperor began hostilities in 1701, and next year 
England and the Netherlands joined the coalition against 
France and Spain. One feature of the preliminary diplomatic 
mano3uvres was the recognition by the Emperor of the Elector 

1705-1709. 141 

of Brandenburg as King of Prussia, a concession made tq) P" 
induce him to support the coalition. The only other way in 
which the Baltic Powers were directly concerned in this war 
was the question of protecting neutral trade at sea. As usual, 
it had suffered, and as usual the convoy system led to actual 
fighting. On August 6th, 1704, the Swedish battleship Oland 
50 met off Orfordness an English squadron of eight 50-gun 
battleships and a frigate under Commodore Sir William Whet- 
stone. Psilander, the Swedish captain, refused to strike his 
flag or lower his topsails to the English fleet, and an action 
began at once. The Oland held out bravely against tremendous 
odds, but at last surrendered after 4J hours' fighting, dismasted, 
leaking freely, and with 53 killed and wounded. She was 
eventually released and sent back to Sweden, but was lost on 
Skagen reef on her way home during the night of January 
14th-15th, 1705. 




The defeat of Carl XII. at Poltava gave Peter's allies a 
fresh chance. Augustus II. was at once replaced on the Polish 
throne, whereupon he repudiated the Treaty of Altranstadt and 
prepared for war again, while Frederik IV. of Denmark 
decided to join in also and declared war on October 28th, 1709. 
At the same time the free town of Danzig volunteered to do its 
best to help Russia and Poland against the common enemy. 
Sweden was now in a very difficult position; not only was she 
at war with Russia, Denmark, Poland, Saxony, and Prussia 
without an ally to help her, but she was also, owing to Carl 
XII. 's absence, without any definite ruler. 

As far as naval power went the Swedes were not so badly off. 
They had 41 battleships, the same number as Denmark, while 
none of the other allies had as yet any navy worth considering. 
Probably with the available force much might have been done, 
but the first necessity was a firm decided ruler, and this was 
just what was lacking. It was of course necessary to take steps 
to oppose the Danish fleet, and this prevented the squadron in 
the Gulf of Finland being kept strong enough to be much good, 
though it in its turn took valuable strength from the main 

The first move on the Danish side was the landing of 16,000 
men at Raa, between Helsingborg and Landskrona on November 
llth and 12th, 1709. At the same time a small squadron of 
four battleships and two snows* blockaded Gothenburg. Winter 
was, however, beginning, and while the army wintered in Skane 
the fleet was laid up save for one battleship, four frigates, and 
two snowst which were stationed at Christianse, a small island 
north-east of Bornholm. 

At the beginning of 1710 the Danish army finding no opposi- 
tion marched into Blekinge and attacked Karlskrona, but Sten- 
bock, the Swedish Governor, managed to collect 20,000 men 
more or less equipped, drove the Danes back to Helsingborg, 
and defeated them there on March 10th with a loss of 8,000 
men, and all their guns and stores. The rest got back to Sjael- 
land. In April four frigates and two snows* were sent into 

* Dronning Louisa 70 ; Oyldenlove 56 ; Fredericut III. 56 ; Slesvig 50 ; 
Svermer 16; Mynd 12. 

t Delmenhorst 50; H0jenhald 30; Loss 26; Heyre 24; 0rn 20; Flyvende Abe 
12 ; Snarensvend 12. 

t The same four frigates, with the Andrickt 12, and Makreel 8. 

1709-1710. 143 

the Baltic in place of the fleet from Christianse, which had 
returned to Copenhagen. They were soon reinforced by 
another frigate and two snows.* 

On April 9th Vice-Admiral Raben sailed into the Baltic with 
the following fleet : Mercurius 74, Gyldenleve 56, Frederi- 
cus III. 56, Prinds Carl 54 (f), Svaerdfisk 52, Tomler 52, 
Slesvig 50, Svermer 16, Packa 16. He chased a few small Swedes 
back to port, returned to Copenhagen, and left again on the 16th 
for the Kattegat and North Sea. On April 18th the Delmenhorst 
50, Loss 26, and Andrickt 12 were sent to join him. During 
May a Swedish fleet of 16 battleships and four frigates cruised 
in the Baltic near Meen, but did nothing beyond capturing 
a few merchantmen, some of which were retaken by the Danish 

Meanwhile the Danish fleet was being equipped. Gyldenleve 
left Copenhagen with the first detachment on June 14th, and 
was joined by Raben's battleships next day. He then waited 
for the rest of his fleet, and eventually commanded a force of 
35 battleships. t It was, however, soon found that Raben's 
withdrawal from the Kattegat left the Swedish squadron in 
Gothenburg free to interrupt communications between Den- 
mark and Norway, and it became necessary to send another 
fleet to prevent this. About the middle of July Vice-Admiral 
Barfod was detached from the main fleet with six battleships* 
and sent to take Raben's place. Meanwhile Gyldenleve cruised 
between Kjoge Bay and Bornholm without seeing anything of 
the Swedes. On September 14th he sailed in pursuance of 
orders, but against his own judgment, for Danzig, to give con- 
voy to 6,000 Russian troops to help in another attack on Skane. 
Almost at once it blew a gale. Many of his ships were damaged, 
and he had to return to his base. The Mercurius 74 had 
already been sent home as unseaworthy, and now four more 
battleshipsll had to be sent to Copenhagen completely dis- 

* Hvide Folk 26 ; Snarensvend 12 ; Flyvende Fisk 8. During May the Loss 
and Andrickt were detached, and in June the H0jenhald was replaced by the 
Raae 30. 

f Elephant 90; (f ) ; Fredericus IV. 110; Christianus V. 100; Dannebroge 94; 
Justitia 90; Prinds Frederik 84; Norske L0ve 82; Mars 80; Tre L0ver 78; 
Prinds Christian 76 ; Sophia Hedevig 76 ; Mercurius 74 ; Wenden 72 ; Dronning 
Louisa 70; Haffru 70; Jylland 70; Beskjermer 64; Ebenetzer 64; Charlotta 
Amalia 60; Anna Sophia 60; Svan 60; Fredericus III. 56; Qyldenl0ve 56; 
Prinds Carl 54; Prinds Wilhelm 54; Oldenborg 52; Nelleblad 52; Tomler 52; 
Svaerdfisk 52; Island 50; Fyen 50; Delmenhorst 50; Slesvig 50; Engel 50; 
Neptunus 44. 

t Fyen 50 (f ) ; Gyldenleve 56 ; Slesvig 50 ; Neptunus 44 ; Svaerdfisk 52 ; 
Engel 50. 

A frigate was sent to Danzig to tell the merchantmen there to come on 
without waiting for convoy. 

|| Prinds Frederik 84 ; Prinds Carl 54 ; Jylland 70 ; Prinds Wilhelm 54. 


masted, but the other ships were patched up, and the arrival 
of Barfod from the Kattegat with the Fyen 50 and Svaerdfisk 
52 on September 19th brought Gyldenleve's strength up to 26 
battleships. Frederik IV. ordered him back to Bornholm on 
the 28th, but before he was ready to move the news that the 
Swedish fleet was at sea made it necessary, in view of the 
damaged state of his ships, to remain on the defensive in Kjb'ge 
Bay. The Swedes under General Admiral Wachtmeister had 
left Karlskrona 21 battleships strong on October 1st. Soon 
after 9 a.m. on the 4th they came in sight of the Danes. 
Though nearly 20 per cent, inferior in material to the Danes, 
they had the advantage of being just out of port with well- 
fitted ships and fresh men, while the Danish ships were not 
only in a bad state in masts and rigging,* but had about 15 
per cent, of their crews on the sick list. 

The battleships of the two fleets were as follows : 

Danes. Elephant 90 (f .), Fredericus IV. 110, Christianus V. 
100, Dannebroge 94, Justitia 90, Norske L0ve 82, Mars 80, 
Tre Lever 78, Prinds Christian 76, Sophia Hedevig 76, 
Wenden 72, Dronning Louisa 70, Haffru 70, Beskjermer 64, 
Ebenetzer 64, Charlotte Amalia 60, Anna Sophie 60, Svan 60, 
Fredericus III. 56, Oldenborg 52, Tomler 52, Svaerdfisk 52, 
Nelleblad 52, Fyen 50, Delmenhorst 50, Island 50. 

26 ships, with 1,808 guns. 

Swedes. Gotha Lejon 90 (f.), Enighet 94, Tre Kroner 86, 
Wenden 82, Sverige 82, Prinsessa Hedvig 80, Prinsessa Ulrika 
80, Prins Carl 76, Gotha 76, Nordstjerna 76, Prins Carl Fred- 
rik 72, Smdland 70, Karlskrona 70, Skdne 68, Bremen 64, 
Fredrika Amalia 62, Westmanland 62, Wachtmeister 56, 
Pommern 56, Sodermanland 56, Werden 54. 

21 ships, with 1,512 guns. 

The Swedes came on rapidly, steering north-west before a 
freshening breeze from S.E. by E. At first they were thought 
in the Danish fleet to be the transports from Danzig, but by 
eleven o'clock their real nature was made put, and before noon 
orders had been signalled to clear for action and form line of 
battle. Mixed among the transports as they were, the Danish 
ships could not get into line at once, and therefore fell into 
several groups or incomplete lines, one to windward of another. 
Gyldenleve signalled to beat out to windward, and, as his 
journal says, "steered N.E. with some ships." Meanwhile the 
Swedish fleet had reduced sail and hauled to the wind, steering 

* The Justitia 90 was under jury masts. The Dannebroge 94 and Prinds 
Christian had sprung foremasts, and the latter had also a damaged bowsprit. 


[To face 'paye 145. 

1710. 145 

S.W., but shortly wore together,* and stood N.E. by E., close 
hauled on the starboard tack. At the same time the leading 
Danish ships had been ordered to tack, and were now steering 
S.S.W.t The weathermost of the Danes were the Dannebroge 
94, Mars 80, Beskjermer 64, Christianus V. 100, and Olden- 
borg 52, in that order. Between 2 and 2.30 p.m. Wacht- 
meister, in the Go'tha Lejon 90, at the centre of the Swedish 
line, opened fire, followed by the ships astern of him, and the 
Danish vessels replied. Hardly had the Dannebroge begun 
firing when she caught fire, probably from the discharge of her 
own guns to windward. Iver Hvitfeldt, her captain, seeing 
that any attempt to run for the shore would inevitably involve 
some of the Danish warships or transports in the same fate, 
resolved to stay where he was, so anchored, and kept up the 
action until at about 3.30 the Dannebroge blew up. Only 
three men were saved. 

This was the only fighting. The Swedes tacked in succession 
on reaching the shoal water off Amager, but two ships, the 
Tre Kroner 86 and Prinsessa Ulrika 80 missed stays, tried to 
wear, and went hard aground. The rest of the fleet steered 
8,8. W., while the Danes slowly got into line on the same 
tack, but a lot to leeward. Finally, since the weather had 
become much too bad for fighting, Wachtmeister anchored, as 
he was in line between Amager and Stevns soon after five 
o'clock. An hour later the Danes anchored about two and a 
half miles to leeward. All next day it blew hard from the 
south-east. Finding it impossible to move his two grounded 
ships, Wachtmeister took off their men and burnt them. On . 
the 6th a large fleet of merchantmen and empty transports from J 
Danzig ran right into the Swedish fleet. Twenty-four were cap- 
tured, one burnt, and fourteen forced ashore. Of those taken 
some were Dutch, some Liibeckers, and some Danes. The last- 
named were burnt and the rest let go. The same night Wacht- 
meister sent in his fireships, but without success. When the 
wind moderated a little on the 7th, the Swedes weighed and 
beat up towards Falsterbo, followed by the Danes. Next day 
they put into Ystad, whereupon the Danish fleet, which had not 
been able to weather the point of Falsterbo, went back to Copen- 
hagen. A few days later Wachtmeister left Ystad, and on 
October 19th he reached Karlskrona. 

This ended the operations at sea for this year, but simul- 
taneously with these events others of the greatest importance 
had been taking fjlace at the other end of the Baltic. Here 
Peter had been quietly taking one town after another. Before 

* The Prins Carl 76 lost her maintopmast in the manoeuvre. 
fThe wind was rapidly freshening, and many of the Danish ships with 
damaged rigging had to wear instead of tacking. 



the arrival of the Swedish squadron of seven battleships and 
three frigates, under Vice-Admiral Wattrang, the Russian fleet 
had taken guns and stores in April and May to the army be- 
sieging Viborg, and had even carried out a bombardment. On 
May 25th the Russians put to sea again, and on the 27th the 
Swedish fleet arrived. Still, on July 24th Viborg surrendered. 
At the same time the Russians had been besieging Riga. The 
entire Swedish fleet assembled off the 'mouth of the Diina, but 
could do nothing, and on July 15th the town capitulated. 
Revel fell on October 10th, but the greater part of its garrison 
was taken off by the Oland 50 and two brigs from Wattrang's 
squadron. Dunamiinde, Pernau, the island of Osel, and Kex- 
holm on Lake Ladoga were also taken by the Russians during 
the year. Altogether 1710 marks an important date in the 
history of the Russian Navy. In the face of a considerable 
Swedish fleet it had been able to undertake operations at a con- 
siderable distance from its base, and was meanwhile growing 
rapidly. By the end of the year the galley fleet at Viborg 
consisted of 45 vessels, and at the same time work was proceed- 
ing steadily at Olonyets and Petersburg. Besides this, three 
new ships at Archangel were able to put to sea at the end of 
July. The Sv. Pavel 32 had to put back, but the Sv. Petr 32 
and Sv. llya 28 (or Prorok Ilya) reached Copenhagen, and 
cruised from there against Swedish trade in the Kattegat. 

In 1711 the first Russian battleships appeared in the Baltic. 
The following fleet sailed from Kronslot to Viborg with a con- 
voy of storeships in May, and returned without meeting the 
Swedes : 

Vyborg 50, Riga 50, Dumkrat 32, Shtandart 28, Hobet 16,* 
Lizeta 16, Munker 14. t 

The Swedes arrived off Viborg on June 30th with five battle- 
ships, and remained in the Gulf of Finland till December. In 
spite of this a number of merchantmen reached various Russian 
ports, and early in July there arrived the first foreign-built 
Russian warship, the Samson 32, from Holland. The Russians 
were not, however, as active as usual this year. A war with 
Turkey, brought about by Carl XII., had begun, and Peter, 
embarking on his well-known campaign on the Pruth, was soon 
surrounded with his whole army. He wrote to the Senate to 

*This ship appears in "The Russian Fleet under Peter the Great" in 1711 
and 1712. She is not mentioned in Veselago's " List of Russian Warships." 
Veselago's list for 1712 (Sketch of Rusian Naval History 214) corresponds with 
that in "The Russian Fleet under Peter the Great," and this shews that the 
Hobet was a bomb. Veselago (List of Russian Warships 318) gives a bomb of 
16 guns without a name, as having been built in 1708. 

tTwo other battleships of 50 guns each were finished at Olonyets. One was 
lost on the way down the Neva ; the other, the Pernov, reached Petersburg too 
late to join the fleet. 

1710-1711. 147 

say that he expected death or captivity ; that no orders purport- 
ing to come from him were to be obeyed until he returned ; and 
that if they heard for certain of his death they were to choose 
his successor from among 1 themselves. Still, things were not 
quite as bad as he supposed. By the ability and energy of his 
mistress, Ekaterina, whom he married next year, by copious 
bribes, and by the cession of all the Turkish territory which he 
had conquered in 1696, Peter and his army were extricated 
from their dangerous position. The Black Sea fleet thus 
became a thing of the past. With its only port Azov given 
back to Turkey, its ships were sold or given to the Turks in 
some cases, destroyed in others, while some of their stores were 
carted to Petersburg and Archangel for use in the other fleets. 

Sweden, on the other hand, was prevented from taking advan- 
tage of Peter's difficulties by the prevalence of an epidemic 
which was especially bad at Karlskrona and by lack of money. 
As a result the Finnish squadron was late in putting to sea, and 
the main fleet was even later. The Danes meanwhile, after 
sending out many convoys and small expeditions, organised 
two definite fleets for the North Sea and Baltic. The former, 
as eventually composed, consisted in June of the following 
ships : 

Haffru 70 (Vice-Ad. Sehested), Gyldenleve 56, Tomler 52, 
Svaerdfisk 52, Fyen 50, Island 50, Engel 50, Slesvig 50, Dit- 
marsken 50,* Neptunus 44, Postillion 26,* Flyvende Dragon,* 
Snarensvend 12, Andrickt 12, Packa 12. 

The Baltic fleet under Gyldenleve was at first composed of 
the following 22 battleships : 

Elephant 90 (Gen. Ad. Gyldenleve), Fredericus IV. 110, 
Christianus V. 100, Justitia 90, P rinds Frederik 84, Norske 
L0ve 82, Mars 80, Prinds Christian 76, Sophie Hedvig 76, 
Wenden 72, Dronning Louisa 70, Jylland 70, Beskjermer 64, 
Ebenetzer 64, Anna Sophie 60, Svan 60, Christianus IV. 56, 
Prinds Carl 54, Prinds Wilhelm 54, Nelleblad 52, Delmenhorst 
50, Laaland 50, with two " bombs," five fireships, one store- 
ship, and three hospital ships. 

Leaving Copenhagen on July 13th it cruised in the Baltic 
and was joined by the cruisers already there, the Hejenhald 30, 
Raae 30, Heyre 24, Flyvende Fisk 8, and Makreel 8. About the 
middle of August it was reinforced by Sehested with four 
battleships from the North Sea fleet, the Haffru 70, Tomler 52, 
Svaerdfisk 52. and Island 50, two frigates that had been on 
convoy duty in the North Sea, the Loss 26 and 0rn 20, and 
the two small privateers, Raev 8 and Ulv 2.t 

* From the squadron in the Elbe. 

stayed there till October, when, afi 
3nt to Copenhagen for the winter. 


t The rest of the North Sea Fleet stayed there till October, when, after the loss 
of the Slesvig 50 in a gale, they went to Copenhagen for the winter. 


The duty of the Baltic fleet was to stop supplies or reinf orce- 
ments from reaching fhe Swedish army in Pomerania, and to 
give such help as was possible to the operations of the Polish 
and Russian troops against Wismar and other Swedish garri- 
sons. An attack on Riigen was contemplated in October, and 
the transports and boats for the purpose were prepared, but 
for some reason the plan fell through, and on November 10th 
the fleet came back to Kjb'ge Bay. After going to Copenhagen 
for provisions Gyldenleve was ordered back to Kjoge Bay on 
the 29th, but on December 3rd he was compelled by illness 
to give up the command to Barfod. The fleet was now laid up 
with the exception of six battleships* under Schoutbynacht 
Trejel, which were sent into the Baltic to protect the transports 
carrying guns for the sieges of Wismar and Stralsund. 

At last the Swedes got to sea. On December 14th Wacht- 
meister left Karlskrona with 24 battleships, four frigates, and 
two fireships convoying transports with 13,000 troops under 
Stenbock. Riigen was reached on the 18th, the troops were 
landed, and the fleet went back to Karlskrona for the winter, 
arriving there on December 29th. On the receipt of news of 
the Swedes' being at sea Barf or d was sent from Copenhagen in 
the Justitia 90 on January 5th, 1712, to take over Trejel's 
squadron, but as the Swedish fleet went straight home again 
Barfod and his ships were recalled on the 19th for the winter. t 

The first fighting of the year 1712 took place in the Kattegat. 
Schoutbynacht Wilster, commanding the Danish North Sea 
fleet, detached four ships+ on April 8th under Commodore- 
Captain Knoff to reconnoitre off Gothenburg. On May 7th 
Knoff was joined by two frigates from Copenhagen, the Raae 
30 and Loss 24, and on the llth, when at anchor off Fladstrand 
in Jylland, he was attacked by the Swedish fleet from Gothen- 
burg under Schoutbynacht Sjoblad. The Lindorm had been 
detached, and Knoff had therefore five ships with 158 guns. 
Against them the Swedes brought the following : || 

Calmar 58 (14). Fredrika 52 (16), Stettin 58 (14), Warberg 

* Jylland 70; Haffru 70; Beskjermer 64; Christianus IV. 56; Prinds Wil- 
helm 54; Svaerdfisk 50. 

t The Tomler 52 was apparently also at sea since she and the Svaerdfisk are 
mentioned together as being recalled at this time (Garde Eft. ii. 232). 

Fyen 52 ; Leopard 24 ; S0ridder 28 ; Lindorm 6. The last vessel was com- 
manded by Lieutenant Wessell, later the famous Tordenskjold. He had been 
previously second in command of the Postillion. 

On April 30th Wessell had handed over the Lindorm to a new Commander, 
and had taken charge of the Lovendals Oallej 20. 

|| The guns are uncertain. The figures given for five ships are from the list 
for 1719 in Wrangel " Kriget i Ostersjon " i. 140. Figures in brackets give the 
part of the total which were only swivels. Garde (Hist. ii. 32/3) gives them a 
total of 288 guns. 

1711-1712. 149 

52 (16), Stenbock 36, Elfsborg 36, Charlotte 38 (10) a total 
of seven ships with 330 guns. 

In spite of his greaf superiority Sjoblad could make no im- 
pression on the Danes, and after an action lasting from 6 p.m. 
to 8 p.m. he had to withdraw to Gothenburg to refit. The 
Danes had 44 killed and wounded, mainly from a burst gun in 
the Fyen. After the action the Danish fleet was raised to five 
battleships and six frigates, and was joined by three Russian 
frigates. Its composition was now as follows: 

Prinds Carl 54, Pwnds Wilhelm 54, Fyen 52, Laaland 50, 
Engel 50, Raae 30, S0ridder 28, Leopard 24, Loss 24, 
Lovendals Gallej 20, Postillion 26. Russians: Sv. Petr 32, 
Sv. Pavel 32, Sv. YaJcov 16.* 

On May 26th Schoutbynacht Leijonhufvud left Gothenburg 
with eight frigates (the Halmstad 54 (14) and the seven of 
Sjoblad's squadron), two small craft, and two fireships. On 
the 29th he chased Knoff with the Fyen, Prinds Wilhelm, 
Soridder, Raae, and Loss into Stavaern in Norway. He then 
proceeded towards the Dogger Bank, took a Danish brig of 16 
guns with a convoy for Bergen, and returned unopposed to 
Gothenburg. Wilster had started to follow him, but his flag- 
ship, the Prinds Carl was damaged, and he put into Langesund 
in the South of Norway till June 18th. He then moved to a 
position east of Skagen to wait for the Swedes, and remained 
there from the 21st to the 30th, but though his cruisers re- 
ported the approach of Leijonhufvud he made no attempt to 
get under way until the enemy was actually in sight, and con- 
sequently could do nothing more than follow him to Gothen- 
burg, f Wilster was replaced by Trejel in July,+ court - 
martialled, and dismissed the service. He then left Denmark 
and entered the Swedish fleet, an action which makes it seem 
probable that his previous inactivity was due to deliberate 

In the meantime operations had begun in the Baltic. Barfod 
left Copenhagen on May 5th with eight battleships and a fri- 
gate to join the three battleships and a frigate which were 
already out His orders were to protect commerce, 

* A new Dutch-built ship. 

t The only Danish success of this period was the capture of the Swedish 
privateer Svenska Waben, by the L0vendals Gallej 20, on June 1st. 

t The fleet was then as follows : Prinds Carl 54 ; Fyen 52 ; Nye Delmenhorst 
50 ; Engel 50 ; Eaae 30 ; Sv. Ilya (Russian) 28 ; S0ridder 28 ; Leopard 24 ; Loss 
24 ; L0vendals Gallej 20 ; Packa 16 ; Andrickt 12 ; Maage 10 ; Lindorm 6 ; 
Windhund 4; Norske Waaben (prize, ex Svenska Waben). The Nelleblad 52 
and Christianus IV. 56 joined in August. 

In 1721, on the conclusion of peace between Sweden and Russia, he joined 
the Russian Navy as a Vice-Admiral. 

|| He took the Justitia 90, Beskjermer 64, Island 50, Jylland 70, Ebenetzer 64, 
Tomler 50, Haffru 70, Nye Delmenhorst 50, 0rn 20, and joined the Christianus IV. 
56, Nelleblad 52, Neptunus 44, H0jenhald 30. 


and keep Swedish reinforcements from Pomerania. After two 
months without incidents of importance Frederik IV. decided 
to do all he could to support the Russians and Poles on the 
coast of Pomerania, and especially in the siege of Stralsund. 
A squadron of light draught vessels* was therefore put 
under the orders of Vice- Admiral Sehested, and sent to attack 
the Swedish ships near Riigen. Convoyed by Barfod's fleet 
Sehested proceeded from Copenhagen to Riigen, and reached 
the entrance of the " New Deep " on July 28th. The New 
Deep is between the South East corner of Riigen and the little 
island of Riiden, which, up to the year 1309, had been part 
of the larger island. It thus forms the entrance to Grief s- 
walder Bay, which in turn gives access from the East to the 
strait between Riigen and the mainland leading past Stralsund. 
Here several Swedish vessels were found. t Commodore 
Henck had arrived a few days before from Karlskrona with 
three frigates, two other vessels, and 11 transports, and had 
at once taken steps with these and the ships he found there 
to protect the entrance to the New Deep. He had stationed his 
ships in such a position that the larger Danes could not get at 
them, and was supported by- a 10-gun battery on the south-east 
point of Riigen. One of his ships, however, went aground in 
a squall, and this upset his line. Sehested seized the oppor- 
tunity, and in the morning of July 31st he sent in the Ditmars- 
ken and the three prams to attack. They warped into range 
and opened fire at about 8.30 a.m., but the other Danish vessels 
could not get up to support them, and though they kept up the 
action till the evening they made little impression. The Swedes 
lost 98 killed and wounded, the Danes 23. The next afternoon 
the six smaller Swedish vessels attacked the Ebenetzer 15, but 
retreated on the arrival of Danish reinforcements. During he 
night of August 2/3rd Henck sank his "kreiert" in the channel. 
Sehested thereupon sent all his smaller ships through the 
southern channel, between Riiden and Usedom, and on the 
5th Henck retreated to Palmerort, on the south coast of Riigen. 
Next day Sehested got up the kreiert and brought his larger 
ships into Greifswalder Bay. On August 17th a second action 
took place. Henck lost 70 men killed and wounded, and had to 
withdraw to Stralsund, leaving the Danes in possession of the 
waters south of Riigen. 

* Ditmarsken 46 (flat-bottomed battleship) ; Kongens Jagt Krone 24 ; Svenske 
Sophia 20 (frigates) ; Christians0 26 (merchantman) ; Gravenstein 14 ; Snarens- 
vend 12; Phoenix 12; Flyvende Abe 12; Raev 8 (snows); Ark Noa 16; Helle- 
fiynder 14; Ebenetzer 15 (prams); Hecla 10 (bomb); Ulv 2; five barges, three 

f Straltund 30 ; Anklam 30 ; St. Thomas 30 ; St. Johannes 30 ; Witduve 22 ; 
Jomfru 14; Sjokane I. 8; Sjokane II. 8; one pram 6; one galley 6; 
one bomb ; one " kreiert." 

1712. 151 

About this time the Russians had had a slight skirmish with 
the Swedes. After convoying further supplies to Yiborg 
directly the ice broke up, the fleet, under Kruys, had remained 
at Kotlin.* In the evening of August 3rd three Swedish ships 
appeared, a battleship, a frigate, and a snow. Next morning 
Kruys sent the Pernov 50, Samson 32, and Lizeta 16 to attack, 
towing them with the rowing craft. As the Swedes showed no 
sign of retreating he sent the Riga 50 to join in the attack. 
The Swedish ships now withdrew, with the Russians in chase, 
but when the latter stopped they came back again. The chase 
was resumed, and a few long-range shots were fired before the 
Russians returned, and both sides anchored for the night. In 
the morning of the 5th the Russians were to windward, and 
could have cut off the Swedes' retreat, but failed to do so. The 
Swedish vessels withdrew, and rejoined their fleet. This was 
under Admiral Wattrang, and consisted of 9 battleships, 2 
frigates, and 4 snows. The greater part of this fleet lay in 
Bjorkosund, south-east of Yiborg, but this did not prevent the 
Russian galleys from reaching the Finnish coast, and on 
August 31st, near Fredrikshamn, they took the snow Kraft 
with 14 3 prs. and 10 swivels, and two boats of eight guns each. 

In August the Danish force in the Baltic had been increased. 
On the 13th Gyldenleve left Copenhagen, and in Kjogo Bay he 
was joined by Barfod. The fleet now comprised 16 battleships, 
6 frigates (including three Russians), and some small craft. t 
After convoying a number of cannon to the Russo-Polish army 
besieging Stralsund Gyldenleve received orders to put his fleet 
under the command of the Tsar Peter, who was then directing 
the siege operations in person. Peter ordered a landing in 
Riigen, but the Saxons who were to provide the necessary boats 
failed to do so, and the scheme was dropped. Expecting the 
Swedish fleet to appear, Gyldenleve sailed on August 26th to 
Bornholm.J On September 3rd Wachtmeister left Karlskrona 
with 19 battleships, and next morning he sighted the Danes at 
anchor between Bornholm and the Swedish coast. Gyldenleve 
at once retreated towards Kjoge Bay, followed by the Swedes, 

* Vyborg 50; Riga 50; Pernov 50; Samson 32; Shtandart 28; Hobet 16; 
Lizeta 16 ; Munker 14. With a number of galleys and brigantines. 

t Elephant 90; Fredericus IV. 110; Justitia 90*; Prinds Christian 76; 
Sophie Hedvig 76 ; Wenden 72 ; Dronning Louisa 70 ; Haffru 70* ; Jylland 70* ; 
Beskjermer 64*; Ebenetzer 64*; Svan 60; Prinds Wilhelm 54f; Tomler 52; 
Island 50; Laaland 50f; Sv. Petr (Russian) 32f; Sv. Pavel (Russian) 32f; 
Sv. Ilya (Russian) 28t; H0jenhald 30; Heyre 24; 0rn 20*; one bomb; three 
galleys; three fireships ; one hospital ship. The ships marked * joined with 
Barfod. Those marked t came from the North Sea. 

+ The Russian ships sailed for Revel. Finding a Swedish squadron off that 
port the Sv. Pavel 32 and Sv. Petr 32 went to Riga, and arrived there on 
September 15th. The Sv. Ilya 28 was wrecked on the way. The Sv. Takov 16 
had reached Revel in April. 


and after a chase lasting all day anchored at nightfall between 
Meen and Stevns, while Wachtmeister anchored off Trelleborg. 
The Danish hospital ship was captured, and the Tomler 52 
nearly shared her fate, but was saved by the timely support of 
other Danish ships. On the 6th Gyldenleve moved to Drager 
and anchored his ships so as to oppose any attack on Copen- 
hagen,* but nothing of the kind was attempted, and on the 7th 
or 8th the Swedish fleet left Kjoge Bay. 

Wachtmeister's object in putting to sea from Karlskrona had 
been to cover the passage from Karlskrpna to Pomerania of 
Count Stenbock with 9,000 troops. Having driven the Danes 
back to Copenhagen, it would certainly have been sounder 
strategy to remain on the watch in a position where there was 
no chance of their eluding him. Still, he chose to abandon 
the close blockade, which was possible, and to leave the way 
open for the Danish fleet to put to sea; and, as a matter of 
fact, no bad results followed. On September 8th the Swedes 
met the Danish Hey re 24. She outsailed the Fredrika Amalia 
64 and the Phoenix 30, but was brought to action by the Hvita 
Orn 30, and sunk after two and a half hours' fighting. 

The Danish fleet was now reinforced bj most of the ships of 
the North Sea fleet, which had been recalled on the receipt of 
the news that the Swedish ships in Gothenburg had been laid 
up and their crews sent to Karlskrona. Besides this, the old 
battleship Tomler 52 was paid off, and the Prinds Frederik 
84 and Tre Lever 78 were commissioned. This gave Gylden- 
leve 22 battleships and six frigates, which he organised as 
follows : 

Van: Sophia Hedvig 76, Fredericus IV. 110, Laaland 50, 
Jylland 70, Justitia 90 (Ad. Barfod), Fyen 52,t Prinds Wil- 
helm 54, Soridder 28, t Levendals Gallej 20, t one fireship. 

Centre : Christianus IV. 56, t Prinds Christian 76, Ebenetzer 
64, Elephant 90 (Gen. Ad. Gyldenleve), Prinds Frederik 84, 
Dronning Louisa 70, Island 50, Svan 60, Raae 30,t Loss 24, t 
one fireship, two hospital ships. 

Eear: Nelleblad 52,t Prinds Carl 54,t Tre Lover 78, 
Wenden 72 (Vice-Ad. Raben), Nye Delmenhorst 50, t Haffru 
70, Beskjermer 64, Hejenhald 30, '0rn 20, one fireship. 

Head winds kept him in Kjoge Bay till September 23rd, and 
he was too late to intercept the Swedish troops which were 
landed at Wittow on the north coast of Riigen on the 24th. 
The Swedish fleet was anchored north of Dornbusch, an island 
west of E/iigen, and had also been reinforced. It now con- 

* The following eight ships were moored in line across the Drogden channel : 
Wenden 72; Ebenetzer 64; Dronning Louisa 70; Island 50; Fredericu* IV. 
110; Prinds Christian 76; Haffru 70; Beskjermer 64. 

t These ships came from the North Sea. 

1712. 153 

sisted of 24 battleships and three frigates. On September 26th 
the Danes appeared to the north-west. The wind was N.E., 
and they luffed up as soon as Wachtmeister weighed anchor. 
Neither side was anxious to fight. Gyldenleve wanted to get 
at the Swedish transports, and Wachtmeister to prevent him. 
About midnight the Swedes anchored again off Dornbusch. 
Next morning they weighed again with a N.W. wind, and 
tried all day to weather all or part of the Danish fleet. The 
wind then backed to S.W., and at daybreak on the 28th the 
position was as follows : The Danes were to the west of Wit- 
tow, and therefore to windward of the transports, while the 
Swedes had drifted to leeward, and were some distance to the 
north. This gave Gyldenleve his opportunity. He detached 
the Raae 30, Sorrider 28, 0rn 20, Lovendals Gallej 20, and 
Maage 10 to attack the transports, and formed the rest of his 
fleet in line ready for action with the Swedish battleships if 
necessary. Wachtmeister, on the other hand, seeing the 
danger, signalled to the transports to run down to him. Such 
as obeyed the signal were saved, but others, whose captains 
were ashore, or who stayed behind for other reasons, were 
burnt or taken by the Danish ships. There is a considerable 
discrepancy in the accounts of the numbers thus lost. Torn- 
quist * quotes a statement of Stenbock's that fourteen were 
burnt, nine captured, and two missing; but Backstr6m,t 
though without giving his authority, says that 42 were burnt 
and 15 taken, while 40 escaped. Danish versions give much 
higher figures; the log of the Elephant puts the Swedish loss 
at 80 vessels taken or destroyed,* and other accounts go even 

Meanwhile both fleets, after forming line on the starboard 
tack, had gone about, and were steering N.W., with a W.S.W. 
wind. The Danes were to windward, but a little, astern, and 
Wachtmeister ordered his van to make more sail, tack, and 
double' on the head of the enemy's line, but Gyldenleve saw his 
intention, and prevented this by making sail in his turn. The 
wind gradually backed to S.E., so that the two fleets found 
themselves heading for the German coast, and were at last 
obliged to tack. When this took place a few shots were fired 
between the Swedish van and the Danish rear, but darkness 
was coming on, and the firing soon stopped. 

During the night the Swedes got on to the port tack again, 
but had to bear away to clear the shallows of the Biigen coast. 
Gyldenleve, however, decided that he had done all he could in 
this neighbourhood, and set his course for Kjoge Bay, so that 

* ii. 51. Also Gyllengranat i. 297. 

t 177. 

t Garde Hist. ii. 42. 


Wachtmeister next morning had no enemy in sight. He there- 
fore sailed for Karlskrona, and arrived there on October 1st. 
The Danes stayed in Kjoge Bay till December 20th, when they 
went up to Copenhagen for the winter, but the Swedes tried 
at the end of December to send another convoy from Karlshamn, 
escorted by a small squadron from Karlskrona under Watt- 
rang. The weather, however, proved too bad to allow the ex- 
pedition to get far, and the idea had to be dropped. 

In the meantime Stenbock had given up the attempt to raise 
the siege of Stralsund, and started off westward to attack Den- 
mark in the rear. Starting on his march on October 30th, he 
defeated the Danes at Gadebusch in Mecklenburg on December 
20th. He was then forced into Holstein by the advance of the 
Russians and Saxons. He burnt Altona early in January, 
1713, and finally took refuge in the fortress of Tonning on the 
Eider. Here he was at once besieged by the allied armies, 
while five small Danish warships * and five hired vessels from 
the Elbe took up the blockade from the sea. In March a battle- 
ship and two frigatest were sent from Copenhagen to join 
the blockading fleet but returned after Stenbock's capitulation 
on May 16th, though most of the other vessels stayed in the 
Eider till the surrender of the town itself in February, 1714. 

At the western end of the Baltic but little of interest took 
place in 1713. On May 21st Vice- Admiral Reedtz left Kjoge 
Bay with nineteen battleships, two frigates, and three snows, 
but did nothing whatever, and failed to prevent Wachtmeister 
with fifteen battleships from taking supplies to Stralsund in 
September and returning. After this mishap the Allies aban- 
doned the siege of Stralsund, and the Danish flotilla in those 
waters returned to Copenhagen. Only minor actions occurred 
in the North Sea. The Danish Seridder 28 took the Swedish 
privateers, Gota Lejon 18 and Pacha 16, % on March 31st and 
June 16th, while Wessel in the Levendals Gallej 20 was en- 
gaged on August 13tE by the Swedish Ny Elfsborg 36 and 
Calmar 58, but got away after a three hours' fight with only 
one man wounded. For some reason a Swedish attack on 
Copenhagen was expected this year, and in preparation for this 
two batteries were constructed on the sea front. The first, the 
Trekoner battery, was formed of the old battleships Prinds 
Georg 70, Tre Kroner 82, and Charlotte Amalie 60, sunk in the 
shallow water east of the harbour entrance, while the second, 
the Provesteen, further south along the shore, consisted of the 
Delmenhorst 48 and an old floating dock. 

* Meermin 12; Prinds Frederik 10; Thorenschent 8; Juncker 10; Svenske 
Sorte Adler 8. 

t Island 50 ; Eaae 30 ; Loss 26. 
$ They were renamed S0orm and Sedragon. 

1712-1713. 155 

The Eussians were more active. Three ships bought abroad 
had reached Copenhagen in December, 1712. These were the 
Antonii 50 from Hamburg, the Randolf 50 from England, and 
the Hardenbroek 44* from Dunkirk renamed Esperans. On 
February 22nd they left Copenhagen, and on March 15th 
arrived at Eevel; the Sv. Pavel 32, and Sv. Petr 32 from Eiga, 
also came to Eevel. On May 13th two fleets left Kotlin. The 
first under Apraksin consisted of over 200 galleys and other 
small craft, the second under Kruys was composed of four 
battleships, Poltava 54, Vyborg 50, Riga 50, and Pernov 
50, two frigates, Samson 32 and Shtandart 28, one bomb, and 
two snows. The sailing ships took up a position in Bjorko 
Sund, south of Yiborg, and the galleys moving west landed an 
army and occupied Borga. At the same time the Swedish Yice- 
Admiral Lillje reached Helsingfors with eight or nine battle- 
ships, but meanwhile the Eussian ships from Eevel had joined 
those at Bjorko, so that Kruys had a force of seven battleships 
and five frigates, and besides these three more battleships and 
two frigates had reached Eevel from abroad. These were the 
following : Vainqueur 50, from England, renamed Viktoriarf 
Vindford (?) 50, from England, renamed Straford; Tankerville 
50, from England, renamed Oksford; Sv. Nikolai 42, from 
Holland; N orris 32, from England, renamed Lansdou. Kruys 
took his squadron back to Kotlin to refit, and left on July 20th 
to fetch the new ships from Eevel. On the 21st, near Hogland, 
three Swedish ships were sighted. They were the Osel 56, Est- 
land 48, and Verden 54, sent out from Helsingfors under Com- 
modore Eaab. By 4 a.m. on the 22nd the Vyborg 50 and 
Antonii 50 were close enough to open fire, and by eight o'clock 
the Riga 50, and Esperans 44 were also in range. Now, how- 
ever, the Osel touched on a shoal but scraped over, and the 
Vyborg, Riga, and Esperans following her closely, went hard 
aground. The other ships continued the chase, but Kruys 
lowered the signal for action and they returned. The Riga and 
Esperans were got off, but the Vyborg had to be burnt. Several 
Eussian officers were court-martialled for this affair, and both 
-i>. Kruys and Eays, of the Poltava, were banished to Siberia after 
T>eing sentenced to death and reprieved. The Swedish ships 
rejoined their fleet near Helsingfors, and the Eussians entered 

* She had been built in Holland (the Russian Fleet under Peter the Great 131). 
Two Dutch Hardenbroeks of 50 and 52 guns were taken by the French in 1706 
and 1709 (De Jonge iii. 714/6 and iv. 80). 

t " The Russian fleet under Peter the Great " (page 132) says she was a Dutch 
ship taken by the French, taken from them by the English, and sold to Russia. 
Probably she was the other Hardenbroek. However, no French ship called 
Vainqueur appears to have been taken by the English. The possible French 
prizes were the Oaillard 56, taken in 1710, and the Adriade 48, taken in 1709. 
She was probably the Gaillard. 


Revel on July 27th. On August 5th they were back at Kotlin 
with the new ships. 

Supported by the galleys the Russian army worked westward 
along the o coast of Finland. Helsingfors was taken on July 
26th and Abo on September 5th. The Swedish fleet was forced 
to withdraw to Tvarminne just east of Hango, a large cape 
between Helsingfors and Abo. Here they were able to prevent 
the passage of the Russian galleys, and thus made it impossible 
for the Russian Army to remain at Abo. Besides tliis they had 
captured the Russian battleship Bulinbruk (or Bolingbroke) 52, 
formerly the Sussex, on her way to Revel from England, where 
she had been bought.* No further fighting took place this 
year. Part of the Russian galley fleet wintered at Helsingfors, 
and part went to Petersburg. The Swedes stayed at Tvarminne 
till late in the year, and then went home. Lillje wintered at 
Dalaro with four battleships and a frigate. t The rest went 
to Karlskrona as usual. The only other important event of 
1713 was the capture of Stettin in October. 

As before, no important operations took place in the western 
part of the theatre of war in 1714. The greater part of the 
available Swedish strength was sent against Russia, and though 
Denmark commissioned nineteen battleships, only nine of them 
left Copenhagen. Commodore Thambsen was sent to the 
Baltic in June with six battleships and two frigatesj with 
orders to join the two frigates which had been sent out in May 
and then to cruise west of Bornholm. This squadron remained 
for the most part in Kjoge Bay. It came back to Copenhagen 
at the end of September, and was laid up early in November. 
In the North Sea there was a small squadron of three battle- 
ships, one frigate, and one snow|| under Commodore Rosenpalm 
cruising on and off from July till December. The island of 
Heligoland was captured from Holstein-Gottorp in August after 
a short bombardment. In November, on the laying up of the rest 
of the Baltic fleet, Commodore-Captain Paulssen was sent out 

* Neither Veselago nor " The Russian Fleet under Peter the Great " gives 
any information about her save that she was bought in England. However, a 
ship of 56 guns called Kronskepp appears now in the Swedish fleet. Wessel, in 
a report of August, 1715, refers to her as " a French battleship of 60 guns 
taken by the Swedes last year, now called the Eronskib." The probability is 
that this was the Bolingbroke, and that she had originally been French, in which 
case she may have been the Toulouse 62 taken in 1710, the Hasardeux 52 taken 
in 1703, the " Falkland's Prize " 54 taken in 1704, or the M aure 60 taken in 1707. 

t Holland, 56; Oland 56; Verden 54; Revel 40; Falk 26. 

t Ebenetzer 64; Beskjermer 64; Tyen 52; Island 50; Xaaland 50; Nye 
Delmenhorst 50; H0jenhald 30; Loss 26. 

Postillion 26 ; 0rn 20. 

|| Prinds Carl 54 ; Prinds Wilhelm 54 ; Nye Delmenhorst 50, Postillion 26 
(from Thambsen's squadron) ; Norske Waaben. 

1713-1714. 157 

again with two battleships and two frigates,* and when it was 
heard that Carl XII. had arrived at Stralsund after his two 
years of captivity in Turkey, Paulssen was ordered to search 
all neutral ships to prevent his reaching Sweden. At the 
beginning of January, 1715, a further division! was sent under 
Schoutbynacht Gabell to join Paulssen' s 'ships and prevent 
communications between Sweden and Pomerania, but no 
Swedish ships were found at sea, and the combined squadrom 
soon returned to Copenhagen for the winter. 

A remarkable action was fought by Wessel in the Levendals 
Gallej 20 this year. Off Lindesnaes, the southernmost point of 
Norway, he met on June 26th a Swedish frigate carrying 28 
guns though pierced for 36. An action began at 6 p.m., with 
the two ships running side by side to the south-east. The 
Swede got clear at 9.30 p.m., but an hour later Wessel came 
up again. About midnight the main topmast of the Swedish 
ship came down, so Wessel knowing that he could now catch 
her when he liked, shortened sail and carried out his more 
pressing repairs. At 6 a.m. on the 27th the fight began again. 
After three hours the two ships, both damaged, separated 
mutually, but at 12.30 firing was resumed for another two 
hours. At last the Levendals Gallej was near the end of her 
ammunition, and as the sea was too heavy for boarding, nothing 
more could be done. Wessel sent a flag of truce to explain the 
situation, and invited the captain of the Swedish ship to come 
on board and drink a glass of wine with him. The captain, an 
Englishman named Bactman (?) replied that he was sorry he 
had no ammunition to spare, and that he could not leave his 
ship. In the end the Levendals Gallej closed in, and the 
two captains drank to one another's health amid the cheers of 
their crews before parting. Considering the length of the 
action the Danish loss was slight, being only seven killed and 
21 wounded. Wessel's report mentions that he had only fired 
23 shots per gun, and had powder left for four shots each. The 
Levendals Gallej, much knocked about, went to Christianssand, 
and the Swedish ship to Gothenburg. She was the Olbing 
Galley bought in England and mainly manned by Englishmen. 
On her arrival in Sweden she was renamed Prinsessa Ulrika 
Eleonora. Wessel's conduct was much criticised, and he was 
censured by a court of enquiry for his behaviour after the 
action, but at the end of the year he was promoted to captain, 
so it is evident that he had done nothing to damage his pros- 

In contrast to the lack of activity in Danish and neighbour- 

* Island 50 ; Laaland 50 ; Eaae 30 ; 0rn 20. 

t Beskjermer 64; Fyen 52; Nelleblad 52; Lovendals Gallej 20; Snarensvend 
12; Cronprindseng Gallej 10; Maage 10. 


ing waters, the Gulf of Finland was the scene of several im- 
portant operations this year. Both the Russian galley fleet 
and the sailing ships were commissioned, and both reached 
Bjorko on May 31st. From here the galley fleet of about 100 
vessels, under General-Admiral Apraksin, proceeded to Helsing- 
fors, and arrived there on June 22nd. The sailing fleet was 
commanded by the Tsar himself as Rear- Admiral, and con- 
sisted of the following ships: 

Sv. Ekaterina, Poltava, Viktoria, Pernov, Randolf, Oksford, 
Sv. Antonii, Straford, Esperans, Lansdou, Samson, Sv. Pavel, 
Sv. Petr, Printsessa, Natalia, Diana. 

Reaching Revel on June 22nd, this fleet was joined by a num- 
ber of new ships, some from Archangel and some from abroad. 
These were as follows : 

Gavriil and Rafail, from Archangel*; PerZf, from the 
Netherlands; Armont (Ormonde), Arondel, Fortuna, and Le- 
ferm%, from England. 

After some sorting of men and guns Peter organised his fleet 
in the following line of battle: 

Yan. Gavriil 52, Sv. Antonii 52, Poltava 52, Arondel 44, 
Pernov 42, Sv. Petr 32, Natalia 18. 

Centre. Riga 52, Rafail 52, Sv. Ekaterina 62, Perl 50, 
Armont 50, Esperans 48, Samson 32, Sv. Pavel 32, Sv. Ilya 32, 
Printsessa 20. 

Rear. Randolf 50, Fortuna 52. Leferm 74, Oksford 50, Vik- 
toria 62, Lansdou 32, Diana 18. 

The Samson and Sv. Pavel were sent out to look for the 
enemy, and soon found him. Admiral Wattrang had arrived 
between Helsingfors and Abo about the middle of May with 15 
battleships and many rowing vessels, and from his position off 
Hango he had sent out Vice-Admiral Lillie with six battleships 
to find the Russians. At four o'clock in the afternoon of July 
28th the Sv. Pavel came in with news that the Swedes were 
approaching, and the Russians therefore warped out into the 
bay during the night. Next morning the Swedes ran right 
into the bay, but on seeing the force of the enemy they began 
to beat out again. This was about 7 a.m. The Russians pur- 
sued, and a long chase followed. The Arondel 44 went aground, 

* Three ships, the Rafail, Michail, and Gavriil left Archangel in 1713. The 
Michail had to put back, but the Mafail wintered at Kola in Lapland and the 
Gavriil at Trondhjem. 

t Formerly the Dutch Oroote Perel 52 of Zealand (de Jonge iv. 107 n.). 

She was orginally the French "Ferine 72, and was taken by the English at 
Vigo in 1702. She fought as an English ship at Velez Malaga in 1704. 

The Perl was, as a matter of fact, in Pernau, and did not reach Revel till 
July. Besides the Straford, which is not in the list, the Viktoria, Fortuna, and 
Oksford had to be left in harbour for want of men. 

1714. 159 

but was got off again. Finally, at about 5 p.m v/ seven Russian 
battleships and two frigates were well up to the leemost of the 
Swedes, and would have weathered her on the next tack. Lillje, 
however, seeing this, bore up with the rest of his ships to her 
support, and the Russians, with six ships to fight instead of one, 
hesitated, failed to grasp the opportunity, and were eventually 
ordered by the Tsar from the snow Printsessa to return to 

Meanwhile Wattrang had sent some of his galleys to the 
Abo district, where they had taken a few Russian small craft. 
Furthermore, when Apraksin reached Hango with the Russian 
galley fleet on July 10th he found his way westward blocked by 
the Swedish battleships. He therefore waited in Tvarminne 
for a calm in which he might slip past, and sent to Peter to 
ask him to draw off the Swedes. This Peter decided was im- 
possible, but on July 29th he left Revel for Helsingfors in the 
Sv. Pavel 32 with six battleships and the Printsessa 20. On 
reaching the Finnish skargard, or belt of islands and rocks, he 
sent back the battleships and went to Helsingfors with the two 
smaller ships. He then shifted to a galley and reached Tvar- 
minne on July 31st. At once he gave orders that an attempt 
should be made to drag the lighter galleys over the isthmus to 
the western side of Hango Head. As soon as this came to the 
knowledge of Wattrang he sent Schoutbynacht Ehrenskold 
from the battleship Stockholm to take one pram, six galleys, 
and two small boatst to wait for them and attack as they 
reached the water's edge. At the same time he sent Lillje with 
eight battleships to try and get near enough to the Russian 
ships at Tvarminne to open fire. About noon on August 4th 
Lillje started, and a little later Ehrenskold also got under way. 
The Russians had, however, already abandoned the idea of 
hauling over! and simultaneously with the Swedish movements 
Apraksin sent 20 " skampavias," or galleys with 36 oars, to try 
to get round. Lillje did not see them, but Wattrang did, and 
worked inshore to intercept them. Night fell, and the Russians, 
reinforced by 15 more galleys sent out during the afternoon, 
anchored behind two small islands off the southern coast of the 

Next morning came the long-expected calm, and the 
Russians were quick to take advantage of it. Early in the fore- 

* Peter's conduct in leaving the Sv. Ekaterina for the Printsessa seems to 
have caused some surprise. No Swedish historian mentions this affair. 

\-Elefant, pram, 12 12's, 3 3's = 18; Orn, galley, 2 36's, 14 3's = 16; Trana, 
galley, 2 18's, 14 3's=16; Grip, galley, 2 18's, 14 3's=16; Laxa, galley, 2 16's, 10 
3's=12; Gddda, galley, 2 6's, 10 3's=12; Hvalfisk, galley, 2 6's, 10 3's=12; 
Flundra, boat, 4 3's, 2 l's=6; Mort, boat, 2 3's, 2 l's=4. 

$ One galley got over and one broke up on the way. 


noon 19 galleys left their anchorage behind the islands, put 
out to sea, and went outside Wattrang's ships, in spite of all 
his efforts to tow or kedge into range. A little later the 
remaining 15 got past as well, further out to sea. Wattrang 
now recalled Lillje, and, apparently expecting the rest of the 
Russians to follow the same course, he stayed some distance 
out and warped out his inshore ships to join the main body. The 
following night Apraksin moved with his main force, and be- 
tween 5 and 7 a.m. on August 6th some 60 Russian galleys went 
between the Swedes and the land, and passed without loss, save 
for one galley, the Sazan, which ran ashore and was taken with 
232 men. 

Ehrenskold meanwhile had reached Bengstorfjard, a narrow 
passage just west of the isthmus, in the evening of the 4th. 
Next morning he found that the Russians had given up the 
attempt to haul their ships across, and, leaving Captain Sund 
in command, he started in his sloop to report, but on reaching 
the point of Hango Head he heard firing and saw " over 30 " 
Russian galleys approaching. Seeing that he was cut off he 
returned to Bengstorfjard and took up a strong position across 
the channel, sinking a big local boat astern. He might have 
escaped by a swift retreat westwards, but decided to remain in 
order to cover Taube, who was at Kimito, to the west, with the 
rest of the Swedish flotilla, and to delay the Russian westward 
movement as long as possible. 

He put the Elefant in the centre of the channel with her 
broadside bearing, three galleys on either side bows on, and the 
two boats at the bow and stern of the Elefant and a little 
behind her. Then having done all he could he waited to be 
attacked. After demanding his surrender in vain Apraksin 
sent in 35 galleys, the first division of his force, at about two 
o'clock in the afternoon of August 6th. Holding his fire till 
the enemy reached close range Ehrenskold repulsed this attack 
and also a second by the other two divisions, some 80 vessels, 
but the third attack was successful. Collecting about 95 
galleys, the available boats of all three divisions, and taught 
by their previous experience the Russians attacked on the two 
wings first. The Trana on the left was the first victim. 
Boarded on all sides, she capsized and sank with the weight 
of men on board. One by one the galleys were taken; the 
Elefant was surrounded and set on fire, Ehrenskold and Sund 
were wounded, and at last the Russians boarded from every 
side. Ehrenskold was hit again and captured while uncon- 
scious, and by five p.m. all resistance was over. 

The Swedes went into the action with 941 officers and men, 
and lost 361 killed. A week later 333 of the survivors were in 
Russian hands, the rest had died of their wounds. Five weeks 

1714. 161 

later the survivors were only a little over 200. The Russians 
had 125 killed and 341 wounded, so that their total loss with 
those captured in the Sazan was 698 officers and men.* Some 
accounts state that the Tsar himself was in action, but accord- 
ing to " The Russian Fleet under Peter the Great " " the Tsar 
beheld the action from an island at some distance, and when 
over came aboard." In view of his conduct at Revel a month 
before this seems the more probable story. 

Wattrang now left the Gulf of Finland, and cruised between 
Gothland and the Aland Islands. This left the way open for 
the Russian advance westward, and on August 14th a fleet of 
60 galleys reached Abo. A little later 16,000 men were 
landed in the Aland Islands. At the same time the greater 
part of the sailing fleet left Revel for Helsingfors.t On 
September 1st Peter returned to Helsingfors from Abo, and 
sent the fleet to Bjorko. A gale on the llth did a good deal of 
damage, but no ship was lost, and on September 15th the fleet 
reached Kronslot. Apraksin was meanwhile working up the 
Gulf of Bothnia; on September 20th he reached Yasa, and 
from here he sent nine galleys to attack the Swedish coast. He 
had already lost two galleys, and had to detach four others for 
repairs, and in this expedition he lost five more. Still, the 
Swedish town of Umea was burnt, and a few local vessels 
destroyed. Apraksin moved a little further north to 
Nykarleby, but could not get into communication with the 
army, and therefore withdrew. Six more galleys were lost, 
and on November 10th the fleet was put into winter quarters 
at Nysted, a little north of Abo. It was now composed of 47 
galleys, but new construction during the winter almost doubled 
its strength before next year's campaign. As soon as the 
Swedes heard of the laying-up of the Russian fleet they left 
the neighbourhood of Stockholm for Karlskrona, where they 
arrived early in January, 1715. 

* "Materials" i. 536/7. Swedish accounts give it at 3,000 or more. 

t The following ships stayed at Revel for the winter (Materials i. 587): 
Michail (Archangel) 54 ; Viktoria 56 ; Sv. Antonii 50 ; Oksford 50 ; Fortuna 50 ; 
Lansdou 44 ; Samson 30 ; Ilya 26 ; Sv. Petr 24 ; Sv. Pavel 24 ; Natalia 18 ; Diana 
18. The Michail arrived in September from Archangel. The guns of several 
ships are very different to previous lists. 





Sweden had now two more enemies to fight. The accession 
of George, Elector of Hanover, to the English throne in 
August, 1714, soon drew England into the struggle. As ruler 
of Hanover he had bought from Denmark the territories of 
Bremen and Verden, taken from the Swedes, and he had there- 
fore been obliged to go to war with Sweden to keep his pur- 
chases. Naturally in his double quality as ruler of both Eng- 
land and Hanover he made use of the naval power of the 
former to help the latter, but there was, as a matter of fact, 
another reason for hostilities. The treatment of neutral trade 
by the Swedes had produced considerable tension even before 
the death of Queen Anne, and in this question the Dutch we r e 
also concerned to such an extent that they agreed to send a 
fleet to join in the operations of 1715. 

Still, with the return of Carl XII. to the seat of war, the 
Swedes had once' more a leader, and for some years yet they 
managed to keep up the unequal fight. For 1715, Carl XII. 
decided to make his main effort against Russia, and therefore 
sent Vice- Admiral Wachtmeister to the Gulf of Bothnia with 
four battleships, three frigates, and about 50 rowing boats, 
and Admiral Lillje to the Gulf of Finland with seventeen 
battleships and two frigates. At the same time Schoutbynacht 
Wachtmeister was given four battleships and two frigates for 
work at the western end of the Baltic. In April, Wacht- 
meister left Karlskrona and went southward. He did a good 
deal of damage in Femern, and one of his frigates, the Hvita 
Orn 30, captured the Danish 0rn 20 off Dornebusch, after an 
engagement lasting two and a half hours. He now expected to 
receive reinforcements from Gothenburg through the Belt, but 
before these could join him he was attacked by a superior force 
of Danes, who had left Copenhagen on April 17th to look for 
him. The two fleets were as follows : 

Swedes : Prinsessa Hedvig Sophia 75, Nordstjerna 76, 
Sodermanland 56, Goteborg 50, Hvita Orn 30, Folk 26. 

Danes : Prinds Christian 76, Prinds Carl 54, Prinds Wil- 
helm 54, Nelleblad 52, Delmenhorst 50, Island 50, Laaland 
50, Fyen 50, Hejenhald 30, Raae 30, Levendals Gallej 20, 
three small craft, one fireship. 

1715. 163 

Early on April 24th the two fleets sighted one another. They 
were a little to the east of Femern, the Swedes about seven 
miles north of the Danes. At first there was hardly any wind, 
and both sides had to use their boats for towing, but eventually, 
about noon, a breeze sprang up from E.S.E. and enabled the 
Danes to close. About four o'clock the action began with both 
fleets on the port tack, the Danes to windward, and the wind 
apparently backing slightly. In spite of the disparity in 
force Wachtmeister accepted battle without trying to escape. 
The Prinds Christian 76, flagship of Schoutbynacht Gabel, the 
Danish commander, was driven out of the line, but came back 
later. After some time Wachtmeister tacked with the idea of 
cutting off the last two Danish ships, but Gabel also tacked, 
and kept to windward. Later on, the Swedes made another 
attempt to cut the line, and in this attempt the Sodermanland 
56 lost her foretopmast, had her captain killed, and bore up 
out of action. The rest of the Swedish ships followed, with in 
the Danes in pursuit, and finally darkness put an end to the 
fight at about nine p.m.* 

Both fleets anchored between Femern and Langeland, the 
Danes to the eastward. The wind was northerly, making it 
difficult to enter the Great Belt, but about midnight it veered 
to the east, and Wachtmeister got under way, steering north- 
wards. Still, with his damaged ships he found it impossible 
to weather the southern end of Langeland in the existing con- 
ditions of uncertain wind and strong current, so altered course 
and ran for the coast of Holstein. Off Biilck, at the entrance 
to Kiel Fjord, he put his ships ashore, either by accident or 
intentionally, and at once began to do his best to make it im- 
possible for the Danes to refloat them. In the meantime the 
Hvita Orn 30 had been in a fair way to escape through the 
Great Belt, when the Lgwendals Gallej 20 intercepted her, and 
in conjunction with the Raae 30 forced her to follow Wacht- 
meister. t Following her towards Kiel, Wessel, in the Leven- 
dals Gallej, found the Swedish ships helplessly aground with 
their crews working desperately to destroy them. At once he 

* Accounts of this fight are difficult to reconcile. Garde (Hist. ii. 48/9) says 
the action began at 4 p.m. ; at 6.15 the Swedes tacked ; at 7 o'clock the second 
attempt to cut the line took place, and the Sodermanland was damaged ; at 
9.30 the firing ended. Tornquist (ii. 66/7) says firing began at 2 p.m. ; at 2.30 
Wachtmeister tacked ; at 4.30 the Prinds Christian returned to the line and 
the Sodermanland was damaged ; at 9.30 the action ended. Furthermore, 
according to the Danish story, Wachtmeister's flagship was raked from aft in 
her first attempt to cut the line, though it is distinctly stated that she tacked. 
Probably all that is certain is that the Danes were to windward and got the 
best of the action. 

t According to Tornquist (ii. 68) the captain of the Hvita Orn was forced to 
give up his attempt to escape by a mutiny among 150 Saxon soldiers who were 
on board. 

M 2 


sent a flag of truce to inform Wachtmeister that unless all 
such work ceased instantly the Danes would give no quarter. 
Wachtmeister thereupon surrendered, and was sent by Wessel 
on board Gabel's flagship on his arrival later in the morning 
with the Danish fleet. The Swedish commander was treated 
by the Danes with every mark of respect. On his coming 
alongside the Levendals Gallej, Wessel gave him a salute of 
seven guns, and Gabel, finding that he had thrown away his 
sword, gave him his own to wear. 

The Danes had lost in the action 65 killed and 220 wounded. 
The Swedish loss is not known, save for the flagship which had 
28 killed and 58 wounded, but it is known that 1,875 prisoners 
were sent to E-endsborg.* All the ships were refloated and re- 
paired by the Danes with the exception of the Prinsessa 
Hedvig Sophia 75, Wachtmeister's flagship, which was found 
too much damaged to be moved, and was therefore burnt. As soon 
as the salvage of the Swedish ships was complete Gabel sent 
them to Copenhagen. He also sent three battleshipst to join 
Admiral E/aben, who had entered the Baltic with seven battle- 
ships. With his five remaining battleships he sailed to 
blockade Gothenburg. 

Early in July the English and Dutch appeared on the scene. 
On July 5th the Dutch squadron of twelve battleships, J under 
Schoutbynacht de Veth, arrived in the Sound, escorting a 
large fleet of merchantmen, and on the 10th Admiral Sir John 
Norris joined him with eighteen English battleships. On the 
12th they proceeded together to Kjoge Bay, and, having decided 
to act in common, but to confine themselves to convoy work 
without assuming the offensive, they put to sea on the 17th. 

At the same time the Allies, urged by the presence of Carl 
XII., decided on another attack on Stralsund. As before, all 
the available light draught Danish vesselsll were put under 
the command of Vice- Admiral Sehested for this purpose. On 
July 9th the flotilla left Copenhagen, escorted by Raben's fleet, 

* Garde calculates the original complement of the Swedish fleet at 2,500, but 
probably 2,000 would be nearer the mark. 

t Fyen 50; Prinds Wilhelm 54; Nelleblad 52. 

Gelderland 72 ; Boeteslaar 64 ; Wolfswinckel 54 ; '< Buys te Nek 54 ; Nyen- 
huit 52; Oosterwijk 52; Curacoa 52; Matenes 52; Vredenhof 44; Diepenheim 
44; Edam 44; 't Buys te Varmelo 40. 

Cumberland 86 ; Norfolk 80 ; Essex 70 ; Bur ford 70 ; Plymouth 60 ; Rippon 
60 ; Dreadnought 60 ; Assistance 50 ; Severn 50 ; Bonaventure 50 ; Chatham 50 ; 
Hampshire 50 ; Centurion 50 ; Weymouth 50 ; Moor 50 ; Swallow 50 ; Advice 50 ; 
Burlington 50. Lediard 867 n. The Danish list in Rothe 306 omits the Plymouth 
and Burlington and adds the Tiger 50. 

|| Ditmarsken 46, battleship ; Leopard 24, Kongens Jagt Krone 24, frigates ; 
Gravenstein 14, Phoenix 20, Raev 8, Hummer 8 (ex-Swede), snows ; Ark Noa 16, 
Helleflynder 14, Ebenetzer 12, prams ; Chrittianse 26, Haab 10, Beskjaermer 10, 
merchantment ; 2 bombs, 4 hoys, 2 galliots, 4 fireships, 6 storeahipa. 


[To /ace pagre 165. 

1715. 165 

now thirteen battleships strong. On the 15th Eaben was joined 
by three more battlesnips from the North Sea,* and on the 
18th he anchored off the New Deep. Next day he was forced 
to retreat by the arrival of a Swedish fleet of twenty battle- 
shipst from Karlskrona under Admiral Baron Sparre with 
transports containing troops for Stralsund. The Swedish 
fleet was to windward with a breeze from E.N.E., but the 
Danes were able to weather Jasmund, and then, bearing away 
a bit, keep on out to sea. Sparre pursued for some distance, 
and even got close enough to open fire, but as soon as the Danes 
were far enough from Eiigen to make it sure that he would be 
able to disembark his troops in safety he gave up the chase, 
ordered his fleet to tack together, and returned to Eiigen to 
carry out his orders. 

Eaben's retreat left Sehested unsupported among the shoals 
of the New Deep. Hearing from the Prussians that they pro- 
posed attacking Usedom he anchored his fleet close in shore off 
that island. Here he was attacked by troops ashore, by a de- 
tachment from the Swedish fleet, J and by eight vessels from 
Stralsund. The battleships, however, could not get in close 
enough, and the other vessels were not strong enough to do any 
great harm ; but the Danish flotilla was hard pressed from all 
sides until July 31st, when the Prussians, who had captured 
Wolgast on the mainland two days earlier, crossed into Usedom 
and drove the Swedish troops back into Peenemiinde. This 
relieved the pressure on the land side, and a week later the 
return of Eaben with the Danish battleship fleet put an end 
to all Sehested's difficulties. 

Eaben had, as a matter of fact, not retreated far. He had 
remained in the waters between Kjoge Bay and Eiigen, and 
had kept in touch with the Swedes by means of his frigates. 
One of these, the Hvide 0rn 30 (the Swedish Hvita Orn, taken 
off Biilck) was commanded by Wessel, the former captain of 
the Lovendals Galley. True to his invariable practice, the 
young captain managed to get some brisk fighting; on July 
20th he was engaged near Eiigen by the Swedish battleship 
Osel 50, and on August 4th by the Frederica Amalia 64 and 
Vdlkomsten 24, but in both cases got away unharmed. Mean- 

* Line of Battle: Ebenetzer 54; Jylland 70; Justitia 90 (V.-Ad. J. Juel) ; 
Prinds Wilhelm 54; Oldenborg 52; Sophia Hedvig 76; Fyen 52; Haffru 70; 
Elephant 90 (Ad. Raben) ; Prinds Christian 76 (V.-Ad. Gabel) ; Nelleblad 52; 
Prinds Carl 54; Laaland 50; Dronning Louisa 70 (V.-Ad. Tr0jel ; Beskjermer 
64; Wenden 72. 

t See list of August 8th. 

j Including the Oland 54, with Carl XII. himself on board, and the Osel 50. 
Sehested's own account (Sehesteds Saga) says there were 8 battleships and 2 
frigates. All others say 5 battleships and 3 frigates. 

Dykert 20, pram ; Stralsund 24, Vdlkomsten 24, Thais 24, Thomas 24, Kiskin 
20, Grip 14, frigates; 1 bomb. 


while, on July 30th, Raben was joined by three more battle- 
ships from Copenhagen,* and on August 4th by the last two 
from the North Sea.t This put him on an equality with the 
Swedes, and he at once steered for Rtigen to relieve Sehested, 
but through lack of wind it was not until August 8th that the 
two fleets met. 

Swedish Fleet (in line of battle). (6) Skane 62, (19) Breh- 
en 68, (S.B.N.), (20) Oland 54, (9) Pommern 56, (17) Prins 
Carl 90, (Ad. Lillje), (1) Smdland 66, (18) Osel 50, (16) Riga 

54, (15) Stockholm 68 (S.B.N.), (11) Gotha Lejon 96 (Ad. 
Sparre), (2) Prins Carl Frederik 72 (S.B.N.), (8) Westmanland 
62, (12) Estland 50, (21) Gottland 50, (13) Verden 54, (5) 
Enighet 96, (Ad. Henck), (7) Fredrica Amalia 64, (14) Lifland 
50, (4) Wenden 72 (S.B.N.), (3) Karlskrona 72. 

20 ships, 1,310 guns.J 

Danish Fleet (in line of battle reversed). Wenden 72 
(S.B.N.), Beskjermer 64, Prins Carl 54, Nordstjern 70, Dron- 
ning Louisa 70 (Vice- Ad. Trejel), Laaland 50, Nelleblad 52, 
Svan 60, Island 50, Prinds Christian 76, Elephant 90 (Ad. 
Raben), Haffru 70, Fyen 52, Anna Sophie 60, Delmenhorst 50, 
Oldenborg 50, Justitia 90 (V.-Ad. Juel), Sophie Hedvig 76, 
Prins Wilhelm 54, Jylland 70, Ebenetzer 64 (S.B.N.). 

21 ships, 1,344 guns. 

They were, as the foregoing lists show, very evenly matched, 
and an indecisive action followed. The position at 8 a.m., 
when they sighted one another, was as follows: Sparre, with 
15 of his ships, was at anchor in Prorer Bay, on the east coast 
of Riigen, while the other five Swedish battleships were off 
Greifswalder Island, some twelve miles to the S.S.W. The 
wind was N.W., and the Danes were approaching before the 
wind close to the north and east coasts of Rugen. Sparre at 
once ran down towards his detached ships, signalling to them 
to weigh anchor and join him. At about noon he formed line 
on the port tack a little off the wind, and Raben thereupon also 
put his fleet into line to windward, with the Rear squadron 
leading. At 2 p.m. the action began. The Swedes gradually 
bore away, and the Danes never really closed in, but firing went 
on with great determination on either side, until Raben hauled 
to the wind at about eight o'clock and the fleets parted. Many 
of the Swedish ships had suffered severely. Both the Osel 50 

* Nordstjern 70 (ex-Swede); Anna Sophie 60; Svan 60. These had scratch 
crews, including 88 soldier volunteers. 

t Delmenhorst 50; Island 50. 

+ Raben's report puts the ships in the order shown by the numbers in brackets, 
and adds at No. 10 the Gotha 70 (V.-Ad. Selander). This version is founded on 
the statements of a Swedish lieutenant captured by the Hvide 0rn on his way to 
join his ship just before the action. Wilster, the former Danish Schoutbynacht, 
had his flag in the Stockholm. 

1715. 167 

and the Gottland 50 had had to leave the line altogether, and 
were sent at once to Karlskrona, while the Gdtha Lejon 96, 
Enighet 90, and Pommern 50 had many hits on or below the 
water line, and were in no fit state for further fighting. 
Besides this, the Prins Carl Fredrik 72 and Westmanland 62 
had been in collision, and were both somewhat damaged. The 
Danish vessels were not much hurt. The Svan 60 had to leave 
the line for a time to replenish her ammunition supply, but her 
place had been taken by Wessel in the Hvide 0rn 30. In per- 
sonnel the losses were more equal, though here the Danes suf- 
fered slightly the more. They lost 127 killed, including Vice- 
Admiral Juel, commander of the Van squadron, and had 466 
wounded, while in the Swedish fleet 165 were killed and 360 
wounded, the commanders of both Van and Rear, Admiral 
Lillje and Admiral Henck, being among the killed. 

Next morning the Danes were some ten miles to windward 
Sparre steered for Bornholm to join a convoy of provisions 
expected from Karlskrona, and the Danes, after watching him 
as far as that island, returned and anchored at 5.30 p.m. in 
Prorer Bay. The Hvide 0rn 30, out cruising, fell in with the 
Osel 50 and Gottland 50 in the night of August 8th-9th on their 
way to Karlskrona. Wessel at once attacked the Osel, raked 
her from aft, and would very probably have taken her had not 
three more Swedish battleships appeared at daybreak. On the 
10th the Hvide 0rn came up with the Swedish convoy. Sparre 
had found it the day feefore, and besides being in sight of the 
main Swedish fleet it was under the protection of the Phoenix 
34 and Kronskepp 20,* but even so Wessel managed to take 
and get away with one of the ten Swedish merchantmen. 
Sparre intended to return to Riigen with the convoy, but he 
was kept near Bornholm for some days by fogs, and eventually 
thought it best to go to Karlskrona to refit. As soon as Raben 
heard of this he took the Danish fleet back to Kjoge Bay. 

At the other end of the Baltic the first move had been made 
by the Eussians. On April 20th Captain Bredal left Revel 
with the Samson 36, Sv. Pavel 32, Sv. Petr 32, and Diana 18 
to attack Swedish privateers. He succeeded in taking three, 
the Enhdrning 18, Esperance 11, and Stockholm Gallej 10, 
and was back at Revel with his prizes at the beginning of May. 
A little later Lillje's squadron reached Hango, and on June 9th 
twelve of his battleships carried out an unsuccessful long range 

* The Kronksepp is described by Wessel (Rothe i. 344) as " a French battleship 
of 60 guns captured by the Swedes last year," and he further states that she 
" had landed her lower deck guns, and carries 8 pounders on the main deck 
and 4 pounders on the forecastle and poop, so that she now has 20 guns." She 
was presumably the Russian Bulinbruk (Bolingbroke) taken in 1713. The list of 
1719 gives her 56 guns. 


attack on the Russian ships in Revel. After this Lillje re- 
turned to Karlskrona to reinforce the fleet for Stralsund, and 
the Russian battleships were able to get to sea. The ships at 
Petersburg were fitted out, and on July 17th the fleet left 
Kotlin for Revel eleven battleships strong,* escorting over 40 
galleys. Apraksin was in charge, while the Tsar, now a Vice- 
Admiral, was his second in command. On the 19th the fleet 
reached Revel, and joined the ships there. The Anglo-Dutch 
fleet had already visited Revel, but had put to sea again before 
the arrival of the ships from Kronslot. It had escorted to 
Revel three newly-bought Russian ships from England, the 
London 54, Britania 50 (ex-Great Allen), and Ritchmond 44 
(ex-Swiftsure). With these and the ships already at Revel the 
following fleet was constituted : 

Leferm 70, Ekaterina 65, Shlisselburg 64, Poltava 54, Sv. 
Michail 52, Rafail 52, Gavriil 52, Riga 52, Pernov 52, Perl 52, 
London 52, Randolf 50, Oksford 50, Sv. Antonii 50, Fortuna 
48, Ritchmond 46, Arondel 44, four frigates. t 

Other ships that were left in harbour for want of men 
were the Victoria 50, Britania 50, Armont 50, Straford 50, 
Lansdou 44, and Sv. Nikolai 42. 

On July 21st Bredal was sent out with four frigates and 
three snows. He landed a few men in Gothland and cruised 
off the Stockholm skargard, but saw no Swedish ships, and 
was back again on August 14th. In the meantime the rest 
of the fleet cruised off Dago, the northernmost of the two large 
islands to the north of the Gulf of Riga. The galleys then 
went to Hapsal, in Esthonia, east of Dago, and on August 2nd 
the battleships entered Rager Vik, a harbour twenty miles 
west of Revel. Next day the English and Dutch squadrons 
passed on their way to Revel, and on the 4th the Russians 
joined them there. Three weeks of mutual entertainment 
followed, till, on August 27th, the Anglo-Dutch fleet left for 
home, escorted as far as the island of Nargen, at the mouth 
of Revel Bay, by the Russian squadron, which was back 
again at Revel on September 2nd. On September 10th the 
English and Dutch anchored in Kjoge Bay. 

After the withdrawal of Sparre's fleet, Sehested was able to 
take the offensive in the neighbourhood of Stralsund. Up 
to now he had remained at anchor off the north-east corner 
of the island of Usedom, which, with the adjacent parts of 
the mainland, was in the hands of his allies, the Prussians. 
In the New Deep, between Riiden and Riigen, lay the eight 

* A new battleship, the Narva 64, was blown up by lightning on July 8th. 
Only 19 men out of 400 were saved. 

t This list is taken from " The Russian Fleet under Peter the Great," p. 42. 
The guns given are somewhat different to those in other lists. 

1715. 169 

Swedish ships from Stralsund, while Captain Unbehawen (or 
Cronhawen), with seven Swedish frigates, was in the harbour 
of Stettin to prevent communication by water between that 
town and the besiegers of Stralsund. Sehested decided to 
attack Unbehawen first, and accordingly sent his smaller 
vessels through the Svinemunde entrance into Stettin harbour. 
The first attack was repulsed after six hours' fighting, but on 
the arrival of Danish reinforcements the Swedes retreated. 
Their only possible avenue of escape was the passage between 
Usedom. and the mainland, and here they had to run the 
gauntlet not only of batteries on shore, but of Sehested's fleet 
at the northern end. The flagship lost no fewer than 72 
men put of 120, but they got through and joined the other 
Swedish ships in the New Deep. Sehested was now reinforced 
by the new pram Hjaelper 46, and three galleys from Norway, 
the Prinds Christian, Louisa, and Charlotte Amalia, of seven 
guns each. On September 17th he left his position off 
Usedom, and began to work up towards the Swedish squadron. 
This consisted now of thirteen so-called " Stralsund frigates " 
and various small craft. Eight frigates, with some thirty 
guns each were anchored in a line across the channel, with the 
other vessels as a second line. From 9 a.m. on the 24th until 
dark and from daybreak next day till noon the action went 
on, but at laist the Swedes gave way. Cronhawen, with ten 
ships, took shelter under B-uden, while Anckarcrona retreated 
with the other three to Iserhoft, on the south coast of E,ugen, 
only to be followed by the Danes and forced to set his ships 
on fire and abandon them. The total Danish loss was forty 

After its return to Kjoge Bay in August the Danish battle- 
ship fleet found little occupation for the rest of the year. It- 
cruised to some extent between Copenhagen and Eiigen, but 
for the greater part of the autumn it remained at anchor in 
Kjoge Bay, though its cruisers showed considerable activity. 
During the latter part of August Yice- Admiral Trejel was 
sent with seven battleships* to escort a convoy to Pomerania. 
On September 10th the Anglo-Dutch fleet arrived in Kjoge 
Bay, and on the 15th eight English battleshipst and a frigate 
joined the Danes. On October 1st the Hvide 0rn 30 was 
attacked by the Swedish Riga 54 and Phoenix 34 off E-iigen, 
but managed to drive them off in spite of the loss of her main- 
mast and mizzen topmast. After the action the fore topmast 
went as well, and the Hvide 0rn, at anchor in the open sea, 

* Dronning Louisa 70; Nordstjern 70; Jylland 70; Ebenetzer 64; Beskjermer 
64; Prinds Carl 54; Laaland 50. 

t Essex 70; Burford 70; Plymouth 60; Dreadnought 60; Assistance 50; 
Severn 50; Weymouth 50; Chatham 50. 


nearly sank in the gale which followed. At last, in the after- 
noon of the 3rd, she crawled in towards Jasmund, driving 
away the Phoenix, which was anchored there. Wessel carried 
out temporary repairs on the spot, and reached Copenhagen for 
a refit on October 9th. He had only lost five killed and fourteen 
wounded. While he was away Admiral Raben had gone ashore 
ill, and on October 4th General Admiral Count Gyldenleve 
had taken command of the fleet. 

About the middle of October, and again on November 13th, 
the Swedish fleet of 20 battleships left Karlskrona to relieve 
Stralsund, but each time they were driven back by stress of 
weather. On November 23rd seven ships left Karlskrona under 
Vice-Admiral Taube, but they also had to return. Wessel, in 
the Hvide 0rn, fell in with them on the 27th and watched 
them till the 30th, when they steered for Karlskrona. On 
December 3rd the Danish fleet went into winter quarters at 
Copenhagen save for 8 battleships which were left in Kjoge 
Bay under Gabel. Most of the English and Dutch ships had 
gone home, but four English battleship stayed for some time 
to co-operate with this Danish squadron. Five of the Danish 
battleships were sent, with two frigates and a snow,* under 
Schoutbynacht Kaas, to blockade Stralsund. Wessel managed 
to fight yet another action against a superior force. On 
December 7th he chased the Swedish Svarta Orn 20 from her 
anchorage off R/ugen, but was prevented from capturing her 
next day by the presence of the Verden 54, which was too 
strong for him to engage for any length of time. 

The occupation of Riigen by the Prussians soon began to take 
effect. On November 22nd Cronhawen took off the garrison of 
Riiden and sailed with six of his ships for Sweden. Stralsund, 
too, was obviously bound to fall soon. Carl XII., therefore, 
looked about for some means of escape. In the night of 
December 20/21st he embarked in a small boat and cut his 
way through the ice to the old galley Hvalfisk, which lay some 
distance out. At 4 p.m. on December 21st he went on board 
her and got to isea. At noon on the 22nd he transhipped to the 
Snappop 11, and at 5 a.m. on the 23rd he lancled at Trelleborg, 
having been away from Sweden for just over 15 years. The 
day that he landed Stralsund surrendered. Admiral Taube 
had meanwhile got to sea again with five battleships and 14 
storeships with 700 soldiers and stores for Stralsund, but meet- 
ing two other small craft from that town he received orders 
to go to Wismar. Some of the storeships were got into the 
harbour by cutting a channel in the ice, while others were 

* Wenden 72; Ebenetzer 64; Beskjermer 64; Delmenhorst 50; Sydermanland 
46 ; Raae 30 ; Svenske Sophia 20 ; Maage 10. 

1715-1716. 171 

unloaded on the ice and their freight transported to Wismar.* 
Taube returned to Ystad, in Blekinge, for the winter on 
January 8th, 1716, and about the same time Kaas's squadron 
arrived back at Copenhagen. 

With the Anglo-Dutch fleet five Russian ships came to 
Copenhagen. These were the Oksford 50, Perl 50, Samson 32, 
Sv. Pavel 32, and Straford 50. The last-named was to go to 
Holland for stores and gear, while the others, with five ships 
from Archangel, were to form a North Sea fleet. The rest of 
the Russian fleet was laid up for the winter. Twelve shipst 
were left at Revel, the others were sent to Kronslot. On 
August 14th the galleys at Hapsal were sent for the winter 
to Libau, in Courland. The Finnish galley squadron, which 
was now about 150 strong, wintered this year at Abo. It had 
not been very active; from Nyistad it had proceeded to the 
Aland Islands, and Golitsin, with 15 galleys, had crossed to 
the Swedish coast, but after engaging two Swedish battleships 
and a frigate^: he returned to Finland. The fleet went into 
winter quarters on September 2nd. 

The North Sea fleet was not a success. The Straford 50 
reached Holland, and returned safely to Copenhagen with some 
400 men for the Russian service, though she was nearly sunk 
by ice in the Texel. The rest of the ships were less fortunate. 
The Sv. Pavel 32 had to be left at Copenhagen as unseaworthy, 
and was eventually broken up there. The Perl 50 and 
Samson 32 were damaged and had to put back. The former 
was replaced by the Oksford 50, which had been left at Copen- 
hagen with crews for the new ships, and about the middle 
of October both the Oksford and Samson reached England. 
Here they found the new Dutch-built ships Marlburg (Marl- 
borough) 60, Portsmut (Portsmouth) 54, and Devonshir 
(Devonshire) 52. The five ships wintered in England, and 
in June, 1716, all reached Copenhagen except the Oksford, 
which, being worn out and unfit for service, was left in England 
and eventually sold there in 1717. The Archangel ships also 
failed to do much towards establishing a North Sea fleet. In 
September, 1715, five ships left Archangel under Captain 

* In spite of this relief Wismar, the last Swedish town south of the Baltic, 
fell in April, 1716. 

t Ekaterina 64 ; Ingermanland 64 (a new ship) ; Poltava 54 ; Bafail 54 ; Gavriil 
54; Michail 54; Fortuna 48; Lansdou 40; Arondel 48; Sv. Petr 32; with two 
battleships to be used as storeships, the Viktoria 50 and Sv. Nikolai 48. 

+ The following list of the Swedish ships near Stockholm in August was com- 
piled by a prisoner belonging to the flagship, a Dutchman in Swedish service: 
Holland 58 (44); Wollgast 26 (40); Karlskrona Wapen 30 (34); Wachtmeister 
56 (52); Anklam 28 (42); Euskenfeldt 24 (38); Revel 30 (40); Mars 30 (20); 
3 8's; &c. 

Names have been corrected. Guns in brackets are from 1719 list. 


Senyayin. They were the four new 52-gun battleships Uriil. 
Selafail, Varachail, and Yagudiil, with the Transport Royal 20, 
a yacht given to Peter in 1697 by William III. of England. 
The Uriu and Selafail reached Copenhagen in December, the 
Varachail wintered at Flekkero in Norway, and the Yagudiil, 
after putting back for repairs, wintered near Trondhjem. The , 
Transport Hoyal was wrecked on the Swedish coast near 

Carl XII. wasted no time after his return to Sweden. On 
March 8th, 1716, he crossed the Norwegian frontier with 10,000 
men and marched on Christiania, where he began the siege 
of the citadel Aggershuus on March 21st. On April 6th Vice- 
Admiral Grabel left Copenhagen with 7 battleships,* 6 frigates, 
and 4 snows, and after putting into Frederikshavn for troops 
sailed for Norway. He relieved Aggershuus and Frederikstad, 
landed hi troops, and supported the successful attack on the 
town of Moss on Christiania Fjord on April 23rd. After this 
Carl XII. retired to Frederikshald, near the frontier. 

About the same time two battleships and a frigatet were 
ordered to Stralsund to escort the Danish coastal craft thence, 
and on May 1st Schoutbynacht Kaas sailed with 4 battleships* 
as a reinforcement in view of the news that the Swedes were 
about to put to sea. On May 5th Kaas, with his seven vessels, 
met 14 Swedish battleships and 6 frigates under Admiral 
Wachtmeister, who chased him from Bornholm into Kjoge Bay, 
and then anchored off Falsterbo on the 7th. Kaas was joined 
next day by two Danish and two Russian battleships, and 
on the 13th by the former Swedish battleship Giotteborg 42, 
but the Swedes made no attack, and withdrew towards Born- 
holm. Meanwhile the Russian Revel fleet of 7 battleships, 
3 frigates, || and 3 snows had left Revel on May 1st and sailed 
as far as Bornholm, but, hearing of the Swedes' being at sea, 
Sivers, the Russian captain-commodore, decided to put back, and 
reached Revel again on May 23rd. The galleys, on the other 
hand, had made considerable progress westwards. They had 
left Libau on April 18th and reached Danzig on May 16th, 
having passed through the Kurisches Haff and Frisches Haff 
and the inland waterways connecting them. Wachtmeister 
heard of the movements of the Russian ships and sailed to 
Danzig to intercept them, but found only the galleys there, 

* Prinds Christian 76; Beskjermer 64; Ebenetzer 64; Prinds Wilhelm 54; 
Fyen 52; Delmenhorst 50; Laaland 50. 

t Nordstjern 72 ; Island 50 ; Loss 26. 

$ Wenden 72; Justitia 90; Jylland 70; Haffru 70. 

Prinds Carl 54 ; Selafail 52 ; Uriil 52 ; Oldenborg 50. 

|| Or nine battleships and one frigate. The classification of the Arondel 44 
and Lansdou 44 waa very variable. 


[To face page 173. 

1716. 173 

and was of course unable to get at them. Fearing to be cut 
off from his base by the Danes or English, he returned to 
Karlskrona and was back there early in June. 

The withdrawal of the Swedes enabled the Danes to make 
another attempt to fetch their vessels from Pomerania. On 
May 25th four battleships and two frigates* were ordered to 
act as convoy, and on June 18th the ships from Stralsund 
reached Copenhagen. In the interval despatches had arrived 
from Gabel, in the Kattegat, that his big ships could do 
nothing to prevent the Swedish small craft coming and going 
between Gothenburg and Frederikshald, and that light-draught 
vessels were essential. Wessel therefore was ordered to take 
several ships to help Gabel and to relieve Frederiksten, the 
citadel of Frederikshald, besieged by the Swedes. He had been 
raised to the nobility at. the end of 1715 under the name of 
Tordenskjold, and had reached Copenhagen from Norway in 
the Hvide 0rn on the very day of the arrival of the Stralsund 

On July 2nd he left Copenhagen with two prams, two frigates, 
and three galleys, and on the 7th he heard that some Swedish 
small craft escorting transports from Gothenburg to Fredriks- 
hald had put into Dynekilen, the fjord just south of that 
leading to their destination. At 6 a.m. on July 8th he passed 
the entrance and at 7.30 he anchored and opened fire. 

The two flotillas were as follows : 

Danes: Hjaelper 46, Ark Noa 24, t prams; Hvide 0rn 
30, Vindhund 16, frigates; Prinds Christian 7, Louisa 7, 
Charlotta Amalia 7, galleys.. 

Swedes: Stenbock 24 (c). pram; Proserpina 14 (cV Ulysses 
6 (c), Lucretia 13 (c), Hecla 13 (d), galleys; Achilles 5 (c), 
Pollux 5 (c), Hector 5 (c), Castor 5 (d), half galleys; six 
" double sloops. "t 

The Swedish ships were supported by a battery of six 12- 
pounders on an island in the middle of the harbour, and made 
a stubborn defence, but the Danish fire was too strong. About 
1 p.m. the battery was taken and its guns spiked; a little later 
the Stenbock surrendered and the crews of the galleys ran 
them ashore and deserted them. Tordenskjold was thus master 
of the situation, but in the meantime Swedish troops had 

* Nordstjern 72 ; Sydermanland 46 ; Haffru 70 ; Island 50 ; Loss 26 ; Lovendals 
Gallej 20 

t She had previously carried only sixteen guns, but was found able to carry 
more, and was given eighteen additional 8-pounders. However, only eight of 
these were on board for this expedition. (Garde, Hist. ii. 69 n.) 

t This is the Swedish list (Tornquist ii. 84). The Danish account adds 
another galley, the Wrede, and calls two of the " double sloops " " half galleys." 
According to the Swedes they had fourteen transports, but the Danes claim to 
have taken nineteen and destroyed ten. There were also a few armed boats. 


arrived and began to make his position somewhat precarious. 
Still, he waited to secure as many of his prizes as he could 
and destroy the rest before he left the fjord under a heavy 
fire at 9 p.m. Altogether he brought away one pram, three 
galleys, three half-galleys, two double sloops, two boats, and 
nineteen transports.* His loss in killed and wounded was 76. 
On the following day he anchored with his prizes at Mage, 
outside Frederikshald, and was joined there by three of Gabel's 
battleships.! This victory put an end to Carl XII. 's invasion 
of Norway. He raised the siege of Frederiksten and with- 
drew. Tordenskjold was promoted to Commodore and given 
a special gold medal. 

A gigantic combined fleet was now collected at Copenhagen. 
The first section to arrive was the English fleet of nineteen 
battleships under Admiral Sir John Norris, who reached the 
Sound on June 7th. Two days later seven Russian battleships 
and a frigate came in from the North Sea, having assembled 
at Flekkero, and going on to Copenhagen on the 10th they 
joined the Uriil and Selafail there. On July 13th a Dutch 
squadron of six battleships joined Norris in the Sound, and 
they went on to Copenhagen together. On the 17th the Tsar 
arrived from Rostock with thirty-seven galleys and a snow, and 
on the 30th the second division of the Russian battleship fleet 
arrived from Revel after a passage of seventeen days. Mean- 
while, the Danish ships had been commissioned, so that on 
August 7th Gyldenleve was able to join the Allies with a force 
of eighteen battleships. 

Lists of the various fleets follow : 

English. Cumberland 80, Shrewsbury 80, Essex 70, Bur- 
ford 70, Dreadnought 60, Plymouth 60, Auguste 60, Exeter 60, 
Severn 50, Hampshire 50, Strafford 50, Burlington 50, Wey- 
mouth 50, Oxford 50, Falmouth 50, Chatham 50, Falkland 50, 
Charles Galley 40, Lynn 40. Nineteen battleships, 1,070 guns. 

Dutch. Boeteslaer 64, Batavier 52, Brakel 52, t Hof van 
Reenen 52, Edam 44, Caleb 44. Six battleships, 308 guns. 

Russians. From North Sea and Copenhagen : Marlburg 64, 
Devonshir 56, Portsmut 54, Perl 52, Varachail 52, Yagudiil 52, 
Uriil 52, Selafail 52, Straford 50. From Revel : Ingerman- 
land 66, Sv. Ekaterina 66, Poltava 54, Michail 54, Gavriil 54, 
Rafail 54, Fortuna 50, Arondel 44, Lansdou 44. Eighteen 
battleships, 970 guns. 

* The Swedish galley Wrede is said by the Danes to have been blown up, but 
Swedish accounts do not mention her as having been present. She was certainly 
at Gothenburg next year, so cannot have been destroyed. The vessels captured 
are marked (c) and those destroyed (d). The Hector is said to have been cap- 
tured, but does not appear in the Danish list for 1710/19 (Garde. Eft. ii.). Pro- 
bably she was found useless and destroyed later. 

t Prinds Wilhelm 50; Fyen 52; Delmenhorst 50. 

1716. 175 

Danes.* Elefant 90. Justitia 86, Nordstjern 70, Wenden 72, 
Prinds Christian 76, Vronning Louisa 70, Sophia Hedvig 76, 
Haffru 70, Jylland 70, Beskjermer 64, Ebenetzer 64, Prinds 
Carl 54, Prinds Wilhelm 54, Oldenborg 52, ^i/en 50, Island 
50, Delmenhorst 50, Laaland 50. Nineteen battleships, 1,268 

The allied fleet therefore consisted of no less than sixty-two 
battleships, with 3,616 guns; an immense force, nearly three 
times as great as anything that the Swedes could put against 

In spite of its overwhelming strength this fleet did very 
little. Neither Gfyldenleve nor Norris would consent to take 
orders from the other, and the Tsar was therefore recognised 
as Commander-in-Chief . Fourteen of the English ships formed 
the van, the eighteen Danes the centre, and fourteen Russians 
the rear.t It was arranged that in action Peter should shift 
to the Arondel 44 and take up a position behind the line abreast 
of the centre with six other Eussian frigates and snows. The 
Dutch ships, with the five remaining English battleships, + 
were to convoy merchantmen to the various Baltic ports. 

On August 16th the Tsar hoisted the signal to get under 
way and the Dutch and English promptly passed the Drogden 
Channel and entered Kjoge Bay, but the Danes, having no 
pilots, were unable to move before the 18th. The Eussians 
seem to ha've got under way after the English and Dutch but 
before the Danes, since the greater part of the fleet left Kjoge 
Bay on the 18th, and was joined by the Danes off Bornholm 
on the 20th. Frigates were at once sent towards Karlskrona 
and returned on the 22nd with the information that the 
Swedish fleet of some twenty battleships was ready to sail, 
though it was, of course, not likely to do so in the face of such 
a superior force. The convoys were now sent off under the 

* This is the list given by Garde (Eft. ii. 333). A letter from Grave, the 
Dutch Commodore, giving the line of battle of the combined fleet, puts the 
Groenwych (?) 70 instead of the Haffru. 

t Of the eighteen Russians in the previous lists two the Arondel and Lansdou 
were counted as frigates. The Straford was used as a storeship, and the 
Portsmut is not mentioned either in the Russian list in " Materials " (ii. 97), or 
in the line of battle sent home by Grave. This letter puts in the Straford and 
omits the Poltava. 

% Weymouth 50; Straff ord 50; Falkland 50; Charles Galley 40; Lynn 40. 

The following list of the Swedish fleet was sent home by Grave. The names 
of ships have been corrected, but the guns left as given in the original : Gotha 
Lejon 90; Enighet 90; Prins Carl 80; Brehmen 70; Wenden 70; Karlskrona 
70; Prins Carl Frederik 70; Stockholm 70; Skdne 66; Fredrika Amalia 64; 
Sm&land 70 ; Westmanland 60 ; Lifland 50 ; Oland 56 ; Estland 50 ; Pommern 56 ; 
Riga 50; Osel 50; Verden 50; Gottland 50; Kronskepp 50; Halland 56; Wacht- 
meister 48; Karlskrona Vapen 36; Revel 40; Wolgast 36; Ruskenfelt 24; 
Anklam 24; Tyska Pris 24; Pollux 12. 


Dutch Commodore Grave, and preparations began for the 
landing in Skane which was the excuse for the assembly of 
such a fleet. 

Mutual suspicion was, however, rife. The Danes knew of 
the efforts made by Gortz, the Swedish Ambassador in Holland, 
to get Russia to join Sweden against Denmark, and were there- 
fore on the look out for treachery. It had been arranged that 
Peter the Great should supply 24,000 men for the projected 
landing, but instead of this no less than 40,000 arrived. 
Further, the Tsar showed no anxietv to proceed with opera- 
tions against Sweden, and seemed more interested in getting 
his troops into the neighbourhood of Copenhagen. The later 
arrivals were therefore quartered in the island of Hven, and 
Danish ships were stationed to prevent any attempt on their 
part to land in Sjaelland. As early as August 25th the Tsar 
had left the fleet with four Russian battleships and gone to 
Riigen with the ostensible purpose of inquiring about the 
transports from Stralsund, and he proceeded thence to Copen- 
hagen, giving orders to the Russian ships to return to Kjoge 
Bay. . Gyldenleve was at once ordered to follow them in con- 
junction with the English, and further instructions were issued 
that the Russian galleys were not to be allowed among the 
islands south and west of Sjaelland. Meanwhile Peter recon- 
noitred the Swedish coast with the Printses 18 and Lizet 18, 
and in spite of difficulties all was ready by September 15th, and 
the landing fixed for the 21st, but on the 17th Peter refused 
to proceed any further before the spring, and the plan fell 
through. On October 16th the Russian galleys left for Ros- 
tock, where they arrived on the 23rd. At the same time the 
Russian troops were also transported to Mecklenburg, convoyed 
by fourteen Danish and twelve English battleships, and on 
November 5th the sailing fleet left for Revel.* 

The English and Danes were back again off Bornholm on 
October 28th, and found that the Swedish fleet was still in 
Karlskrona.t Norris sent his frigates to hurry up the home- 
ward-bound convoys, and on November 9th the English ships 
and convoy joined him. He reached Copenhagen next day,+ 
and the Dutch with their merchantmen came in on the 12th. 
A few days later Norris sailed for home, but left seven ships 
to co-operate with the Danes. He reached the Nore on 
November 29th, while the Dutch did not get back to the Texel 
until December 31st. The departure of the Allies was the 

* The Yagudiil 52 was left at Copenhagen for the winter, 
t The Swedish frigate Ilderim 36 was taken by the English in October and 
handed over to the Danes, who renamed her Pommern. 
% The Auguste 60 was wrecked on November 10th. 

1716-1717. 177 

signal for the Danes to lay up their fleet save for two small 
squadrons in the Baltic* and North Sea.t 

The Russians meanwhile had returned to the Gulf of Fin- 
land. On the way they met the two battleships Shlisselburg 60 
and Moskva 64, which were escorting to Copenhagen the 
Viktoria, now used as a storeship, and eight other transports. 
Taking these with them, they proceeded to Revel since it was 
too late to get into the harbour of Kronslot. On November 21st 
a gale destroyed the breakwater at Revel and wrecked the 
Fortuna 50 and Antonii 50, besides damaging several other 
ships. Four snows had been detached from the fleet before it 
left Copenhagen. One, the Prints es 18, cruised in the North 
Sea, and was finally wrecked on the Norwegian coast. The 
other three, the Lizet 16, Diana 18, and Natalia 18, were 
ordered to winter at Rostock with two galleys, but the Lizet 
was wrecked. In the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Bothnia 
Apraksin had, as before, been supporting the army. He had 
been in the Aland Islands most of the summer, and from 
thence he had sent two detachments to the Swedish coast. 
By the end of the year the Russian occupation of Finland 
was complete. 

The year 1717 saw a further development in the attitude 
of England. The discovery that the Swedish Minister in 
London was involved in a Jacobite plot gave an impetus to 
hostile measures, and a large fleet was accordingly sent to 
the Baltic. It was under the orders of Admiral Sir George 
Byng, and consisted of the following ships: 

Barfleur 90, Cumberland 80, Shrewsbury 80, Devonshire 80, 
Burford 80, Royal Oak 70, Yarmouth 70, Orford 70, Superbe 60, 
Dreadnought 60, York 60, Exeter 60, Panther 50, Burlington 
50, Falmouth 50, Severn 50, Chatham 50, Dartmouth 50, 
Jersey 50, Straff 'ord 50, Chester 50, Dragon 50, Worcester 50, 
Hampshire 50, Gloucester 50, Diamond 40, Pearl 40, Lynn 40, 
1 32. 2 24's. 

This list is from Lediard, who says that Byng left the Nore 
on March 30th with a part of his fleet, the rest not being ready. 
Garde, however, states^ that five English ships reached Nor- 
way on March 23rd as the forerunners of Byng's fleet, and 
gives their names as Royal Anna 40, Roebuck 40, Charles 
Galley 40, Kinsale 36, and Deal Castle 24. Tordenskjold, who 
had been wintering in Norway, received orders on March 29th 

* Nordstjern 70 ; Island 50 ; Delmenhorst 50 ; 5 small craft. The battleships 
returned to Copenhagen on December 17th. 

t Laaland 50 (Tordenskjold) ; Sydermanland 46 ; Fyen 50 ; Hvide 0rn 30 ; 
Raae 30; Sorrider 28; Loss 26; Hjaelper 46; Ark Noa 34; 2 small craft. 

The Sydermanland was damaged and sent back to Copenhagen. The rest 
wintered in Norway, and were joined in January, 1717, by the Delmenhorst 50 

Eft. ii. 358. 



to join these ships and act in concert with them. On 
April llth Byng reached the Sound and detached five of his 
ships to the Kattegat,* but apparently the Danish and English 
squadrons here failed to combine. 

Little was accomplished in the Baltic this year. On May 7th 
Byng, with his convoy, passed Copenhagen, and was joined 
in Kjoge Bay by the following Danish squadron under Gabel : 
Prinds Christian 76, Dronning Louisa 70, Sophia Hedmg 76, 
Haffru 70, Beskjermer 64, Ebenetzer 64, Prinds Carl 54, Prinds 
Wilhelm 54, Oldenborg 52, Gietteborg 42.t 

Together the two fleets put to sea for Karlskrona, but were 
driven back by head winds. They worked together very badly. 
No real plan for combined action was made, and neither 
commander was given any clue to the other's signals. As a 
natural result little was done. On July 9th a Dutch fleet 
of 12 battleships and frigates* under Schoutbynacht Jacob van 
Koperen reached Copenhagen and joined the Allies in Kjoge 
Bay on the 13th. Two days later the combined fleet sailed to 
Bornholm, whence the Dutch, with three English ships, con- 
voyed the merchantmen of the two nations to Danzig, Peters- 
burg, and other ports. The Swedish fleet made no movement, 
and neither Byng nor Raben, who had replaced Gabel, had 
any chance of distinguishing themselves. They seem, however, 
to have remained at sea, since on September 2nd two of the 
Danish battleships were sufficiently damaged in a gale to 
necessitate their replacement by two of the ships in reserve. 
On October 6th the homeward-bound convoy left Danzig,|| and 
on the 19th, after a spell of bad weather, it reached Copen- 
hagen. The Allies now went home; the Dutch sailed on the 
27th, and reached Goeree on November 6th; Byng left Copen- 
hagen on November 2nd and anchored at the Nore on the 15th ; 
while the English convoy arrived at Yarmouth on the 12th, 
escorted by three battleships. H As in the previous year, the 

* Four of these were the 50-gun ships Panther, Severn, Chatham, and 
Straff ord. (Lediard 871 n.). 

t This ship was replaced by the Island 50 at the end of May, and the fleet 
was reinforced later by the Wenden 72 and Sydermanland 46. 

t Sterrenburg (f) , Matenes 52, Overijssel , Briel (Maze) ; Wolfswinkel 
54, Santvoort , 't Huys te Nek 40 (N. Quartier) ; Boeteslaer 64, Termeer 52, 
Oosterwijk 52, Batavier 52, Brakel 52, Tombago 24, Hellevoetsluis (Amster- 
dam). The Wolfswinkel and Overijssel did not join till the middle of Sep- 

The Wenden 72 and Oldenborg 52 were replaced by the Jylland 70 and 
Delmenhorst 50. 

|| The Russian battleship Armont, bound for Venice as a merchantman, sailed 
with this convoy. 

U Ships with Byng : Burford 70; Eoyal Oak 70; Orford 70; York 60; Exeter 
60; Montagu 60; Panther 50; Jersey 50; Worcester 50. 

Convoy : Chatham 50 ; Gloucester 50 ; Hampshire 50. 

Left in the Baltic: Severn 50; Straff ord 50; Lynn 40. 

1717. 179 

Danish fleet was now laid up save for a division of 4 battle- 
ships* and some smaller vessels which remained in Kjoge Bay 
till December 22nd. 

The Russians had done but little more than their allies. 
Apraksin left Revel early in June with 13 battleships., and was 
joined at ( sea by the Portsmut 58 and Devonshir 58, which had 
been cruising for some time previously. A gale on June 17th 
drove him back to Nargen, but on July 12th he got to sea 
again. His line of battle was as follows: 

Perl 52, Michail 50, Shisselburg 64 (S.B.N. Paddon), 
Portsmut 58, Uriil 50, Gavriil 50, Poltava 56, Mos~kva 68 
(Gen. Ad. Apraksin), Ingermanland 68, Selafail 50, Devonshir 
58, Varachail 50, Marlburg 66 (Cap. Com. Shelting), Rafail 50, 
Ekaterina 64. 

He proceeded to Gothland, reconnoitred the fortifications at 
Slitehamn, landed troops and captured a number of cattle, but 
did little else, and was at Rager Vik by the end of the month. 
Captain Van Hofft was sent out on August llth with the 
Perl 52, Portsmut 58, and Prints Aleksandr 24 to cruise off 
Aland, and returned on the 31st with the Swedish brigantine 
Pollux 24. On September 7th the greater part of the fleet 
sailed for Kronslot under Paddon, leaving at Revel the four 
battleships Uriil 52, Poltava 50, Randolf 50, and Perl 48,t with 
7 frigates- and snows. The Uriil 52 and Samson 32 were sent 
in October to convoy a few belated English ships as far as 
Danzig. The galley fleet of 102 vessels was based on Abo 
during the year, and the galleys at Rostock returned to Revel 
in August and proceeded thence to Abo to join the others. 
The Yagudiil 52 was sent from Copenhagen to Holland and 
to England to fetch the Oksford 50, but found her useless, left 
her to be sold, and went back to Copenhagen for the winter. 

In contrast to the inactivity in the Baltic, several important 
actions took place this year in the North Sea. Tordenskjold, 
after convoying troops to Norway, had laid up his ships at 
Frederifesvaern, near Laurvik, in Norway, on January 27th. 
Here he remained until April 8th, when he put to sea again 
with his battleships and frigates to cruise in the Kattegat. 
On the 10th, off Fladstrand, in Jylland, he sighted and chased 
two Swedish ships, a battleship of 40 guns and a frigate of 
30 ; but his leading ships, the Seridder 28 and Hvide 0rn 30, 
failed to attack the Swedish battleship as ordered, and the 
enemy escaped into Gothenburg. At the same time, as it was 
not known in Copenhagen that Tordenskjold was at sea, 

* Prinds Christian 76; Jylland 70; Delmenhorst 50; Island 50. The last- 
named was dismasted towards the end of December. 

t Note variation in guns. The Leferm 70, Randolf 50, and Esperans 44 (F) 
had come to Revel from Kronslot during the summer. 

N 2 


Paulssen was detached from the fleet at Copenhagen with three 
battleships* and a frigate to act against the Swedish ships 
from. Gothenburg. On April 14th this squadron met Tordensk- 
jold, who was back again off Fladstrand with his battle-ships. 
Paulssen was at once recalled to join the Baltic Fleet, but 
suffered a good deal of damage from heavy weather. On the 
19th the English fleet under Byng was sighted, and the same 
day the Seridder 28 was sent out to examine another group of 
ships, which was found to consist of the Oldenborg 52 from 
Paulssen's squadron, chased by a Swedish force of two battle- 
ships, a frigate and a brigantine. Captain Vosbein, of 
the Seridder, who was on bad terms with Tordenskjold, failed 
to signal the situation to the fleet, and sent instead the Hvide 
Falk 26 with a verbal report, while he joined the Oldenborg 
himself. The Swedes gave up the chase, and returned un- 
molested to Gothenburg. 

Tordenskjold now decided to attack Gothenburg in the hope 
of destroying both the dockyard and the Swedish squadron. 
He had a considerable force, but one hardly sufficient for the 
work to be undertaken; his entire fleet consisted now of two 
50-gun battleships, Laaland and Fyen, three frigates, Raae 
30, Seridder 28, and Loss 26, two prams, one snow, nine 
galleys, two half-galleya, and fourteen armed boats. In the 
evening of May 12th he left the Danish coast with all his ships 
except the frigates. Surprise was an essential element in his 
plan, and in this he failed. The Ark Noa 34, one of his best 
ships, did not reach Vinga, outside Gothenburg, till long after 
the rest of the squadron. Vosbein in the Seridder had been 
told off to tow her since her slow sailing was notorious, but pre- 
tending to misunderstand his orders he went off elsewhere and 
left the pram to do her best alone. Finally, when she did arrive 
the wind, previously favourable, shifted to the east, and an 
attack became impossible. Surprise was thus out of the 
question. The Swedes were on the alert and soon put the 
harbour into a state of defence. Two new batteries were 
thrown up, troops were stationed on shore, and the ships in 
port were moored in a line across the river. What ships there 
were is not quite certain, but they seem to have been four of 
the battleships,! the " galleas " or armed merchantman Gref 
Mdrner 49, and the galley Wrede 22. Tordenskjold was not, 
however, the man to draw back from any undertaking. Early 
in the 1 night of May 13/14th he moved in close to the island 
fortress of Ny Elfsborg, and leaving the two battleships at 

* Ebenetzer 64; Oldenborg 52; Giotteborg 42; Levendals Oallej 20. 

t There were five battleships in these waters, the Calmar and Stettin 58, 
Halmstad 54, and Fredrika and Warberg 52. A large proportion of the guns 
in all the Swedish vessels in the Kattegat were only light swivels. 

1717. 181 

anchor, entered the harbour with the rest of his force. A list 
follows : 

Prams Hjaelper 46, Ark Noa 34; snow Jepta 8; galleys 
Fredericus IV. fra Arendal 7, Fredericus IV. 7, Prinds Chris- 
tian 7, Prinds Carl 7, Louisa fra Arendal 7, Louisa 7, Charlotte 
Amalia 7, Sophia 7, Lucretia 13; half galleys Achilles 5, 
Pollux 5; 14 boats and some more from the battleships. 

At about 1.30 a.m. on May 14th the action began. The 
Danish vessels stationed themselves in a line across the channel 
with the prams at the southern end, and replied fiercely to the 
fire of the Swedish ships in front, the fortress of Ny Elfsborg 
in their rear, and the troops and batteries on their right flank. 
The smaller craft were put close under the northern shore and 
were not at first in action. For five hours the struggle went 
on, but at last Tordenskjold, seeing that he could make no 
impression on the Swedish defences took advantage of a lucky 
slant of wind from the north-east to withdraw. His losses were 
heavy; the casualties in the squadron were 52 killed and 79 
wounded, and besides this two galleys were lost. One, the 
Louisa 7, sank at the northern end of the line early in. the 
action, and the other, the Lucretia 13, went aground to the 
south on the way out, and was abandoned. Both were re- 
floated by the Swedes later, The Ark Noa 34 also went 
aground during the retirement. She was well within range of 
Ny Elfsborg, and the Swedish galley Wrede 22 approached 
to board her, but a broadside drove off this foe, and soon after 
the pram got afloat with the help of a Danish galley. This was 
Tordenskjold's first failure. As a surprise the attack might 
have succeeded, but when once the Swedes were on the alert 
it was probably a mistake to attempt it. At any rate, it seems 
to have been foolish to leave the battleships out of action. It 
would, of course, have been risky to bring them into such diffi- 
cult waters, but with so many oared craft there should have 
been no real danger of losing them, and their guns would 
certainly have been a valuable reinforcement. 

For twelve days the Danish squadron remained in E/ifve 
Fjord, outside Gothenburg, partly to blockade the port and 
partly to repair damages. Twelve prizes were taken, one a 
Dunkirk privateer chartered by the Swedish Government, and 
three other Swedish privateers. Further, a detachment from 
Tordenskjold's fleet entered Odensala, some twenty miles south 
of Gothenburg, destroyed the rope-walk there, and carried off 
several vessels laden with rope for the Swedish dockyards. 
About this time Vosbein in the S0ridder 28 captured the 
Swedish frigate Island 30.* This did much to appease Torden- 

* Or Islandtfahrere. 


skjold, and on Vosbein's sending him an apology and an appeal 
to stop the proceedings which had been instituted, he did so, 
and in fact recommended Vosbein so highly that his promotion 
to Commodore-Captain followed almost at once. The Island, 
which was probably a privateer, was found unsuitable for the 
Danish service, and was therefore sold in Norway. 

Frederik IV. now sent orders to Tordenskjold to tell off all 
his light draught ships for service on the coast of Pomerania 
or at Wismar, and decided to recall three regiments from 
Norway to be used there also. The reason for this was that 
the King distrusted his Russian allies, and was suspicious of 
the intentions of their troops in Mecklenburg. Tordenskjold 
at once sent the two prams to Fladstrand and six galleys to 
Frederiksvaern in Norway to sail when the troops should do so, 
and then, feeling that his squadron was too weak to remain 
off Gothenburg, he withdrew on May 26th. The King, how- 
ever, had expected that the English ships in the Kattegat 
would join in the blockade, and finding himself mistaken, he 
not only cancelled the orders for the galleys and prams, but 
even sent the Gietteborg 42 to join the North Sea fleet. During 
June Tordenskjold transported the troops from Norway to 
Jylland, and then went to Frederikstad. 

Meanwhile, Carl XII. had ordered the fortification of the 
harbour of Stromstad, nine miles south of the mouth of the 
Ide Fjord, which formed the boundary between Sweden and 
Norway. His object, of course, was to obtain a good base for 
operations against Norway, and it therefore became necessary 
for the Danes to try and prevent this. Tordenskjold decided 
to attack, and if possible to destroy the incomplete fortifica- 
tions. On July 4th he left Frederikstad with the following 
force : 

Battleships, Laaland 50, Fyen 50, Giotteborg 42; prams, 
Hjaelper 46, Ark Noa 34; galleys, Fredericus IV. fra Arendal 
7, Fredericus IV. 7, Sophia 7, Charlotte Amalia 7, Prinds Carl 
7, Prinds Christian 7, Louisa fra Arendal 7; half galleys, 
Achilles 5, Pollux 5. 

As in the case of the Gothenburg attack the idea of surprise 
fell through. The weather proved unfavourable, and the 
prams and galleys were forced to anchor some fifteen miles 
from their destination. Tordenskjold, however, went on with 
the battleships and anchored on July 15th outside Stromstad, 
thus, of course, giving the alarm. Why he did this is difficult 
to understand. He explained later that this was the only safe 
anchorage for his battleships, but he almost certainly could have 
put back towards Frederikstad or gone on out to sea, and either 
course would have been better than appearing off Stromstad 
and giving the alarm before he was ready to strike. Further, 

1717. 183 

the wind now fell altogether, and the current was so strong 
that the galleys with the two prams in tow made hardly any 
progress. The interval was utilised by the Swedes in perfect- 
ing their defences, which consisted of three batteries. On the 
island Lalholm, in the middle of the harbour, just in front of 
the town, they had built the Carolus battery of fourteen 18- 
pounders, while north and south of the town were two others 
of three 18-pounders each, so situated as to deliver a converging 

At last, in the evening of the 18th, the Ark Noa and four 
galleys arrived, and hearing that the Hjaelper and the other 
galleys were only a short distance behind Tordenskjold resolved 
to attack at once. About midnight the ships began to warp 
into the harbour, and at one o'clock the Ark Noa 34 opened 
fire from her position between the Carolus and southern 
batteries. For a long time she was unsupported, and was at 
last obliged to leave her station and take refuge behind a 
small island. Meanwhile, the battleships, with Tordenskjold 
in the Laaland 50 leading, were slowly warping in and suffer- 
ing considerably without being able to reply, but by 4.30 a.m. 
they were in position opposite the Carolus battery, and in full 
action. Before this the Ark Noa, with her casualties filled 
up from the galleys, had returned to her place, and opened 
fire again, but was unable to sustain the tremendous fire to 
which she was exposed. The galleys supporting her were 
driven out of action, her captain Grib was severely wounded, 
and finally, leaking badly from waterline shots, she had to 
retire a second time, and was only saved from sinking by 
being given a list to the uninjured side. The battleships were 
more successful. Twice they silenced the guns of the Carolus 
battery, but each time fresh men were sent from the mainland 
by the bridge, which, now that the Ark Noa had withdrawn, 
was again safe to cross. Still, soon after six the fort's 
magazine blew up, and though the works were not seriously 
hurt, fire had to be suspended until the arrival of more powder. 
At the same moment the Hjaelper and the other five galleys 
appeared at the harbour mouth. Tordenskjold decided to try 
and storm the Carolus battery, and with 300 soldiers in his 
four galleys he advanced, leading the attack in the Sophia. The 
Fredericus IV. and Fredericus IV. fra Arendal went aground 
before getting into close range, but the Sophia and Prinds Carl 
pressed on. Running in close to the island, they were just 
about to land their troops when a battalion of Swedish troops, 
previously hidden, opened fire on them. The slaughter was 
tremendous. Torkenskjold, himself wounded twice, was taken 
unconscious back to the Laaland, and the two galleys were 
left where they were, with such of their crews as survived 


taking refuge below. It was now about eight o'clock. After a 
short period of unconsciousness, Tordenskjold came to his 
senses, and at once began to see about the rescue of the two 
galleys. Woodroff, a cadet, with two sailors in a dinghy, 
succeeded, in spite of the heavy fire, in taking a tow-rope to 
the Sophia, but the saving of the Prinds Carl was a more 
difficult business. Of her entire crew only her captain, 
Helmieh, and one sailor were left unhurt, and they had been 
driven below. A Swedish sailor waded out with a rope to 
secure her, but was shot by Helmieh, and at the same time 
the Danish sailor running aloft cut the lashings of one of her 
sails. This proved enough to move her just clear of the shore, 
and, though she was still within close range, Wulff, captain 
of the Pollux 5 managed to get close enough to pass a line, 
and she was towed into safety. This was the end of the action. 
The Danes withdraw with a loss of ninety-six killed and 246 
wounded, patched up their damages, and sailed next morning 
for Frederikstad. The Swedish loss was twenty killed and 
100 wounded. 

Tordenskjold did not waste time. By August 9th he was 
again off Stromstad, and established a blockade to prevent 
supplies reaching the town by sea. However, his two failures 
coupled with the strained relations between him and the com- 
mander of the troops in Norway brought about his supersession 
by Schoutbynacht Eosenpalm, who arrived off Stromstad on 
August 22nd with several fresh ships.* In spite of his in- 
creased force the new commander did not distinguish himself. 
A Swedish convoy from Gothenburg, finding its way to Strom- 
stad barred, put into Kongshamn, thirty-five miles to the 
south, and Gyllenskruf, the commodore in command, sent 
word to Stromstad of his position. At once the Swedish land 
forces brought their artillery against the Danish vessels in 
Styrsund, the innermost channel through the skargard, and 
on August 25th drove them from their positiont leaving- the 
road open for the convoy which was composed of five galleys, 
a brig, and fourteen storeships. This was enough for Rosen- 
palm, and on the 28th he abandoned the blockade altogether. 
Little more occurred in these waters during the rest of the 
year. The Danish half-galley Pollux (ex Swedish) was taken 
by the Swedes north of Stromstad, together with another armed 
boat, while the Swedes lost a number of merchantmen, but 
Rosenpalm, though strengthened by the addition of the Nelle- 
blad 50 in November, took no further steps against Swedish 

* Prinds Wilhelm 54; Sydermanland 46; Raae 30; Flyvende Fisk 8; Dv 
Gala Oallej 8 (a Swedish privateer just captured by the Eaae). 

t One pram and five galleys (Tornquist ii. 92). The Swedes had two 
6-pounders, four 3-pounders, and two howitzers. 

1717-1718. 185 

ships or ports. The English ships in the Kattegat had been 
even less active. Tornquist mentions that four English battle- 
ships had been supporting the Danes off Stromstad, and with- 
drew on their doing so, and Garde says that one English battle- 
ship sailed with Eosenpalm from Copenhagen, but beyond 
this nothing is known of their movements, and they certainly 
accomplished very little. 

The year 1718 produced no important actions at sea in any 
part of the theatre of war. The Swedes in Karlskrona 
mobilised fifteen battleships, and the Danes fitted out twelve 
to meet them. Two frigates* left Copenhagen in March for 
the Baltic, and on April 30th Schoutbynacht Schindel was sent 
out with two battleships. t On May 9th he was joined by three 
more battleships and a frigate, + and soon sighted four Swedish 
battleships and two frigates off Moen. The Danes at once 
pursued, but off Bornholm they met six more Swedish battle- 
ships, and accordingly returned to Kjoge Bay. 

This was the only attempt on the Swedish side to effect 
any thing at sea. On May 21st Eaben left Copenhagen with 
the following fleet, and the Danes henceforth held undisputed 
command of the sea. 

Elefant 90, Justitia 86, Nordstjern 72, Wenden 72, Prinds 
Christian 76, Dronning Louisa 70, Jylland 70, Ebenetzer 64, 
Beskjermer 64, Prinds Wilhelm 54, Delmenhorst 50, Syder- 
manland 46, Hvide 0rn 30, Hejenhald 30, one fireship. 

They were further strengthened by a fleet of ten English 
battleships, which arrived at Copenhagen on May 14th. These 
ships were as follows : 

Cumberland 80, Buckingham 70, Hampton Court 70, Prince 
Frederick 70. Windsor 60, Defiance 60, St. Albans 50 
Salisbury 50, Winchester 50, Guernsey 50. 

On June 9th Norris, the English admiral, joined Eaben in 
Kjoge Bay, and after this the Allies cruised near Bornholm. 
A large convoy of Danish, English, and Dutch ships were 
collected^and sent off on July 15th under the escort of the 
Dutch division of four battleships and a frigate, which had 
joined them off Bornholm on the 13th. The Swedes stayed 
in port, and nothing happened. On October 12th Eaben left 
Bornholm for Copenhagen, but Norris waited a few days for 
the Dutch ships with the returning merchantmen. He was, 
however, at Copenhagen by the 23rd, and on November 2nd 

* Pommern 36; H0jenhald 30. 
t Nordstjern 72; Ebenetser 64. 

t Prinds Wilhelm 54 ; Delmenhorst 50 ; Sydermanland 46 ; Hejenhald 30. 
The Russian Tagudiil 52, which had been at Copenhagen for two winters, 
accompanied the fleet as far as Bornholm. 


the English and Dutch left for their respective destinations 
with their merchantmen in company. 

The Eussians were also inactive, but with better cause, 
since in March, 1718, they had begun negotiations for peace 
with Sweden at a conference held in the Aland Islands. Still, 
a large fleet was fitted out, and left Kotlin on July 27th. 

Its line of battle was as follows : 

Van : Sv. Ekaterina 62, Riga 48, Yagudiil 52, Ingerman- 
land 64 (V.-Ad. The Tsar), Revel 68, London 48, Randolf 50, 
Arondel 48. Centre : Devonshir 52, Shlisselburg 62, Vara- 
chail 50, Perl 50, Moskva 64 (Gen.-Ad. Apraksin), Leferm 64, 
Gavriil 50, Uriil 52. Rear : Rafail 52, Selafail 52, Michail 52, 
Sv. Aleksandr 70 (S.B.N. Menshikov), Port smut 52, Britania 
48, Marlburg 64. Twenty-three ships with 1,274 guns. 

It was thus by far the strongest fleet that Russia had ever 
sent to sea, and was probably quite equal to any force that 
either Sweden or Denmark could muster at that time. It 
reached Revel on July 30th, left again on August 12th, and 
reached Hango next day. Some galleys also arrived there 
from Petersburg, and the Tsar shifted to one of them. The 
fleet was then divided : eight battleships* under Captain- 
Oommodore Sanders cruised towards the mouth of the Gulf of 
Finland, and went to Revel for the winter on September 26th. 
This detachment took as many as twenty-eight prizes, mainly 
small Swedish merchantmen. The rest of the battleship fleet 
moved to Bjorko. The Tsar went to Abo, spent ten days 
exercising a fleet of 121 galleys, and returned with the Peters- 
burg detachment to Bjorko. He arrived there on Septem- 
ber 12th, and at once took the battleships back to Kotlin. 

In the North Sea also the year was uneventful. In March 
the Delmenhorst 50 was sent to Norway convoying Dutch ships 
as far as Skagen, but on April 24th Paulssen, the second in 
command of the North Sea fleet arrived at Copenhagen with 
all the battleships save the Laaland 50. t However, the Island 
50 and Pommern 36 had sailed for the Kattegat the day 
before, and on the 27th Paulssen was sent back in charge of 
the following squadron to reinforce Rosenpalm: 

Battleships : Prinds Carl 54, Oldenborg 52, Ditmarsken 50 ; 
frigates : Kong ens Jagt Krone 24 ; prams : Hjaelperinde 36, 
Cronprinds 22; galleys: Ulysses 6, Proserpina 14; bombs: 
Johannes den Gamle 4, Frue Anna 4, Christiania 4, Citron 2 ; 
four armed boats. 

* Yagudiil 52 ; Perl 50 ; Portsmut 52 ; Rafail 52 ; Uriil 52 ; Selafail 52 ; Vara- 
chail 52; Devonshir 52. 

t He brought the Fyen 50 ; Prinds Wilhelm 54 ; Nelleblad 50 ; Sydermanland 
46; Oiotteborg 42; Delmenhorst 50. 

1718. 1ST 

The Prinds Carl and Oldenborg returned to Copenhagen, but 
on June 23rd they were sent again to the North Sea, accom- 
panied by the Prinds Wilhelm 54 and Sydermanland 46, which 
had been detached from the Baltic fleet to make it equal in 
numbers to the English fleet of ten ships. 

The only fighting of any importance took place in Ide Fjord, 
the landlocked stretch of water south of Frederikshald, com- 
municating with the Kattegat by the narrow Svinesund. In 
1716 the Swedes had thrown a bridge across Svinesund, and 
thus cut oft from the sea Ide Fjord, Frederikshald, and the 
fortress of Frederiksten, but Tordenskjold had brought two 
brigantines and two double sloops thither overland. Now, 
however, Carl XII., wanting- to proceed with his attack on 
Norway, took a hint from his adversary, and began to move 
some Swedish vessels overland from Stromstad to Ide Fjord. 
On July 18th the first of these seven or eight small vessels* 
were put afloat at Pilegarden, five miles south of Frederikshald, 
and were at once attacked by the Danes. The superiority of 
numbers being with the Swedes, they managed to repulse this 
attack, but in the meantime E/osenpalm was also bringing ships 
overland, and on the 22nd, reinforced by the half galley 
Achilles 5, two double sloops and one single sloop, he returned 
to the attack. This time he was more successful. A Swedish 
half galley and a sloop were driven ashore, and the rest forced 
to take shelter under their batteries. t 

Rosenpalm now took over a merchantman which he found 
lying at Frederikshald and armed her with twelve guns. On 
August 10th another action took place. The Danes managed 
to drive the garrison from a small Swedish battery, but on 
landing to occupy it they were repulsed by the enemy's troops. 
Meanwhile the Swedes were slowly increasing their naval 
forces, and by September had nine galleys and five sloops in 
these waters. On September 17th or 21st the Danish flotilla, 
now under Paulssen, made its last effort. Fighting lasted four 
hours, and Carl XII. himself took part in the galley Luhr 22, 
but neither side lost a ship, though the Danes had to retreat to 
Frederikshald. t 

At last, on November 8th, Carl XII. invaded Norway again 
with 21,000 men. He himself advanced from the south and 
east, but on the 22nd part of his army crossed the bridge over 

* Rosenpalm's report (Garde Eft. ii. 380/4) says three half galleys, two double 
sloops, two single sloops. Mankell (28) says two galleys and six small boats. 

t Rosenpalm. Mankell mentions no loss, but says the Swedes had four 
galleys and two shore batteries, and repulsed the Danes. 

t The earlier date is the Danish version, the later the Swedish. Mankell says 
the Swedes had fourteen vessels and the Danes eighteen. Tornquist (ii. 95) 
mentions an action without date, which is apparently the same. 


Svinesund and attacked Frederikshald from the other side. 
Two days later the Swedish flotilla attacked the Danes, who 
are said to ha,ve had thirty vessels. After fighting the whole 
morning the Danes retired up the river.* For a month the 
siege of Frederiksten went on, but on December lltbJ2ai^X.II. 
was killed. This altered the whole aspect of affairs at once; 
the Swedish army raised the siege and withdrew from Norway. 
No mention is made of the fate of the Swedish vessels in Ide 
Fjord, but the Luhr galley was at Stromstad next year, so it 
seems probable that they were withdrawn either overland or by 
sea. During September some Danish ships (seven galleys and 
nine armed boats) had appeared off Stromstad, but put out to 
sea again on the approach of four Swedish vessels. t The only 
other action in 1718 took place in July between the Danish 
Pommern 36 and the Swedish Warberg 52. The Swede was 
driven into Marstrand considerably damaged. 

It will, perhaps, be most convenient to follow events in the 
North Sea to their conclusion before discussing the operations 
of 1719 in the Baltic. On April 4th, 1719, Tordenskjold, now 
Schoutbynacht,J left Copenhagen with four battleships and a 
frigate, and took up his position just outside Gothenburg 
on the 7th. At the same time E/osenpalm, in Norway, was 
ordered to get his ships fitted out to join Tordenskjold and take 
over the command of the combined fleet. The bulk of the 
Swedish force was in Marstrand, a harbour between two 
islands about twenty miles north- west of Gothenburg. In the 
previous year, when operations against Norway were in 
progress, all the available vessels had been collected at Strom- 
stad, but on the retreat of the Swedish army all the larger 
ships had withdrawn to Marstrand, and only a few small craft 
had been left at Stromstad. For the moment, however, Tor- 
denskj old's entire fleet was used in the blockade of Gothen- 
burg. || Here the Swedes had only a few small vessels, which 

* Mankell 29. No other authority mentions this. Garde, on the authority of 
Hojer, says that Paulsen destroyed all his ships ; but Mankell says nothing of 
this, and Garde (Eft. ii. 587) gives the Achilles 5, which was in Ide Fjord, as 
remaining in the Danish Navy till 1763. 

t Tornquist ii. 93/4. The Swedes were the galleys Wrede 22 and Viktoria 10, 
and the merchantmen Stdbell (or Std Braf) 49 and Prins Frederik 49. Carl XII. 
was in the Wrede. 

t Towards the end of 1718 he was on convoy work in the Kattegat in the 
Laaland 50, and was the first to bring the news of Carl XII. 's death to 

Laaland 50, Fyen 50, Prins Wilhelm 50, Delmenhorst 50, H0jenhald 30. 

|| He was reinforced in May and June by the following: Battleship: Olden- 
borg 52. Frigate : Stralsund 30. Prams : Frederikshald 36, Cronprinds 22, 
Hjaelperinde 36, Prinds Jorgen 22. Galleys : Ulysses 6, Proserpina 14, Prinds 
Carl 7, Prinds Christian 7, Charlotta Amalia 1. Bomb: Johannes 4. Floating 
batteries : Langemar , Spydstag 10 (mortars). 

1718-1719. 189 

lay for the most part in the Bahus Elv, the northern mouth 
of the Gota Elv. Tordenskjold stationed half his force at 
the mouth of either branch of the river, but about the middle 
of June four galleys and four transports managed to get to 
sea from the northern branch, and reached Marstrand,* while 
on July 14th three Swedish galleys and two sloops 'made an 
attack on the Danish small craft off Ny Elfsborg, and captured 
the galley Prinds Christian 7. Rosenpalm, meanwhile, with 
the Norwegian squadron, t was acting in support of the army, 
which was working southward from Norway. On July 13th 
he arrived outside Stromstad, whereupon the Swedes destroyed 
all their vessels with the exception of two galleys or half 
galleys, which escaped. Three days later the town sur- 
rendered, and was occupied by the Danish troops. 

Tordenskjold, on his part, was planning an attack on Mar- 
strand' and the Swedish ships there. He had heard that the 
Swedish garrison consisted of only 300 men, and that the ships 
were undermanned ; but, wishing to be sure of the situation, he 
disguised himself as a fisherman and visited the town and 
the squadron. Finding that the position was as it had been 
represented, he proceeded with his attack. Marstrand lies 
on the east end of a small island, with the fortress of Carlsten 
on the high land behind the town. East of the town are two 
larger islands, Koo to the north and Klofvero to the south. 
The harbour is formed by the space thus enclosed. Besides 
Carlsten, there were two batteries north and south of Mar- 
strand, while the harbour was further protected by batteries 
on two islets lying at either entrance. 

Tordenskjold left off Gothenburg the battleships Prinds 
Wilhelm 50, Delmenhorst 50, and Tomler 50, and off the 
Bahus Elv the Laaland 50, Fyen 50, Oldenborg 50, and Svaerd- 

* Mankell 30. No other account mentions this. If it occurred the galleys 
must have gone on to Stromstad or back to Gothenburg. 

f Battleships : Sydermanland 46, Ditmarsken 50. Frigates : Pommern 36, 
Raae 30, H vide 0rn 30, S0ridder 28. Prams : Hjaelper 46, Ark Noa 34. Galleys : 
Fredericus IV. 7, Fredericus IV. fra Arendal 7, Louisa fra Arendal 7, Sophia 7. 
Bombs : Bremerflot 4, Christiania 4, Citron 2. 

t It is impossible to be certain which Swedish ships were destroyed. 
According to Wrangel (i. Ap. IV.) the following were there in January: 
Prams : Gd pa and Ge pa. Galleys : Wrede, Bellona, Viktoria, Lucretia. 
Brigantines or half -galleys : Castor, Pollux, Luhr; and various smaller vessels. 
On the other hand a contemporary Danish plan (" Tordenskjold ") shows as 
sunk one pram of 16 guns, four galleys, Bellona and Louisa and two others, and 
two half-galleys, Pollux and another. The Wrede was at Gothenburg later, and 
the Castor seems to have been at Marstrand. One of the prams is certainly 
identical with the Gifpaa, captured at Marstrand. Probably, therefore, the 
Swedish force was as follows: Destroyed: Gd pa 20 pram, Bellona 14, 
Viktoria 10, Lucretia 12, Louisa 4, galleys ; Pollux 5, Luhr 22, half-galleys. 
Escaped : Wrede 22, galley, Castor 6, half-galley. 


fisk 50.* With the rest of his ships he proceeded to Mar- 
strand, and there disposed them as follows. He stationed the 
two frigates Stralsund 30 and Hejenhald 30 south-west of Carl- 
sten, the prams Prinds Jergen 22 and Cronprinds 22, with two 
galleys, at the northern entrance to the harbour, between Mar- 
strand and Koo, and the two larger prams Hjaelperinde 36 and 
Frederikshald 36, the floating batteries Spydstag and Lange- 
mar, the bomb Johannes den Gamle, and the other galleys to 
the north of Koo. Here he landed with 700 men in the 
afternoon of July 21st, and at the same time the fleet opened 
fire. By the 23rd the Danes had completed batteries in Koo 
with 4 100-pr. mortars and 40 small howitzers. The bombard- 
ment now began in earnest. The Swedes did their best to 
silence the Danish batteries ; first by landing, and then by the 
guns of their ships, but the Danish fire was too heavy, and the 
attempts failed. Next day Tordenskjold sent in a proposal of 
terms in which he agreed, in return for three of the five battle- 
ships and the three galleasses, to leave the town, the fortifica- 
tions, and the other ships untouched, and to withdraw. These 
terms were refused, and he at once landed another 200 men 
just north of the town, cut away the boom across the harbour- 
mouth, and brought his ships into the entrance. The Swedes 
promptly began to sink their ships and retire to Carlsten. 
Tordenskjold sent boarding parties to try and bring out the 
ships, but the Swedish batteries opened fire on them, and it 
was only possible to save four vessels. In the meantime the 
Swedes retired to Carlsten, and the Danes occupied the town. 
Tordenskjold brought every available gun against the fortress, 
and on the 26th Danckward, the Swedish commander, agreed 
to surrender on condition of a free passage to Sweden. For 
this he has been much blamed. He undoubtedly suffered from 
no lack of supplies, but a large proportion of his troops were 
Saxons pressed into Swedish service, and their untrustworthi- 
ness may have influenced him. 

The Swedish ships and their fates were as follows : 

Battleships. CcHmar 58, sunk; Stettin 58, sunk; Halmstad 
54, sunk; Fredrika 52, sunk; Warberg 52, captured. 

Galleasses. Prins Fredrik von Hessen 49, captured; Gref 
Morner 49, sunk but raised later; Stdbell (or Stdbraf) 49, sunk 
but raised later. 

Frigate. Charlotta 38, sunk but raised later. 

Snow. William Galley 14, captured. 

Pram. Gepd (or Gifpd) 17, captured. 

Galley. Castor 6 (?), sunk. 

* The Tomler and Svaerdfisk were sent him to be used for sinking if neces- 
sary, but he kept them as fighting ships. 

1719. 191 

Jagt. Diana 4, sunk. 

Two fireships, sunk. 

Elated by his success, Tordenskjold decided on another 
attack on Gothenburg. Operations were about to be begun 
against the town from the land side, and the idea was to occupy 
Hisingen, the island formed by the two branches of the Gb'ta 
Ely. With this in view he attempted to reduce Ny Elf sborg, 
though he had himself described it as " impregnable/' Leav- 
ing Marstrand on August 1st, he was off the mouth of the 
Gothenburg river the same afternoon. The following are the 
ships which participated in this attack : 

Battleships. Tomler 50, Svaerdfisk 50. Frigate, Stralsund 
30. Prams. Hjaelperinde 36, Frederikshald 36, Prim Fred- 
rik von Hessen 49 (ex Swede). Batteries. Langemar, Spyd- 
stag. Bomb, Johannes den Gamle. 

The first ships in action were the two floating batteries and 
the bomb vessel. Towed by the galleys, they took up a posi- 
tion west of the fortress where they were partly sheltered by 
other islets, on which they landed a number of small howitzers, 
and at 11 p.m. they opened fire. Shortly afterwards the two 
battleships and the Pnns Fredrilt von Hessen got into position 
to the north, but had to warp out of range again after three 
hours to repair damage. Still, they got back again to their posts 
later, and by 11 a.m. on the 2nd the remaining three ships were 
in place, the Hjaelperinde and Stralsund to the north and the 
other pram on the south-east side of the citadel. Firing went 
on unceasingly till the evening, when the Danes, mistaking 
signals made from Ny 'Elfsborg to Gothenburg with a white 
flag for an indication of willingness to treat, sent in proposals 
for the surrender of the fortress. 

These were refused, and the action began again. The 
Svaerdfisk had already been forced to leave her post by the 
damage caused by two bursting guns, and as night fell the 
Tomler and the three prams followed her, but the smaller 
vessels kept up the bombardment all night. A magazine in the 
citadel had already been blown up. During the night the Swedes 
received reinforcements from Gothenburg, but, on the other 
hand, the Danes strengthened their position by landing four 
100-pr. mortars on the island west of Ny Elfsborg. Next 
morning Tordenskjold went off to Marstrand to meet the King, 
leaving Commodore-Captain Hoppe in charge. As before, the 
firing went on all day. The Stralsund was driven out of 
action, but the other ships continued firing until squalls put 
an end to the action at 10.30 p.m. 

The attack had failed. Early on tne 4th two new Swedish 
batteries on Hisingen opened fire on the small Danish ships, 
and by 5 a.m. had forced them to retreat. Following up this 


success, the Swedes sent their galleys to attack the Danish 
island batteries, and these with the four mortars were easily 
taken, though the smaller howitzers were carried off. This 
was the end. The Danish ships withdrew with a loss of 60 
killed and 73 wounded, and settled down again to a blockade. 

Peace was, however, in the air. The death of Carl XII. 
and the accession of his sister Ulrika Eleonora opened the way 
for an understanding, in which England acted as a mediator. 
As a result of the changed conditions the Danish North Sea 
fleet was reduced. On August 18th the Oldenborg 50, Svaerdfisk 
50, and Tomler 50 were sent home, and on September 8th they 
were followed by the Prins Wilhelm 50, Hjaelperinde 36, and 
Prins Fredrik von Hessen 49. To send home the Langemar, 
Spydstag, and Johannes den Gamle it was necessary to remove 
their guns; this had been done and they were lying with the 
galley Prinds Carl 7 and four transports off Groto, when they 
were attacked in the early morning of September 12th by four 
Swedish galleys and some sloops from the Bahus Elv and 
carried into Gothenburg. Ten days later Tordenskjold received 
orders to send home the Fyen 50, Delmenhorst 50, Frederiks- 
hald 36, and Stralsund 36, raise the blockade, and withdraw 
with the Laaland 50 and the three remaining galleys to 

He was not the man to sit down quietly after a defeat. Even 
with the reduced forces at his command he decided to try and 
avenge his losses. Taking the three galleys Ulysses, Proser- 
pina,, and Charlotta Amalia, with ten sloops, he proceeded 
again towards Gothenburg. The Swedish ships and their 
prizes were lying at Elfsborg, on the south bank of the river, 
west of Gothenburg, but still inside Ny Elfsborg. Tordensk- 
jold left the galleys in Rifve Fjord and sent in his flag-captain, 
Budde, with the sloops in the night of October 7/8th. The 
attack was a complete success. The Prinds Carl 7 was recap- 
tured and taken out, while the galleasses Carolus XII. 49, a big 
privateer Morner, the galley W rede 22, the ex-Danish bomb 
Johannes den Gamle, and one of the captured transports were 
burnt. Attempts were made to burn the two floating batteries, 
but were unsuccessful. The Danes had no casualties. 

This was the last action of the war as far as Denmark was 
concerned. By December all the Danish ships were back at 
Copenhagen, and an armistice had been signed for six months. 
Finally, on July 3rd, 1720, Peace was signed at Fredriksborg 
between Sweden on the one hand and Denmark and Prussia 
on the other. The terms were as follows : 

Sweden paid to Denmark an indemnity of 600,000 Riks- 
dollars and agreed not to support the Holstein-Gottorp family 
further. To Prussia she ceded Stettin and the other 

1719-1720. 193 

Pomeranian territory in Prussian Lands, while Denmark 
evacuated her part of Pomerania, as well as Bahus and Mar- 
strand. Poland was included in the treaty, and Sweden had 
to recognise Augustus of Saxony as King. Before this Peace 
had been concluded between Sweden and England on Novem- 
ber 20th, ,1719. Sweden gave u Bremen and Verden, but got 
in return a sum of 1,000,000 Bits-dollars and the promise of 
help from an English fleet next year. 




In the meantime the operations in the Baltic had been fairly 
brisk. The accession of Ulrika Eleonora put an end to the 
plans of Carl XII. against Norway and thus did away with the 
necessity for a truce with Russia. Accordingly the struggle, 
which had subsided almost completely towards the end of 1718, 
burst out again with renewed vigour. The work of mobilisa- 
tion was pushed to the utmost at Karlskrona, but lack of stores 
and money acted as a serious drag. 

On May llth, 1719, the first Russian cruisers got to sea from 
Revel under Yap. H off t. He had three battleships, three 
frigates, and a pink,* and sailed for Oland. He detached two 
of his ships to cruise off Gothland, and one of them, the 
Lansdou 32, heard from a prize that three Swedish warships 
had left Pillau for Stockholm with a convoy. Yan Hofft at 
once sent the Aleksandr 24 to Revel with the news, but re- 
mained with his own ships off Oland looking for a place to 
land. On receipt of the news Apraksin ordered Captain 
Senyavin to take every possible ship from Revel and look for 
the Swedes, and on May 26th the following squadron got to 
sea : Portsmut 52, Devonshir 52, Yagudiil 52, Uriil 52, Rafail 
52, Varakail 52, Natalia 18. 

The Swedes were the W achtmeister 48 (52), Karlskrona 
Vapen 30 (34), and Bernhardus 10 (12). t They had left 
Stockholm on May 19th with the Ruskenfelt 32 to protect com- 
merce, but the last-named ship had been detached. At day- 
break on June 4th the two squadrons met in the open sea, 
between Osel and Gottska Sando. Wrangel, the Swedish Com- 
modore, of course retreated, running for Sandhamn, in the 
Stockholm skargard, and the Russians pursued. At about 6 
a.m. the action began. The two leading Russian battleships, 
the Portsmut and Devonshir, attacked the Wachtmeister, but 
the Swedish fire directed at their rigging soon brought down 
two of the Portsmut' s topsail yards. The Devonshir now turned 
on the Karlskrona Vapen, and damaged her enough to let the 
Portsmut overtake ancl capture her. At the same time the 

* Perl 50, Uriil 52, Varachail 52, Samson 32, Lansdou 32, Sv. Ilya 32, and 
Aleksandr 24. 

t Figures in brackets are Russian. Others are from Swedish list for this 
year (Wrangel i. Ap. 3). 

1719. 195 

Bernhardus struck, in spite of Wrangel's efforts to relieve her. 
For the moment the Wachtmeister looked like getting away, 
but about 1 p.m. the Rafail came up on one side and the 
Yagudiil on the other. Wrangel was severely wounded, but 
his successor Trplle kept up the unequal fight. At last, dis- 
masted and leaking, on the arrival of the Portsmut and other 
Russian ships, Trolle surrendered at about 3 p.m. The Swedes 
lost 50 killed and 13 wounded,* while the Russian casualties 
were only 18. 

After this, the first victory of the Russian deep-sea fleet, the 
Russian squadron and its prizes returned to Revel. On June 
20th the Tsar left Kotlin with the Kronslot squadron, and on 
the 30th he reached Revel. Three days later the combined 
fleet of 21 battleships t left Revel and proceeded to Hango, 
where they arrived on July 7th and joined the galley fleet of 
132 vessels which had assembled there from Abo and Peters- 

Meanwhile, at the other end of the Baltic, a small Danish 
squadron had put to sea early in May composed of the follow- 
ing ships : 

Haffru 70, Beskjermer 64, Prinds Carl 52, Island 50, Sophia 
Hedvig 76, Wenden 72 (joined later), Fortuna 26, Levendals 
Gallej 20. 

Schoutbynacht Paulssen took his squadron to Bornholm and 
cruised in that neighbourhood, but no Swedes appeared. On 
July 7 a powerful English fleet under Admiral Norris reached 
Copenhagen. Norris's fleet contained the following 16 battle- 
ships, but apparently only ten or eleven were then with him : 

Cumberland 80, Dorsetshire 80, Prince Frederik 70, Mon- 
mouth 70, Hampton Court 70, Suffolk 70, Plymouth 60, York 
60, Monk 60, Medway 60, Defiance 60, Assistance 50, Dart- 
mouth 50, Worcester 50, Falmouth 50, St. Albans 50. 

The English attitude being somewhat uncertain, the arrival 
of this fleet caused considerable stir. The Danes seem at first 
to have expected Norris to continue the policy of hostility to 
Sweden, since on August 3 Paulssen was ordered to bring his 
ships to Kjoge Bay to join Norris's fleet, but they soon found 
out their error, and on August 26 Paulssen's instructions were 
revised. He was now to shift his flag to the Ebenetzer 64, and, 
accompanied by the Lovendals Gallej 20 and See Dragon 10, to 
follow the English as far as Bornholm to ascertain their inten- 

*Tornquist says 110 killed and wounded. Possibly the Russian version does 
not include those only slightly hurt. 

t Gangut 90, Sv. Aleksandr 70, Neptunus 70, Revel 70, Ingermanland 64, 
Moskva 64, Marlburg 64, Ekaterina 64, Shlisselburg 64, London 58, Uriil 52, 
Yagudiil 52, Varachail 52, Selafail 52, Rafail 52, Devonshir 52, Portsmut 52, 
Randolf 50, Perl 50, Britania 48, Arondel 48. 

o 2 


Peter the Great made no such mistake. Directly after reach- 
ing Hango he posted cruisers from Bornholm to Dagerort in 
Osel to keep an eye on Norris, and sent him a message by the 
frigate Samson 32 to the effect that Russia had no intention of 
interfering with neutral ships except when carrying contra- 
band of war. Deciding to go on with his plans in spite of the 
menace of the English fleet, Peter sent his battleships to sea 
on July 13th. A few days later the galleyis also left Hango, and 
on the 18th the entire Russian fleet assembled at Lemland in 
the Aland Islands. In the evening of the 21st they put to sea. 
Fog and calms forced the sailing ships to anchor, but the 
galleys, under Apraksin, about 130 in number, went on, and 
reached the Stockholm skargard in the afternoon of the 22nd. 
The battleships now returned to Lemland, save for a detach- 
ment of seven, which was left off the Swedish coast under 

Apraksin wasted no time. He sent Lacy northwards with 
21 galleys and 12 sloops on the 23rd, and moved south next 
day with the rest of his fleet. On the 26th he was off Dalaro. 
A force of Cossacks was landed for a raid on Stockholm, but 
was repulsed, and a number of sloops sent with the same 
object found the various channels too well defended, and had 
to withdraw. The Swedes had, as a matter of fact, a consider- 
able force in the Stockholm skargard. Their total strength 
comprised four battleships, five prams, nine frigates, eleven 
galleys, and six brigantines, half-galleys or double sloops. 

Battleships. Oland 50 * (Ad. Taube), Kronskepp 56, Hal- 
land 44, Reval 40. 

Frigates. Anldam 38, St. Thomas 36, Wolgast 34, RusJcen- 
felt 32, Stora Phoenix 24,* Lilla Phoenix ,* Valkomsten 
,* Danska Orn 18,* Paclta 18.* 

Brigantines. Ekorre 22, Kruthorn 12, Putzweg 12, Snap- 
popp 11, Korp , Jungfru .* 

fT&ms.Elefant 26, Svarta Bjorn 26, Sjospok 24, Mars 20, 
Kamel 16. 

Galleys. Phoenix 16, Svan 16, Pelikan 16, Jungfru 13, 
Krdfta 13, Drake 13, SvdrdfLsk 12, Delphin 12, Sturk 9, 
Paltox 9, Sudox 7. 

Apraksin was off Landsort, the southernmost point of the 
Stockholm skargard, on July 30th. On the way, besides taking 
several merchantmen, he had burnt the ironworks on the island 
of Uto, and he now detached several ships to do what damage 
they could among the islands. In the Gulf of Sodertelje more 
ships were sent to ravage the country, and the same was done 
at various other places. The fleet was at Nykoping on August 

* Sent from Karlskrona in May. 

1719. 19T 

4th and at Norrkoping on the 10th. At the latter place a num- 
ber of merchantmen were taken, and several of them were sent 
to Russia laden with copper from the adjacent mines, and with 
300 guns captured at the foundry of Nafvekvarn. This was 
the southernmost point reached. On August 14th Apraksin 
began his return voyage, picking up his various detachments 
on the way. He was now ordered to attempt something against 
Stockholm. First he tried the Sodra Staket channel, the 
southernmost and most difficult of the three approaches. He 
landed 6,000 men on the 24th, but these were defeated by the 
Swedes with a loss of 442 men ; the Swedish pram, Svarta 
Bjorn 26, and the three galleys, Svdrdfisk 12, Jungfru 13, and 
Drake 13, had been sent to defend this channel, and contri- 
buted largely to the Swedish success. Apraksin then withdrew 
to Mojan, one of the outer islands, where he anchored on the 
26th, but sent Smaevitch with 21 galleys and 21 sloops to 
examine the Yaxholm channel, a duty which he performed 
thoroughly, in spite of a heavy fire from the fort, and in face 
of the powerful Swedish squadron there. On August 29th 
Smaevitch rejoined Apraksin, and next evening they were back 
at Lemland. Lacy meanwhile had been acting in a similar 
way to the north. He destroyed ironworks and factories all 
along the coast, and burnt the towns of Norrtelje, Osthamar, 
and Oregrund. The troops which he landed fought two brisk 
actions, capturing three guns at the first and seven at the 
second, but on reaching Gefle he found it too well garrisoned 
and fortified to be attacked, so returned, and reached Lemland 
on August 27th. On the 31st both galley fleet and sailing 
ships left Lemland, the former going to Kronslot and the latter 
to Eevel. 

The English fleet had entered the Baltic on August 26th. 
Three days before this the following Swedish squadron had 
left Karlskrona under Count Sparre : 

Goto, Lejon 96, Prins Carl Fredrik 72, Gota 72, Bremen 64, 
Stockholm 64, Fredrika Amalia 62, Skdne 64, Gothland 50, 
three small craft. 

Delays occurred partly from head winds, partly to fill up the 
complements of the ships, and by the 27th they had got no 
further than the north of Gland. Here they were joined by 
Rajalin with the Verden 52, Pommern 52, Svarta Orn 36, 
Jarram,as 30, and Kiskin 22. This division had been sent out 
on August 12th to attack the Russian galleys, but had been too 
late to do any good. On the very day that Rajalin joined, the 
Russian frigate Samson 32 was sighted. The Skdne 64 
Svarta Orn, and Jarramas were sent to chase her, but in vain. 
She escaped, went to Lemland with the news of the Swedish 
fleet's sailing, and gave the Russians time to retire to Revel. 


On August 29th Norris was in communication with Sparre, 
but lack of pilots kept both fleets idle. At last, on September 
4th, the Verden and Svarta Orn, which had been sent to 
Dalaro, returned with some pilots, while others arrived from 
Vestervik. In the morning- of September 5th the English fleet 
reached the north end of Gland. The Swedes weighed anchor, 
and the two fleets proceeded together to Dalaro, where they 
anchored towards evening on the 6th. Norris had with him 
eleven battleships, while the Swedes had ten, besides the four 
in the Stockholm squadron, so that the total available strength 
of the Allies was probably superior to anything the Russians 
could produce, but nothing was attempted. The English were 
content to support Sweden without actually attacking Russia, 
and the Swedes, undermanned and in want of provisions, were 
in no state to take the initiative. Still, the news of their 
junction and presence off Stockholm made a deep impression in 
Russia and prevented any further expeditions this year. On 
September 5th the ships destined for Kronslot * left Revel and 
anchored off Nargen, in such a position that they could get 
away to Kronslot or return to Revel at will, but on the 22nd 
they proceeded to Kronslot. On October 5th three more battle- 
ships left Revel for Kronslot, and on the 9th, when close to 
their destination, the London 58 and Portsmut 52 went 
aground and were lost.t 

The Swedes meanwhile had ventured on a small expedition 
to Danzig. Some Russian ships had been there since the 
spring of 1717, when Lieutenant Yillebois had proceeded 
thither from Travemunde with the hoy Lasorser (La Sorcere] 
6. The City of Danzig had agreed to fit out three ships of 
twelve to eighteen guns to act against Sweden, and Villebois 
was ordered to take charge of these ships, but they never 
materialised. In May, 1718, the Sv. Yakov 22 and Diana 18 
were sent to join him, but were found to be unfit for service. 
They were therefore replaced in the autumn by the Natalia 18, 
two privateers, and a brigantine. Using Danzig as a base, 
Villebois cruised against Swedish merchantmen with such 
success that it became necessary for the Swedes to try and 
put a stop to his activity. On September 21st therefore Com- 
modore Rajalin left the Swedish fleet at Dalaro for Danzig 
with the Verden 52, Svarta Orn 36, and Jarramas 30. Arriving 
off Danzig on the 30th, he found three Russian ships in the 
harbour. They were the Prints Aleksandr 24, Natalia 18, 
and the privateer Eleonora 12. Rajalin sent in a demand that 
the Russians should be forced to leave, and sailed to Gothland 

* Aleksandr 70, Moskva 64, Ingermanland 64, Neptunus 70, Revel 70, Shlisscl- 
burg 64, Ekaterina 64, Marlburg 64. 
t The third was the Devonshir 52. 
t Swedish accounts give her 20 guns and 16 swivels. 

1719-1720. 199 

for reinforcements. He picked up the Kiskin 22 and returned 
to Danzig. On October 9th he sent in a second letter demand- 
ing that either the Russians should be forced out or the Swedes 
allowed in. The City Council replied that as far as they were 
concerned the Swedes could come into the harbour, but that 
the Russians would fight. Rajalin decided to attack, but found 
that there was only enough water on the bar for ihe^Kiskin, so 
withdrew on. October llth. He soon met the Skdne 64 and 
Pommern 52, which had left the fleet to join him on October 
5th.* Admiral Psilander, commanding the reinforcements, 
took over the command of the squadron and went to Gothland, 
whence he sent the Kiskin to report. At once he was sent the 
three brigantines, Jungfru, Sjokatt 22, and Fama 22, and 
ordered to collect any suitable ships he could find and attack 
the Russians at all costs. Delays occurred, and it was not 
until November 30th that the four smaller vessels anchored in 
Danzig Bay under Captain Yon Staube of the Kiskin. Next 
morning a gale scattered them. The Kiskin got into shelter 
under the point of Heel, but the brigantines made for Goth- 
land. Yon Staube therefore, after looking for them off 
Danzig and at Pillau, and finding the Russians ready for 
action, returned to Karlskrona, where he arrived on December 
10th. The Russian ships stayed at Danzig for the winter. 
During this time the English squadron had laid idle at Dalaro, 
but on November 7th it sailed homewards, accompanied as far 
as Karlskrona by the Swedish battleships Goto, Lejon 96, Gota 
72, and Prins Karl Fredrik 72. It reached Copenhagen on 
November 17th, and left again for England on the 23rd. Five 
ships of the main Swedish fleet wintered at Stockholmt in 
addition to the three belonging to the Yaxholm squadron ; the 
rest wintered at Karlskrona. J 

Early in 1720 the Swedes returned to Danzig. On April 3rd 
Schoutbynacht Feif left Karlskrona with the Pommern 52, 
Kiskin 22, Ebenezer 20, Goya 12, a galliot and three armed 
boats. On the 9th he was joined by Rajalin with the Verden 
52, and Svarta Orn which had been to Liibeck on convoy duty, 
but the Verden was damaged and had to be sent to Karlskrona. 
On the 15th Feif arrived outside Danzig with the other ships. 
He was allowed into the harbor, but made no attack and offered 

*On September 25th Commodore Von Unge had left Dalaro with the Bremen 
64, Stockholm 64, and Fredrika Amalia 62 to join Rajalin and take over the 
command, but with the Bremen damaged in a gale on October 1st he put into 
Karlshamn on the 5th and thence joined Psilander off Gothland. 

fThe three ships of Von Unge's detachment, the Bremen 64, Stockholm 64, 
and Fredrika Amalia 62; the Oland 50, which had only been lent to the Vaxholm 
squadron ; and the Skdne 64, one of Psilander's ships. 

4: The three just mentioned as accompanying the English besides Rajalin's 
ship, the Verden 52, the Pommern 52, from Psilander's division, and the 
Oottland 50. 


the Bussians 24 hours' start. Villebois insisted on 48 hours, 
and Feif agreed, though he knew that this made it practically 
impossible to catch him. On the 18th two more Swedes 
arrived, the Verden 52 and Jarramas 30, and on the 20th the 
Bussians put to sea and went to Biga. Two days later Feif 
also left, and on April 25th he anchored near Karlskrona. 

On the same day a Buasian squadron under Van Hofft left 
Bevel. It consisted of the following ships : 

Perl 50, Uriil 52, Varachail 52, Selafail 52, Yagudiil 52, 
Britania 48, Randolf 50, Esperans 44, Samson 34. 

Van Hofft was handicapped by having too many different 
duties to fulfil. He was expected to support the galleys in an 
attack on the Swedish coast, to capture Swedish merchantmen, 
and to look for the Swedish men of war which had been at 
Danzig in the previous year, and were thought to have 
wintered in Gothland. As a result he accomplished nothing. 
He went to Gothland and Danzig in vain, saw nothing of the 
Swedes, and was back at Bevel about the middle of May. He 
was then sent to Kronslot with his four larger foreign-built 
ships, leaving the Archangel battleships and the Samson at 
Bevel. Golitsyn meanwhile, with 70 galleys, had reached 
Lemland from Abo on May 8th, but as. Van Hofft did not 
arrive, he made no further move. On the other hand another 
division of thirty-five galleys, under Brigadier Mengden, 
crossed from Vasa to the Swedish coast, burnt Umea and 
several villages, captured merchantmen and cattle, and was 
back at Vasa on May 19th. 

While this was going on the Anglo-Swedish forces were 
slowly assembling. A fleet of twenty English battleships had 
left England on April 27th, and arrived outside the Sound on 
May 8th. On the 18th they reachecl Copenhagen, and next 
day they entered the Baltic. This fleet, which as in the 
previous year was under Admiral Sir John Norris, consisted of 
the following ships : 

Sandwich 90, Dorsetshire 80, Prince Frederik 70, Monmouth 
70, Revenge 70, Suffolk 70, Elizabeth 70, Bedford 70, Buck- 
ingham 70, Nottingham 60, Medway 60, Defiance 60, York 60, 
Kingston 60, Gloucester 50, Falmouth 50, Worcester 50, Dart- 
mouth 50, Monk 50, Warwick 50. 

On May 23rd Norris reached the Stockholm skargard and 
joined the Swedish battleships under Over-Admiral Count 
Sparre. The first four of these had arrived from Karlskrona 
on May 3rd. They were at once joined by the five that had 
wintered at Stockholm, and on May 16th by two more and 
some small craft. Sparre was therefore in command of the 
following eleven battleships : 

Gota 70, Karlskrona 70, Wenden 70, Prins Carl Frednk 70, 

1720. 201 

Stockholm 66, Bremen 66, Fredrilta Amalia 66, Oland 56, 
Pommern 50, Verd&n 50. 

On May 31st the two admirals put to sea and steered for 
Gottska Sando, a small island twenty miles North, of Gothland. 
On June 7th they left again for Revel, but detached a con- 
siderable squadron under Admiral Karl Wachtmeister to pro- 
ceed to the Aland Islands and act in conjunction with the 
ships from Stockholm, to prevent a repetition of the Russian 
descents on the Swedish coast. Wachtmeister's ships were as 
follows : 

Karlskrona 70 (Swedish), Oland, 56 (Swedish), Pommern 52 
(Swedish), Dartmouth 50 (English), Falmouth 50 (English), 
Phoenix 30 (Swedish), Ebenezer 22 (Swedish), Kiskin 22 
(Swedish), Danska Orn 20 (Swedish), Blandford 20 (English). 

With the rest of their force, 26 battleships, they arrived off 
Nargen on June 10th, driving the Russian cruisers into Revel. 
A reconnaisance showed that Revel was too well fortified to 
be attacked with any hope of success, and on the 13th orders 
arrived from the Swedish King to proceed at once to Hango.* 
The same day they did so, but they did not keep the sea long; 
on June 17th they anchored in the harbour of Kapelsvik in 
Gothland to take in water and provisions, and on the 27th they 
arrived at Dalaro. 

No sooner had they left the Gulf of Finland than the Rus- 
sians got to sea again. On June 23rd Van Hofft left Revel 
to convoy storeships to Helsingfors, and after this cruised un- 
disturbed between Hango and Rager-Vik. About a fortnight be- 
fore this the galleys under Golitsyn, after a visit to Helsingfors, 
had taken up their position at Pojo N.E. of Hango. The 
Swedish-English squadron under Admiral Karl Wachtmeister 
anchored on June 10th near Soderarm, a small island at the 
extreme north-east limit of the Stockholm skargard, and waited 
there for reinforcements from the Vaxholm squadron. The 
Pommern 52 was sent out cruising with two frigates and 
various small craft, but the fleet, as a whole, did nothing. By 
the beginning of July Wachtmeister had been reinforced by a 
number of small craft, and had charge of a fleet of five battle- 
ships, thirteen frigates, eight galleys, and eight other small 
craft. t During July he sent various small detachments to 

* These orders were brought by the frigates Vainqueur 30 and Delphin, which 
had been sent from Gothenburg and had passed the Sound on June 1st. 
Another Gothenburg frigate, the Louisiana, had entered the Baltic with the 
English fleet. 

t Battleships. Karlskrona 70, Oland 56, Pommern 52, Dartmouth 50 (E), 
Falmouth 50 (E). Galleys. Phoenix 16, Pelikan 16, Svan 16, Drake 13, Krafta 
13, Jungfru 13, Svdrdfisk 12, Del fin 12. Frigates. Reval 40, Phoenix 34, Vain- 
queur 30, Kiskin 22, Ebenezer 22, Anklam 36, Vdlkomsten, Danska Orn 18, 
Suskenfelt 32, Louisiana, Lilla Phoenix, Packa, Blandford 20 (E). 


reconnoitre in the Aland Islands, and at last on August 6th 
came the news that a few Russian galleys had been seen. 
Wachtmeister at once recalled his ships from the islands, and 
sent Vice-Admiral Sjoblad with the Pommern 52, Vainqueur 
30, and Danska Orn 18 to cover their rereat. 

The Swedish division of one battleship, four frigates, three 
galleys, and seven other small craft retreated on August 6th 
through Ledsund before the Russian force of 61 galleys and 29 
boats, but next day, as they reached the open sea, they met 
Sjoblad, and he, contrary to his orders, took them under his 
command and sailed to the attack. The Swedish force was 
now two battleships and six frigates, besides the smaller 
vessels, but the action resulted in a decisive Russian victory. 
At first Golitsyn retreated to entice the Swedish sailing ships 
into the narrow waters, but as soon as he had done this he 
turned and attacked. The Swedes tried to bring their broad- 
sides to bear, but two of their frigates went ashore at once, 
and two others a little later. All these ships were captured 
after a brisk action. Sjoblad himself was only saved by a 
fine piece of seamanship. His ship, the Pommern, beating to 
the southward missed stays; the Russians were too close to 
allow him to wear, so he carried on again, luffed up, cast 
anchor, got his head sails drawing on the other tack, cut his 
cable, and escaped. The captured Swedish ships were the 
Stora Phoenix 34, Vainqueur 30, Kiskin 22,* and Danska Orn 
18. They had lost before surrendering 103 men killed. The 
Russians lost 82 killed and 246 wounded. No fewer than 43 
of the Russian galleys were so much damaged that they had 
to be burnt, while two had been sunk early in the action. On 
August 18th Golitsyn was back at Pojo with his prizes. 

While these operations were going on in the Aland Islands 
the combined Anglo-Swedish fleet had been to sea again. On 
August 2nd it left Dalaro and sailed to Dagerort in Osel, but 
could see nothing of the Russians, and anchored on the 9th at 
Kapelsvik. Norris and Sparre now decided to return to 
Dalaro, but sent Admiral Hosier with one Swedish and seven 
English battleships to cruise in the Southern Baltic. Count 
Wachtmeister, the Swedish second-in-command, had to stay at 
Kapelsvik to repair the Skdne 66 and Stockholm 66, but the 
rest of the fleet reached Dalaro on August 17th. Nothing more 
of interest happened this year. The Russian sailing ships 
were laid up for the most part at Petersburg and Kronslot, 
while the galleys wintered at Helsingfors, only fifteen being 
left at Abo. Karl Wachtmeister's squadron at Soderarm went 
back to Stockholm at the end of September, and at the begin- 
ning of November both the English fleet and the main Swedish 

* Swedish accounts say that the Kiskin sank. 

1720-1721. 203 

fleet left Dalaro for home. The English reached Copenhagen 
on November 12th, and were back in England on December 
1st,* the Swedes entered Karlskrona in detachments during 
the latter half of November. 

At the beginning of the year the Danes had proposed to com- 
mission a fleet of fifteen battleships. Expecting an attack by 
this force on Karlskrona while the fleet was away, the Swedes 
moored in the entrance the battleships Gota Lejon 96, Vdst- 
manland 60, and Lifland 48 with various other vessels, but 
nothing came of the alarm, and peace with Denmark was soon 

The Russian Kronslot ships had taken no active part in the 
operations, but the five new battleships, Gangut 90, Lyesnoe 
90, Fridrichshtat 90, Syevernyi Orel 80,t and Isak Viktoria 
66 were at sea during July for sailing trials under the Tsar. 
The Lansdou 32 was sent from Revel to Copenhagen at the 
end of April to attack certain Swedish ships laden with guns, 
but was unsuccessful; she was watched for some time by two 
English frigates and by the Swedish Svarta Orn 36, but got 
back safely to Revel in the autumn. 

The year 1721 saw the end of the " Great Northern War," 
which had been in progress since 1699. Of Sweden's enemies 
only Russia was left, and now both countries were ready for 
peace. On the death of Carl XII. Swedish policy had natu- 
rally become less warlike, and the revival of the ^war- with 
Russia had merely been an attempt to make up for some of the 
losses of the previous year. The attempt had failed. Even 
with the help of an English fleet little could be done to stop 
the depredations of the Russian galleys, and the country, ex- 
hausted by over twenty years of war, was only anxious for rest. 
On the Russian side, too, though the war had for the last ten 
years been uniformly successful, there was a feeling that what 
nad been gained was enough, and that the war should be ended. 
By the mediation of France a second Peace Conference was 
assembled at Nystad, in Finland, but in the meantime, to 
ensure favourable terms, both sides made great efforts. 

Van Hofft left Nargen on May 16th with the Revel squad- 
ron of seven battleships ;J he picked up a battleship, a 
frigate, and a snow which were out cruising, and proceeded to 
Hango. Two days before this General-Lieutenant Lacy left 
Helsingfors with 30 galleys and 43 smaller vessels to attack the 
Swedish coast. Van Hoirt's original orders were to convoy 

* The Monk 50 was lost near Yarmouth, 
t Or Nord Adler. 

Perl 50, Poltava 52, Eandolf 50, Rafail 52, Devonshir 52, Varachail 52, 
Arondel 50. 
Selafail 52, Samson 32, Eingorn 14. 


this detachment to the Aland Islands before sailing to Oland 
and Bornholm. This, however, did not take place ; the galleys 
reached Abo without escort, and Van Hofft, leaving his slower 
ships behind, steered west into the Baltic. He did not go far. 
A new English fleet had entered the Baltic on May llth, and 
this necessitated the return of the Russian ships. At Gottska 
Sando on May 21st Van Hofft's division was overtaken by a 
gale. The Rafail 52 lost her mainmast and her topmasts, and 
the Poltava 52 her foremast and mainmast. On June 8th the 
squadron was back at Revel. 

The English fleet, which had reached the Sound on May 9th, 
was almost the same as last year, and was composed as fol- 
lows * : 

Sandwich 90, Dorsetshire 80, Chichester 80, Suffolk 70, 
Prince Frederick 70, Bedford 70, Monmouth 70, Revenge 70, 
Buckingham 70, Elizabeth 70, Medway 60, York 60, Defiance 
60, Kingston 60, Nottingham 60, Guernsey 50, Worcester 50, 
Dartmouth 50, Falmouth 50, Panther 50, Gloucester 50, War- 
wick 50, Gosport 40. 

On May 13th it reached Karlskrona, and joined the seven 
battleships of the Swedish fleet which were ready for sea. 
Sparre, whose flagship, the Ulrika Eleonora 84, was not yet 
ready, came out in the Jarramas 30. On May 21st two more 
Swedish ships joined, and on the 21st the Allies set sail for 
Easels vik. On the way they received news of LacY's arrival 
at Abo, and at once decided to go towards Stockholm. At 
Elfsnabben they were joined by the last two battleships of the 
Karlskrona fleet. The Swedish contingent -now comprised the 
following eleven battleships : 

Ulrika Eleonora 84, Gota Lejon 92, Enighet 92, Prins Carl 
Fredrik 70, Bremen 64, Stockholm 64, Skdne 60, Westmanland 
60, Fredrika Amalia 60, Verden 56, Oland 50. 

On June llth the combined fleet left Elfsnabben, and on the 
16th it anchored at Kapelskar, in the northern part of the 
skargard. Several small craft joined it from Vaxholm, but 
nothing whatever was attempted, and the great fleet lay idle 
all the summer. 

Lacy meanwhile had been working up the Gulf of Bothnia, 
destroying as he went. On May 27th he had crossed from 
Aland to Gefle, a fortified town on the Swedish coast about 
100 miles north of Stockholm. This he found too strong to be 
attacked, so went northwards. At Hudiksvall and Sundsvall 

* From a line of battle in Wrangel ii. Ap. 6. This is arranged with the first 
division of seven ships under Rear-Admiral Hosier, the second of seven ships 
under Rear-Admiral Hopson, and the third of nine ships under Admiral Norris. 
Presumably the Swedish squadron formed the fourth division, so that Norris 
was roughly in the centre. Lediard's list omits the Guernsey and Panther, and 
puts Norris in the centre. Probably this was the original organisation. 

1721. 205 

his troops met and defeated the Swedish forces, and six new 
galleys which were just ready for sea in the latter port were 
burnt by the Swedes themselves. On June 19th he was at 
Umea, and on the 24th at Pitea, which he burnt. Here he 
received orders to stop operations, and on the 28th he was back 
on the Finnish coast at Vasa, having traversed and harried some 
400 miles of the Swedish coast-line. The Russian sailing fleet 
showed no very great activity, but as many as 27 battleships 
were commissioned in the two ports. On June 19th Rear- 
Admiral Gordon reached Revel, with six battleships and three 
frigates,* from Kronslot. The Tsar, who had been on a long 
visit to Riga, arrived at Revel the same day. He hoisted his 
flag in the Ingermanland 64 and took both Gordon's and Van 
Host's squadrons to Rager Yik. After surveying for the pro- 
posed harbour works, he returned to Revel, and leaving Van 
Hofft's ships at Nargen, put to sea again on June 27th with 
Gordon's squadron, and reached Kronslot next day. 

In the meantime some of the newer ships from Kronslot had 
been out as far as Krasna Gorka, about twenty miles west of 
Kotlin for sailing trials. On his return Peter sent his six 
ships to join these others, and on July 27th he hoisted his 
flag in the Ingermanland 64, and took command of the follow- 
ing fleet : 

Van: Sv. Petr 80, Revel 68, Shlisselburg 64, Fridrichshtat 
90 (Rear-Admiral Menshikov), Vyborg 64, Astrachan 66. 

Centre : Neptun 70, Fridemaker 80, Ingermanland 64, 
(Vice-Admiral The Tsar), Sv. Ekaterina 66, Nord Adler 78, 
Lyesnoe 90. 

Rear: Sv. Aleksandr 70, Marlburg 60, Moskva 64, Gangut 
90 (Rear-Admiral Sivers), Isak Viktoria 66, Sv. Andrei 80. 

After practising various evolutions and formations, and 
trying the ships on every point of sailing, the Tsar returned 
to St. Petersburg, leaving the fleet under Sivers to cruise at 
the Eastern end of the Gulf of Finland. This was on 
August 16th. Nothing further happened, and on Septem- 
ber 10th Peace was signed at Nystad. 

Before discussing the termis of the Treaty of Peace there are 
certain small matters which must be considered. After some 
years of independence of foreign builders the Tsar had arranged 
to have some more ships built in Holland. These were two 
battleships, Rotterdam 56 and Prints Evgenii (Prince Eugene) 
50, and three thirty- two gun frigates, Endracht, Amsterdam- 
Galei, and Dekrondelivde (Kronde Liefde). The frigates were 
sent to Russia unarmed under the Dutch flag, but even so the 

* Isak Viktoria 66, Ingermanland 64, Moskva 64, Shlisselburg 64, Vyborg 64, 
Marlburg 60, Feniks 34, Lansdou 32, Eiskin 22. The Vyborg was the old 
Sv. Ekaterina renamed. 


Endracht was taken by the Swedish Svcurta Orn 36, in July, 
1720. The other two remained at Copenhagen until after the 
conclusion of Peace, and reached Revel in October, 1721. 
With the battleships a different method was adopted. The old 
Archangel battleships Yagudiil and Uriil left Revel on 
February I3th, 1721, for Holland. On arrival they were to be 
sold, and their guns and crews transferred to the two new 
ships. On February 20th they reached Drager, south of 
Copenhagen, and were frozen in, but managed to cut their way 
through the ice into Copenhagen harbour. Here they 
remained until the autumn, when they proceeded to Holland, 
and were duly sold. The Rotterdam, renamed Nishtat in com- 
memoration of the Peace, left for Russia early in November, 
entered the Baltic on the 20th, and was wrecked off Osel on the 
23rd. Her crew were saved, and her guns and gear were 
removed next summer. The Prints Evgenii, which had been 
sent to Ostend to fit out, was detained for some time by the 
Imperial authorities, and did not reach Russia till 1722. 

On the conclusion of Peace, the various fleets in the Eastern 
Baltic returned to their respective bases. On September 16th 
the Russian Kronslot squadron returned to port, and was 
joined on October 31s-t by the galleys. Yan Hofft's squadron 
wintered again at Revel. The Anglo-Swedish fleet had left 
Kapelskar on August 29th, and sailing through the skargard 
reached Dalaro next day. Here the Swedes stopped, but the 
English went on as far as Elfsnabben. On October 4th Norris 
left for England. He was at Copenhagen from the 12th to 
the 17th, and arrived at the Nore on the 31st. The Swedish 
fleet moved to Elfsnabben two days after his departure, and on 
October 12th they sailed for Karlskrona, where they arrived on 
the 15th. The greater part of the Yaxholm squadron had 
been laid up early in September, and the rest soon followed. 

The Treaty of Nystad, which put an end to Sweden's long 
war, was naturally only brought about by large concessions. 
Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, part of Kurland, and the eastern 
part of Finland, including Yiborg, had to be ceded to the 
victorious Russians, but the rest of Finland was restored to 
Sweden, and was accompanied by a money payment of 
2,000,000 Riks-dollars. As a result, Russia was confirmed in 
the possession of the coast of the Gulf of Finland from Yiborg 
to Riga, a striking contrast to the position of twenty years 
before, when all this territory was in Swedish hands. 

No less striking had been the rise of the Russian fleet. In 
1710, when the second phase of the war began, there had been 
two naval powers in the Baltic, Sweden and Denmark. Sweden 
in 1710 had 38 battleships in the Baltic and five at Gothen- 
burg. During the war she lost all her Gothenburg ships and 

1721. 207 

fifteen of those in the Baltic. Of those at Gothenburg one was 
taken by the Danes, and four destroyed to prevent capture, 
while of those in the Baltic three were captured by Denmark 
and one by E/ussia, three were destroyed after action, one was 
accidentally blown up, one wrecked, and six condemned and 
sunk, or broken up. No battleships were built during this 
period, and only one captured from the Russians, so that the 
Swedish navy which, at the beginning of the war had forty- 
three battleships, had at its conclusion only twenty-four.* Den- 
mark, too, was much weakened by the war. She had started it 
in 1710 with forty-one battleships, but though she built one 
and took four from Sweden during its course she had in .1721 
only twenty-five battleships left. Of the twenty-one that had 
been lost, as many as seventeen were condemned and either sold 
or sunk for foundations for batteries, three were wrecked, and 
one burnt in action. Denmark and Sweden had thus suffered 
about evenly, and had both lost nearly half their strength, but 
Russia meanwhile had been steadily rising as a naval power. 
In 1710 there were no Russian battleships in the Baltic, but 
during the war no less than fifty-three were acquired. Of these 
twenty-four were built in the Baltic and seven at Archangel; 
twenty- twot were bought abroad, and one was taken from the 
Swedes. In these eleven years nineteen Russian battleships were 
removed from the list. Six were wrecked, one blown 
up, one destroyed after action, one captured, three sold, 
three broken up, and four cut down or disarmed. Besides these, 
five others were already condemned in 1722, and were soon 
broken up. The Russian Navy consisted, therefore, in 1722 of 
twenty-nine serviceable battleships, a greater number than that 
possessed by either Denmark and Sweden. 

The rise of the Russian Navy was quite unparalleled. In a 
few years it had not only come into existence, but had risen 
to the foremost place in the Baltic, a position which it held 
until the rise of the German Navy at the end of the nineteenth 
century, and this rise had taken place in spite of the active 
opposition of the Swedish fleet, which, up to the last few years 
of the war, was undoubtedly superior to the Russians in every 

* Three more ships were condemned in 1721 and 1722, and the Swedish Navy 
thus fell to twenty-one battleships. 
f Four of these were sometimes called frigates. 





After the Peace of Nystad there followed eleven years of 
more or less precarious peace in the Baltic. Political events 
necessitated several important mobilisations, but no actual 
hostilities took place. In 1722 both Russian sailing fleets were 
at sea during the summer, but neither went far from its base. 
The Kronslot squadron of thirteen battleships * and three 
frigates was under Kruys, who had been recalled from Siberia 
in 1714, after less than a year's exile, but up to now had only 
been employed on shore. This fleet went as far as Krasna 
Gorka, and the Revel squadron of six battleships t cruised 
between Nargen and Dagerort. A number of galleys were kept 
ready for sea, but were not actually commissioned. These 
movements caused some little anxiety in both Sweden and 
Denmark. In the former country a few merchantmen were 
sent out to investigate, and in Denmark preparations got as 
far as the mobilisation of four battleships, J but it was soon 
seen that Russia intended no attack on her neighbours, and 
their precautions were found to be unnecessary. Next year 
there was more cause for alarm. The Russian attitude be- 
came distinctly threatening. Peter, returning from his suc- 
cessful Persian war, invited to Petersburg the Duke of Hoi- 
stein, nephew of Karl XII., and prepared to support him both 
in his claims on Slesvig, which had been taken by the Danes, 
and in his demand to be recognised as successor to the Swedish 
throne. As an earnest of his intentions he betrothed his 
daughter to the Duke, and prepared a large fleet to enforce his 

On June 13th, 1723, the Kotlin battleship fleet left for Revel 
and joined the ships there, forming a fleet of 24 battleships and 
five frigates. Schoufbynacht Senyavin was sent out to cruise 
between Hango and Rager Vik with six ships. || The Duke of 

* Neptunus 72, Isak Viktoria 66, Panteleimon Viktoria 66, Shlisselburg 64, 
Sv. Aleksandr 70, Astrachan 66, Ingermanland 64, Vyborg 64, Revel 68, Sv. 
Ekaterina 66, Moskva 64, Marlburg 60, Poltava 54. 

\Perl 50, Britania 50, Armont 50, Devonshir 52, Randolf 50, Arondel 50. 

t Haffru 70, Ebenetzer 64, Sophia Hedvig 70, Beskjermer 64. 

Van. Sv. Andrei 88,|| Prints Evgenii 50, Vyborg 64, Sv. Ekaterina 66 
(Admiral Michailov the Tsar), Lyesnoe 90, Astrachan 60,|| Isak Viktoria 66, 
Neptun 70. Centre. Fridemaker 88, Armont 48,|| Panteleimon 66, Revel 68, 
Gangut 92 (General-Admiral Apraksin), Fridrichshtat 86, Poltava 54,|| St. Petr 
88. Rear. Marlburg 64,|| Arondel 48, Sv. Michail 54, Nord Adler 80 (Vice- 
Admiral Gordon), Sv. Aleksandr 70, Randolf 50,|| Moskva 64, Perl 50. 

1722-1724. 209 

Holstein went on board the Fridemaker 88, and on July 23rd 
the fleet put to sea. It went to Eager Yik for the Tsar to 
found the new harbour, and then proceeded towards the Stock- 
holm skargard. It had been intended to send the Duke to 
Stockholm with fifteen battleships to support him, but the 
negotiations were successful, his claims were recognised, and 
the Russian ships only just showed themselves off the Swedish 
coast and then returned to Nargen, where they anchored on 
July 31st. The Revel ships went into harbour, and the seven 
three-deckers went back to Kronslot at once, * but the rest of the 
fleet carried out tactical exercises on the way, and did not 
reach Kronslot until August 16th. A fleet of 70 galleys had also 
been in commission, but had not left the Neva. Naturally the 
other Baltic countries had mobilised to some extent. Denmark 
had equipped thirteen battleships,! nine in active commis- 
sion and four in reserve, but the Swedes, though apparently 
more directly threatened, confined themselves to commissioning 
three battleships at Karlskrona and blocking some of the 
approaches to Stockholm. 

About this time both Sweden and Russia showed an interest 
in the island of Madagascar. Some of the pirates and 
buccaneers of the West Indies, driven from their cruising 
ground by the English and French, had gone as far as Mada- 
gascar and taken up their position there. With a view to secur- 
ing their position they had applied in 1717 to Carl XII. for 
protection. For some years nothing could be done in the 
matter, but on the conclusion of Peace in 1721 the Jarramas 
30 was sent to take possession of the island. Morgan, the re- 
presentative of the buccaneers, had promised to join her at 
Cadiz with 30 ships, but he never appeared, and the Jarramas 
returned to Sweden. In the meantime a certain Narcross, an 
Englishman, apparently one of the buccaneers, had been in the 
Swedish service. After the death of Carl XII. he was arrested 
for political reasons, but escaped and joined the Russian Navy 
for the last few months of the war. On its conclusion he went 
to England, but he had evidently suggested a Russian annexa- 
tion of Madagascar, since, early in 1722, Ulrich, the former 
captain of the Jarramas, was invited to Russia, and the plans 
for the expedition prepared. It was not, however, until Janu- 
ary, 1724, that Yice-Admiral WilsterJ left Rager Vik with the 
Amsterdam Galei 32 and Dekrondelivde 32. The former ship 
sprang a leak and had to put back to careen, and while doing 

* The Duke of Holstein shifted from the Fridemaker 88 to the Neptun 70, and 
Apraksin from the Oangut 92 to the Sv. Aleksandr 70. 

f Dronning Anna Sophia 90, Nordstjern 72, Justitia 86, Haffru 70, Beskjermer 
64, Ebenetzer 64, Fyen 52, Laaland 50, Prinds Carl 54; Jylland 70, Island 50, 
Delmenhorst 50, Oldenborg 50. 

t He had formerly been in both the Danish and Swedish Navies. 


this she filled and sank, with the loss of sixteen men.* After 
this the expedition was abandoned. 

In the autumn of 1723 a new fortress was begun on the 
island of Kotlin, and called Kronstadt. The Tsar himself pre- 
pared the plans. Three ships were ordered on a trading 
voyage, with rope, guns, and other stores, but never left 
Revel. Peter the Great sent out another large fleet in 1724, 
but only for exercise. The Kotlin squadron of sixteen battle- 
shipst sailed to Krasna Gorka on June 17th, and was joined 
three days later by three battleships* from Revel. The com- 
bined fleet, under the orders of Vice- Admiral Wilster, carried 
out an extensive programme of exercises, but suffered con- 
siderable damage in a gale at the beginning of August. On 
September 22nd the Revel Division was back in port, but 
Wilster with the Kotlin ships stayed at sea till October 16th. 
An agreement for twelve years was concluded this year between 
Russia and Sweden. By it either country if at war could call 
on the other for help. Sweden's contribution in case of need 
was to be six battleships and two frigates, Russia's nine battle- 
ships and three frigates, figures which show clearly enough 
the change in the distribution of naval power in the Baltic. 

On January, 1725, Peter the Great died at the age of fifty- 
two, and was succeeded by his wife Ekaterina. The Danes, 
expecting the new ruler to give more active support to the 
Duke of Holstein, commissioned ten battleships, three prams, 
and two frigates, and mobilised the defences of Copenhagen; 
but in August, finding their fears groundless, they laid up 
their ships. The Swedes relied on being able to remain neutral 
in the event of war, and made no preparations. The Russian 
fleet was, however, only mobilised for exercise. Twelve battle- 
shipsll left Kronstadt on July 28th, and proceeded to Revel, 
where they were joined on August 3rd by three others. Some 
galleyis also went to sea for training. On Angust 10th the 
fleet left Revel for a cruise, in which it went as far as Goth- 
land, and on the 24th it anchored in Rager Vik. On Septem- 
ber 1st three battleships were sent to Revel, If on the 5th the 

* She was easily refloated. 

t Fridrichshtat 96, Lyesnoe 90, Gangut 92, Sv. Petr 88, Sv. Andrei 88, Nord 
Adler 80, Revel 68, Neptunus 70, Ingermanland 66, Aleksandr 70, Moskva 64, 
Vyborg 64, Marlburg 64, Shlisselburg 64, Astrachan 66, Isak Viktoria 66. 

t Perl 50, Prints Evgenii 50, Randolf 50. 

Dronning Anna Sophia 90, Justitia 86, Wenden 70, Haffru 70, Jylland 70, 
Nordstjern 70, Beskjermer 64, Ebenetzer 64, Prinds Wilhelm 54, Sydermanland 

|| Sv. Alexsandr 70, Neptunus 70, Revel 68, Derbent 64, Leferm 70, Astrachan 
66, Marlburg 64, Moskva 64, Isak Viktoria 64, Rafail 54, Michail 54, Ne iron 
menya 54. 

IT The ships that joined from Revel were the Prints Evgenii 54, Perl 54, and 
Arondcl 52. Those that went there for the next winter were the Prints Evgenii 
54, Ne iron menya 54, and Sv. Michail 54. 

1723-1726. 211 

rest of the fleet got under way, and on the 12th it reached 

The year 1726 saw an English fleet again in the Baltic. 
Anna, the daughter of Peter the Great, married the Duke of 
Holstein, and at the same time there was evidence of an under- 
standing between Russia and Spain. As long ago as 1718 a 
Quadruple Alliance had been formed by England, France, 
Holland, and the Emperor with the express object of checking 
Spain, which since the death of Louis XIV., had taken the 

?lace of France as the firebrand of Western Europe. In 
725, however, the Emperor went over to the Spanish side in 
the Treaty of Vienna, and, as a reply to this, the three 
Western Powers signed the Treaty of Hanover. Europe was 
thus divided into two parties, and both sides made every effort 
to gain the support of the Northern countries. Hussia sided 
with Spain, and this wais enough to throw Denmark into the 
opposite camp, but Sweden was undecided. It was therefore 
arranged in order to lend weight to the English representatives 
to send a large fleet into the Balfic. On April 28th Vice- 
Admiral Sir Charles Wager left the Nore with a fleet of 
twenty battleships.* From May 4th to 13th he was at Copen- 
hagen, where he had an audience of the King, and on the 17th 
he reached Elfsnabben. After an audience with the King of 
Sweden he put to sea again on June 5th, t and on the 9th he 
arrived off Nargen. In Revel harbour there were only four 
Russian battleships and three frigates, but at Kronstadt there 
was a fleet of sixteen battleships under Apraksin. The Russian 
authorities at Revel demanded the meaning of Wager's pre- 
sence, and he at once sent a frigate to Kronstadt to deliver to 
Apraksin a letter from George I. to the Tsarina. He further 
sent a message to the Danish squadron of eisrht battleships and 
four frigates which had left Copenhagen on May 25th for Born- 
holm. On June llth the English fleet moved further into 
Revel Bay, and on the 24th it was joined by the Danish shipsj 
under Schoutbynacht Bille. On July 5th tlie Russian battle- 
ship Rafail 54 arrived with Ekaterina's answer to the letter 
from George I. She put to sea again on the 8th, and the same 
day Wager forwarded the letter home by the Elizabeth 70, 
which he was sending to Copenhagen for repairs, and the 

* Torbay 80, Cumberland 80, Hampton Court 70, Nassau 70, Elizabeth 70, 
Northumberland 70, Monmouth 70, Captain 70, Yarmouth 70, Prince Frederick 
70, Grafton 70, Bedford 70, Edinburgh 70, Plymouth 60, Preston 50, Assistance 
50, Hampshire 50, Advice 50, Chatham 50, Weymouth 50. 

t He had been joined on the 2nd by the Nassau 70. 

tThe original squadron was composed as follows: Nordstjern 72, Wenden 70, 
Beskjermer 64, Ebenetzer 64, Slesvig 54, Laaland 50, Island 50, Delmenhorst 50, 
Hvide 0rn 30, Eaae 30, H0yenhald 30, S0ridder 30. The Ebenetzer and Laaland 
had had to be sent home, but the Fyen 54 had joined to replace one of them. 

P 2 


Assistance 50, which he had told off to accompany her.* The 
fleet remained in Revel Bay for nearly four months, and in 
spite of the nature of his errand Wager maintained excellent 
relations with the Russians, and was allowed not only to buy 

E revisions ashore, but even to land his sick in Nargen. At 
ist. on Ocober 1st, the English and Danes put to sea. The 
former arrived at Copenhagen on October 20th, and left again 
for home on the 30th; but the Danes seem to have stayea be- 
hind in the Baltic, since it was not till November that they 
reached Copenhagen, having suffered a good deal of damage 
from heavy weather at the end of the previous month. 

Yery similar operations took place in 1727, but in this year 
the position was complicated by the fact that hostilities began 
in February between England and Spain, though these went 
no further than an unsuccessful siege at Gibraltar. The Eng- 
lish fleet for the Baltic consisted this year of twelve battle- 
ships,! and was, as so often before, under Admiral Sir John 
Norris. On May 23rd Norris reached Copenhagen, and was 
joined by ten/ Danish battleships. + A defensive alliance with 
Denmark had been made by France and England, and a similar 
agreement was shortly made with Sweden; but before any 
Swedish ships could be mobilised to join the Allies the Tsarina 
Ekaterina died on May 28th. This altered the aspetet of 
affairs', and made it unnecessary for the Anglo-Danish fleet to 
move eastward. The Russians only commissioned a few battle- 
ships this year, and the Danish fleet was laid up again at once, 
though Norris stayed at Copenhagen till October. On June 
21st King George I. also died, but this caused no change in 
English policy. The siege of Gibraltar was abandoned, and 
after a year's deliberation an alliance was concluded at the end 
of 1728 between England, France, Spain, and Holland. For 
the next few years Peace reigned in the Baltic. Russia had 
twenty-five battleships in commission in 1728, but her fleet 
was almost completely idle for the next three years, and neither 
in Denmark nor in Sweden were there more than the most 
insignificant mobilisations. 

Difficulties, however, arose in 1733. Augustus II., King of 
Poland, died, and Stanislaus, the former Swedish nominee, 
seized the throne again. He was backed by his son-in-law, 
Louis XV. of France, but was opposed by the Emperor and 
by the Russian Tsarina Anna, who had come to the throne in 

* He had been joined on the 4th by the Northumberland 70. The Elizabeth 
rejoined on August 28th. 

f Cornwall 80, Hampton Court 70, Elizabeth 70, Nassau 70, Edinburgh 70, 
Suffolk 70, Revenge 70, Bedford 70, Captain 70, Monmouth 70, Grafton 70, 
Northumberland 70. 

$ Prind* Christian 76, Wenden 70, Haflru 70, Beskjermer 64, Prinds Carl 54, 
Ntlleblad 50, Island 50, Laaland 50, Slesvig 50, Sydermanland 46. 

1726-1734. 213 

1730. Their candidate was Augustus, son of the late King, 
and steps were soon taken to support him. Russian and Aus- 
trian armies invaded Poland, and Stanislaus had to retire to 
Danzig. At the same time Spain joined France against 
Austria, and the Spaniards in particular won important vic- 
tories in Italy. Louis XY. hoped to get help from Sweden, 
but that country was not ready for another war, and wisely 
remained neutral. Both in 1732 and 1733 the Russian Kron- 
stadt fleet consisted of ten battleships, but it took no part in 
the war till 1734. The only way for Louis XV. to help Stanis- 
laus was by sending troops to Danzig, and this could only be 
done by sea. Accordingly, on August 31st, 1733, a fleet of 
eight battleships and five frigates* left Brest for the Baltic, and 
on September 20th it reached Copenhagen. It went no further, 
and on October 8th Lieutenant-General La Luzerne-Brique- 
ville, its commander, received orders to return to Brest. Early 
next year the siege of Danzig began, but the French did little 
to help. A fleet was slowly equipped at Brest, but it never 
reached the Baltic. Two ships, the Achille 62 and Gloire 46 
were sent in advance with 1,800 troops, and on May llth the 
soldiers were landed at Weichselmunde, a fortress at the mouth 
of the Vistula. At once La Motte, the French general, de- 
clared the position untenable and re-embarked, and on the 15th 
the two ships put to sea again. Hereupon Plelo, the French 
Ambassador at Copenhagen, took charge of these two ships and 
of the Fleuron 60, Brillant 30, and Astree 30, which had just 
arrived at Copenhagen, and, insisting on La Motte's accom- 
panying him, sailed again for Danzig. On May 24th he landed, 
and three days later he was killed. The French ships had 
moved towards Pillau, and they now cruised in the Baltic, in 
the hope of receiving reinforcements, but none arrived, and on 
June 10th they were back at Copenhagen. The Fleuron 60 
and Gloire 46 met and took the Russian Mitau 32, but the 
French squadron attempted nothing more, and on August 24th 
it reached Brest. 

The Russian Navy, on the other hand, was of the greatest 
help to the besieging army. On May 26th, 1734, Admiral 
Gordon left Kronstadt with a fleet of fourteen battleships,! five 
frigates, and two bomb vessels. On June 6th he reached 
Pillau, and on the llth he moved to Danzig. In the harbour 
lay a French frigate, the Brillant 30. In the afternoon of 
June 12th the Russian bomb vessel Yupiter 6, supported by 

* Fleuron 60 (f), Conquerant 70, Saint Louis 62, Toulouse 60, Mercure 56, 
Heureux 60, Triton 60, Tigre 56, Griffon 46, Gloire 46, Argonaute 44, Astree 30, 
Meduse 16. 

t Petr I. i 11. 100, Sv. Aleksandr 70, Leferm 70, Natalia 66, Slava Eossie 66, 
Narva 64, Shlisselburg 60, Marlburg 60, Petr 11. 54, Vyborg 54, Riga 54, Novaya 
Nadezhda 54, Devonshir 52, Panteleimon Viktoria 50. 


the frigates Arondel 50 and Esperans 44* approached the 
French ship and opened fire. After about an hour's action the 
Brillant withdrew, under the guns- of Weichselmiinde. From 
the 15th onwards the shore batteries were bombarded by the 
bomb vessels Yupiter 6 and Donder 6 and the frigates Esperans 
44 and Star Femks 36, in conjunction with the land forces, and 
on the 23rd the fortress of Weichselmiinde surrendered. With 
it the Russians got possession of three French ships, the Bril- 
lant 30, a hoy of fourteen guns, and a pram of eight. On June 
29th the fleet left Danzig, t on July 9th it visited Revel, and 
on the 13th it was back at Kronstadt. Danzig was forced to 
capitulate on July 9th, but Stanislaus escaped. He abandoned 
his claims on the Polish throne, which was given to Augustus 
III., and in return was made Duke of Lorraine with the title 
of King. Louis XV. was pacified by the promise that on the 
death of Stanislaus, Lorraine, formerly part of the Empire, 
should pass to France. 

The success of the Russian forces in Poland encouraged the 
Tsarina to attack Turkey. In 1736 the Russians captured 
Azov, and soon managed, with the aid of a flotilla of small 
vessels, to occupy the Crimea and advance westwards as far as 
Moldavia. Austria joined in the war, but was defeated several 
times by the Turks, and was compelled in 1739 to evacuate 
Belgrade and become netural. Thus, deprived of her ally, 
the Tsarina also came to terms, and agreed to restore Azov and 
her other conquests, and to maintain no fleet in the Sea o" 
Azov or the Black Sea. 

Another event of 1739 was the outbreak of war between 
Spain and England. J For the moment there seemed no pros- 
pect of this involving any other power, but in 1740 the death 
of the Emperor Charles VI. threw practically the whole of 
Europe into war. The succession had been secured to his 
daughter, Maria Theresa, by the Pragmatic Sanction, which 
had been recognised by all the leading Powers, but hardly had 
his death occurred when efforts were made on all sides to 
deprive the new ruler of her inheritance. Frederick the Great, 
the new King of Prussia, seized Silesia, while the Elector of 
Bavaria, backed by France, laid claim to the whole of the 
Austrian dominions. 

The war of the Austrian Succession soon extended to the 
Baltic ; Russia was the ally of Austria, and Sweden of France, 
go that an outbreak of hostilities was almost inevitable. In 

* Both these ships were now classed as frigates, and had probably reduced 
arm amenta. 

t The Yupiter, Donder, and the French prizes were left at Weichselmunde, 
and came to Kronstadt later. 

$ This year a French squadron visited Stockholm. It was under the Marquis 
d'Antin in the Bourbon 74. 

1734-1741. 215 

1740, too, the Tsarina Anna Ivanovna died. She was suc- 
ceeded nominally by Ivan VI., but the new Tsar was an infant, 
and Russia was governed first by Biron, the favourite of the 
late Empress, and later by Anna of Brunswick, Ivan's mother. 
Taking- advantage of the resulting weakness of Russia the 
Swedes decided in 1740 to attack, but their forces were un- 
prepared, and it was Russia that was ready first. In actual 
numbers of battleships the Swedish Navy was slightly superior, 
especially since part of the Russian force was at Archangel. 
Both countries had laid down a theoretical establishment, but 
both were short of the required numbers. The Swedish estab- 
lishment of 1734 was twenty-seven battleships, and at that date 
the* available force was twenty-three. One new ship had been 
completed in 1735, but had been wrecked three years later;* 
the Swedish Navy, therefore, entered on the war with twenty- 
three battleships built and one building. In Russia the estab- 
lishment was appointed in 1740, and was also twenty-seven 
battleships. At the moment there were fourteen ready for 
sea and one building in the Baltic, besides three ready and 
two building at Archangel .7 O 

War was not declared until August, 1741, and the Russian 
fleet made no move that year, though a squadron of fourteen 
battleships lay at Kronstadt.t As early as May 22nd Vice- 
Admiral Rajalin had left Karlskrona with five battleships* 
and four frigates, and on June 6th he was reinforced by five 
more battleships. Entering the Gulf of Einland he took up 
his position at Aspo, between Hogland and Fredrikshamn. 
Taught by the lessons of the previous war, Sweden had begun 
to build a galley fleet. Changes in the organisation, and un- 
certainty as to the best types, had prevented its reaching any 
great strength, but a small flotilla under Falkengren was able 
to establish itself at Kutsalo, just south of Eredrikshamn, to 
maintain communication between the army and the fleet. The 
Swedish army in Finland was unready, and nothing could be 
done. Sickness was rampant in the fleet, and by the middle 
of August over 700 men had died; on September 15th Rajalin 
himself died, and was succeeded by Schoutbynacht Sjostjerna. 
In the meantime, on September 3rd, the Swedish land force 
were defeated at Vildmanstrand in the interior of Finland, and 
this put an end to all thoughts of a Swedish advance. The 

*The Sverige 80. She was on her way to be presented to the Sultan of 

t Sv. Aleksandr 70, Syevernyi Orel 66, Revel 66, Slava Rossii 66, Osnovanie 
Blagopolutchia 66, Ingermanland 66, Astrachan 54, Azov 54, Oorod Archangelsk 
54, Syevernaya Zvyezda 54, Neptunus 54, Sv. Andrei 54, Kronshtadt 54, Novaya 
Nadezhda 54. 

t Ulrika Eleonora 76, Prins Carl Fredrik 72, Stockholm 68, Finland 60, 
Fred 42. 

Frihet 66, Bremen 60, Hessen-Cassel 64, Werden 54, Drottningholm 42. 


fleet was reinforced at the end of September by the Gotha 72 
and Skdne 62, and its complement was filled up by 2,000 
soldiers, but it was in no condition to effect anything, and on 
October 25th it returned to Karlskrona.* 

The Swedish battleship Oland 60 and the frigate Fama 
cruised in the North Sea from June onwards to watch for the 
Russian ships from Archangel. The three Russian frigates, 
Vachmeister 46, Krondelivde 32, and Kavaler 32, left Revel 
on May 22nd, and reached Archangel on July 18th. Three 
Russian battleships and a frigate, the Leferm 66, Sv. Pante- 
leimon 54, Sv. Isakii 54, and Apollon 32, left Archangel for 
the Baltic, but, hearing of the outbreak of war, they put into 
Bergen after a cruise near the Shetlands. They wintered at 
Katerin Harbour, some 200 miles east of the North Cape. A 
small Danish squadron of three battleships and three frigatest 
was also in those waters in 1741. 

The year ended with a revolution in Russia, which brought 
to the throne Elisabeta the second daughter of Peter the Great. 
The new Tsarina at once offered to conclude a truce, but the 
Swedish demands were so unreasonable that the war went on. 
Both sides, however, continued inactive at sea. On June 6th, 
1742, a fleet of fifteen Swedish battleships and five frigates 
left Karlskrona, and on the 16th it reached Aspo. The Russian 
fleet as a whole was not yet ready, but a battleship and two 
frigates had left Kronstadt on June 2nd, and the galley fleet 
of forty vessels had put to sea on the 5th. On June 10th 
Rear- Admiral Kalmykov left Kronstadt with two more battle- 
ships, and by the 19th his force consisted of seven battleships* 
and three frigates. At the same time Sjostjerna, the Swedish 
Commander sent out three battleships on scouting duty, and 
the opposing forces were frequently in touch. On July 4th 
Vice-Admiral Mishukov left Kronstadt to take command of the 
Russian fleet. It was then at anchor near the islands of 
Lavensari and Seskar, some thirty miles south-east of the 
Swedish position at Aspo. On July llth the last battleship 
joined Mishukov, and he had then a fleet of thirteen battle- 
shipsll and three frigates. At the same time Sjostjerna decided 
to move from Aspo to Hango. This was a most disastrous step. 
The retirement of the Swedish battleships compelled their 
galleys to retreat to Pellinge, thirty miles east of Helsingf ors ; 

* The frigate Svarta Orn 34 was wrecked on the Finnish coast. 

t Prinsesse Carlotta Amalia 60, Markgrevinde Sophia Christina 60, Prinsesse 
Louise 60, Blaa Heyre 18, Christiansoe IB, S0e Eidder 18. 

Revel 66, Astrachan 54, Kronshtadt 54, Syevernaya Zvyezda 54, Osnovanie 
Dlagopolutchia 66, (Oorod) Archangelsk 54, Sv. Andrei 54. 

Enighet 70, Finland 60, Westmanland 62. 

|| Sv. Aleksandr 70, Ingermanland 66, Slava Eossii 66, Syevernyi Orel 66, 
Neptun 54, Azov 54, besides the seven previously under Kalmykov. The 
Sv. Petr 54 joined later, bringing the fleet to 14 battleships. 

1741-1742. 217 

this in its turn brought about the retreat of the Swedish 
Army; and when this retreat had once begun it was found 
impossible to make a stand short of Helsingfors. Now the 
Swedish galley fleet instead of taking up a position to ensure 
the communications of Helsingfors by sea, withdrew to the 
west, and left the way open for the Russian galleys to establish 
a blockade. 

Sjostjerna lay idle off Hango, and the Russians worked 
slowly west along the southern side of the Gulf of Finland. 
After a visit to Nargen they appeared off Hango on August 21st. 
Both sides had fourteen battleships,* but neither seems to have 
thought of attacking. The Swedes formed line and waited to 
be attacked, but the Russians soon disappeared, and were back 
off Nargen on the 25th. The situation of the Swedish Army 
in Helsingfors was untenable. Lewenhaupt, the Commander- 
in-Chief of Finland, wajs recalled to Stockholm to answer for 
his mistakes, and his successor, General Bousquette, was com- 
pelled against his own opinion to sign the capitulation of 
August 31st. All the artillery and other warlike stores fell 
into the hands of the Russians, the Finnish troops were dis- 
armed, and the Swedish Army transported to Stockholm by 
the galley fleet ; a truce was also signed for the rest of the year. 

After this the Swedish fleet left the Gulf of Finland. 
Schoutbynacht Cronhawen was sent to cruise in the Baltic with 
four battleships and two frigates, with orders to look out for 
the Archangel ships, But the rest of the fleet withdrew to the 
Stockholm skargard, and in October it returned to Karlskrona. 
Cronhawen stayed at sea till the end of December, when he also 
returned to Karlskrona, having lost the Oland 54, which was 
wrecked on the island after which she was named. Nothing 
was seen of the Archangel fleet, either by this squadron or by 
the division of one battleship and two frigatesf which cruised 
all through the summer in the North Sea. As a matter of fact, 
the Russian ships had got no further than the North Cape. 
Two new battleships were got ready for sea, but one, the 
Blagopolutchie 66, sprang a leak, and had to be left for repairs. 
The ships from Katerin Harbour came to Archangel, and 
on July 30th the squadron put to sea. It consisted of four 
battleships and five frigates,* and was under the order of Vice- 
Admiral Bredal. On August 3rd the new battleship Stchastie 
66, was separated from the fleet in a gale, and on the 24th, after 
a spell of heavy weather off the North Cape, Bredal decided to 

* Mishukov had been joined by the Sv Petr 54, while Sjostjerna had detached 
the Sophia Charlotta 60 to Gothland. She rejoined on the 23rd, and the same 
day he sent the Werden 54 to Karlskrona with sick. 

t Drottningholm 42, Ootheborgs Vapen, Grona Jagare. 

t Leferm 66, Stchastie 66, Isakii 54, Panteleimon 54, Vachmeister 46, Kron- 
delivde 32, Merkurii 32, Apollon 32, Kavaler 32. 


put back to Katerin Harbour. Here he left the battleships for 
the winter, but took the frigates to Archangel; the Stchastie 
reached Katerin Harbour on September 28th. This squadron 
was no more fortunate next year. Captain Lewis left Arch- 
angel at the end of July with two new battleships and three 
frigates. He picked up the four battleships in Kola Bay, and 
put to sea on August 7th. A succession of gales followed. 
One after another his ships had to leave him and run for 
shelter, and at last his flagship, the Ekaterina 66, was left 
alone. On September 24th she reached Copenhagen, and was 
shortly followed by the Merkurii 32. The other ships had 
returned to Katerin Harbour or Archangel. Lewis went on 
to Kronstadt after repairs. Meanwhile, in the Baltic the 
Swedish fleet of sixteen battleships from Karlskrona and the 
seven Russian battleships which had wintered at Revel had 
put to sea simultaneously on May llth. The Swedish com- 
mander, Admiral Von Utfall, sent five battleships ahead under 
Commodore Von Stauden, and cruised with the rest of his 
fleet between Gothland and Osel. On May 13th Von Stauden 
sighted the Russians near Dagerort. The Russian fleet con- 
sisted of seven battleships and three or four smaller vessels 
as against a Swedish force of five battleships; but, neverthe- 
less, the Russian commander, Rear-Admiral Barsh, retreated, 
and was off Nargen again on the 14th. The Swedes watched 
the enemy so far, and then withdrew to rejoin their fleet, 
which they met on the 19th. Ten days later the entire Swedish 
fleet anchored off Hango. It was too late to intercept the 
first of the Russian galleys under General Keith, but was in 
time to prevent his being joined by Field-Marshal Lacy, who 
reached Tvarminne, just east of Hango, on June 6th. Keith 
went on toward Aland, and was attacked on May 31st at Korpo, 
about half-way between Aland and Hango, by a superior 
Swedish force under Vice- Admiral Falkengren. The Russians 
had two prams and seven galleys, the Swedes one pram and 
eighteen galleys and other vessels, but the Russian position 
was so strong that the attack failed. After some three hours' 
fighting, Falkengren retreated towards Aland. Everything 
now depended on the Swedish sailing fleet, and it again 
failed. The Russian ships from Kronstadt had sailed on 
May 20th, the day after the departure of Lacy and the galleys. 
On the 23rd they reached Nargen, and on the 25th the Revel 
squadron joined them. Admiral Count Golovin had now under 
his orders the following fleet : 

Kronstadt ships : Sv. Petr 66, Sv. Aleksandr 70, Syevernyi 
Orel 66, Revel 66, Slava Rossie 66, Ingermanland 66, Osno- 
vanie Blagopolutchia 66, one bomb vessel, two fireships, two 
snows, five small craft. 

1742-1743. 219 

Revel ships : Astrachan 54, Archangelsk 54, Kronshtadt 54, 
Azov 54, Neptun 54, Sv. Andrei 54, Syevernaya Zvyezda 54, 
one frigate, one bomb vessel, one small. 

On June 1st Golovin left Nargen, again steering west. Two 
days later his scouts sighted the Swedish fleet off Hango, and 
on the 10th he put into Eager Yik. On June 12th he moved 
north, and on the 15th he was sighted by the Swedes. On 
the 17th he anchored four or five miles south of the Swedish 
fleet. Utfall sent the frigate Ekholmsund 26 to reconnoitre, 
and Golovin detached the Syevernaya Zvyezda 54 and Rossia 32 
to chase her. Three Swedish battleships were sent to support 
the frigate, and the Russians replied with five battleships. A 
few long range shots were fired by the two Russian bomb 
vessels, but no action took place, and the various ships returned 
to their respective lines. Utfall decided to attack, and late in 
the afternoon of the 18th he got under way. The Russians, 
who had been joined by fourteen galleys, also weighed anchor, 
ana both fleets formed line on the starboard tack, with a 
W.N.W. wind, the Swedes to windward. Next morning the 
wind fell and a fog came on. The Swedish bomb-vessel Thor- 
don lost station, and drifted into the Russian fleet. She fired 
a few shots, but was soon relieved by the clearing of the fog 
and the consequent arrival of two Swedish battleships. Some 
of the Russian ships had already fired a few long range shots. 
The Russians, who had previously been on the port tack, got 
on to the starboard, and reformed their line. At about mid-day 
the Swedes bore up to attack, but Golovin also bore away and 
retreated. Utfall realised the danger of leaving his position 
off Hango, and returned thither, but in the interval the entire 
Russian galley fleet had passed. 

Golovin's plans had succeeded perfectly. An order of Peter 
the Great's had forbidden the Russian fleet to attack the 
Swedes without a superiority of at least one third. This order, 
which was still valid, would have been a sufficient excuse for 
his retreating; but, as a matter of fact, it was obviously his 
duty to do so. The first essential was to clear the way for 
the passage of the Russian galleys, and in this he was 
successful. Whether he should have attacked afterwards is 
another question; but probably he was right in not doing so. 
It is harder to find excuses for Utfall. His first duty was 
to prevent the Rulssian galleys from passing Hango, and 
having once allowed himself to be enticed from his position, 
his only reasonable course was to pursue the Russian sailing 
fleet and bring it into action. As it was, by first following 
Golovin and then turning back to catch Lacy, he missed both. 

Golovin reached Rager Yik on June 20th, and on the 26th 
Lacy, with the galleys, arrived at Lemland, in the Aland 


Islands. Utfall detached two battleships and four frigates to 
support the Swedish galleys under Falkengren, and Over- 
Admiral Taube arrived in the Fredrik Rex 62 and took the 
rest of the Swedish fleet to cruise between Gothland and Dago. 
No more fighting took place, and on July 18th peace was 
concluded at Abo. Golovin was still at Rager Yik, where he 
had been joined by the new ship Sv. Pcwel 80, but Lacy was 
just about to attack Falkengren when orders came to stop 
operations. Sweden had to cede all the Finnish territory east 
of the river Kymene, and thus lost the towns of Fredrikshamn, 
Nyslott, and Wildmanstrand, but got back the rest of Finland. 
The reasons of these favourable terms were somewhat com- 
plicated. King Christian VI. of Denmark tried to force 
Sweden to choose the Danish Crown Prince as heir to the 
Swedish throne. With this object he instigated a rising in 
Dalecarlia, and at the same time assembled a large army on 
the Norwegian boundary and commissioned a fleet of twelve 
battleships* and six frigates, with six battleships in reserve. t 
The Tsarina Elizabeth intimated to Sweden that if her wishes 
were consulted in preference to those of Christian VI. she 
would be disposed to moderate her demands in Finland. The 
Swedes therfore chose the son of the Duke of Holstein and 
Anna, daughter of Peter the Great ; but he had just been chosen 
as heir to the Russian throne, and the only available member 
of the Holstein family was a distant cousin, Adolf Fredrik, 
who was therefore accepted in his stead. For some little time 
the situation was critical. Two Danish frigates had been in 
the Eastern Baltic early in July, and on the 23rd the Russian 
fleet left Rager Vik to investigate. It cruised at the mouth 
of the Gulf of Finland till the end of September, but on 
October 8th seven of its battleships reached Kronstadt for 
the winter. The others cruised between Revel and Rager Vik 
until November 1st, when they went into Revel and were laid 
up. The Swedish fleet moved from Elfsnabben to Karlskrona 
soon after the conclusion of peace, and on September 25th it 
reached the German coast to fetch the new Crown Prince. 
On October 4th he embarked at Dornbusch, and on the 6th 
the fleet was back at Karlskrona. The Danes had sent out 
their reserve ships and formed a single fleet early in September, 
but the Tsarina declared plainly that she could not allow 
the possibility of Denmark and Sweden becoming one kingdom, 
and followed this up by sending 10,000 men and 100 galleys 

* Norske Love 70, Dannebroge 70, Prinsesse Charlotte Amalia 60, Jylland 70, 
Prinsesse Louise 60, Markgrevinde Sophia Christina 60, Tre L0ver 60, Prin- 
eesse Sophia Hedvig 60, Oldenborg 60, Slesvig 50, Ditmarschen 50, Delmen- 
horst 50. 

^Christianus Sextut 90, Justitia 86, Elephant 70, Nordstjern 72, Svan 60, 
Fyen 50. 

1743-1751. 22 

and other small craft to kelp the Swedes. Accordingly, 
Christian VI. was obliged to give up his plans, and at the 
beginning of October the Danish fleet was laid up. The 
Russian troops and galleys wintered in Sweden. Next year 
the Swedes again mobilised a fleet of sixteen battleships and six 
frigates, ready to join the Russians if necessary; but there 
was nothing more to fear from Denmark, and the only duty 
of this fleet was to fetch from Germany the bride of the new 
Crown Prince, Louisa Ulrika, sister of Frederick the Great. 
The Russian troops and galleys from Sweden returned to 
Revel, and the two 'sailing fleets of twelve and seven ships 
respectively cruised for a month near Kronstadt and Revel. 
Pour new battleships arrived in the Baltic from Archangel.* 

During these four years the general European war had been 
spreading. In 1742 Maria Theresa was forced to cede Silesia 
to Frederick, and at the same time the Elector of Bavaria 
was declared Emperor. England now became openly the ally 
of Austria, Holland joined unofficially, and the war began 
again. In 1744 France joined Spain against England, and the 
same year Prussia again attacked Austria. The Elector of 
Bavaria died, his son refused to press for recognition as 
Emperor, and Maria Theresa's husband was elected as 
Francis I. Peace between Austria and Prussia was re- 
established in 1745, and Prussia, by the acquisition of East 
Friesland, reached the North Sea for the first time. France 
turned on the Austrian Netherlands, and finally on Holland. 
At last in 1748 the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle put an end to the 
war, leaving everything much as it had been before save for 
the recognition of Francis I. as Emperor and the acquisition 
of Silesia and East Friesland by Prussia. 

None of the three Baltic Naval Powers took any further 
part in the war, but in 1746 Russia had in commission as 
many as twenty-four battleships, nineteen at Kronstadt and five 
at Revel. No other important mobilisation took place for some 
years. t Sweden felt uncertain as to Russia's designs in 1747, 
and began to commission a squadron, but it never went to sea. 
Denmark showed no activity during this period. King 
Christian VI. died in 1746, and was succeeded by his son, 
Frederik V., while Fredrik I. of Sweden died in 1751 and 
was succeeded as arranged by Adolf Fredrik. 

* Fridemaker 66, Stchastie 66, Poltava 66, Leferm 66. The Lysenoe 66 got as 
far as Bergen, but had to return. The Blagopolutchie 66 was found useless, and 
broken up. 

t The following list shows the movements of Russian battleships from 
Archangel to the Baltic from 1745 to 1755 : 1745 : Archangel Rafail 66, Lyesnoe 
66. 1748: Sv. Sergii 66, Sv. Nikolai 54. 1749: Varachail 54 (wrecked on leaving 
Archangel). 1750: Gavriil 66, Uriil 66, Moskva 66. 1751: Shlisselburg 54. 
1752 : Inyermanland 66, Varachail 54. 1754 : Poltava 66, Natalia 66. 





The European situation following the Peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle was uncertain in the extreme. The real source of 
danger lay in the inevitable struggle for Canada between 
France and England. In that it was more or less obvious that 
England with her superior sea power must be victorious, but 
there were several disturbing side issues. Firstly, there was 
the probability that Spain would join France, and secondly 
there was the question of Hanover. United with England by 
their common ruler, George II., Hanover formed England's 
weak point. It would inevitably be conquered by the French 
and their allies the Prussians, and would be held as a hostage 
for any territory that France might lose outside Europe. 

Under these circumstances the English Government turned 
to Austria for help, but instead of receiving the guarantees 
they required, they were pressed in their turn for promises of 
assistance against Prussia. England and Prussia were as a 
matter of fact on the verge of hostilities over a question of the 
seizure of Prussian ships in the previous war, but the question 
of North America was paramount at the moment. Failing 
Austria, an alliance was concluded in 1755 between England 
and Eussia, whereby the latter undertook to prevent the con- 
quest of Hanover. Instantly Frederick the Great changed 
his tactics, and offered to guarantee the neutrality of Hanover 
himself; the offer was accepted, and in January, 1756, a 
definite alliance was signed between England and Prussia. 
At the same time Spain agreed to remain neutral, but four 
months later Austria, faithful to her enmity with Prussia, 
went round to the side of France and signed the Treaty of Ver- 
sailles, while Russia, allied formally both to Austria and 
England, decided to support the former. Hostilities between 
England and France had begun in the summer of 1755, but 
war was not declared until May, 1756. In September Prussia 
attacked Saxony and Austria, and the struggle at once became 

* The number of battleships possessed in 1756 by each of the Baltic Navies 
was as follows: Sweden: 26 and 2 building. Denmark: 27 and 2 building. 
Russia : 18 in the Baltic, 2 at Archangel, 3 building. All the Russian ships 
were extremely modern, as no less than 21 had been condemned since 1750. 

1755-1757. 223 

Neither Denmark, Sweden, nor Russia took any active part 
in the war in 1756, but the two first-named nations agreed to 
maintain an " armed neutrality " and sent a combined fleet 
into the North Sea to protect their trade from English war- 
ships and privateers. The two squadrons were as follows : 

Swedes. Prins Carl Fredrik 72, Adolf Fredrik 62, Bremen 
60, Sophia Charlotta 60, Sparre 54, Prins Wilhelm 54, Phoenix 
36, Mercurius 36. 

Danes. Stormar 60, Fyen 50, Delmenhorst 50, Ditmarschen 
50, ,M0en 40, Bornholm 40, Hvide 0rn 30, Vildmand 18. 

The Danish squadron under Schoutbynacht R0meling left 
Copenhagen on July 6, and reached Flekkero on the 9th. The 
Swedes Bunder Schoutbynacht Taube passed the Sound on July 
18th, but it was not until September 16th that the two squad- 
rons joined at Flekkero. The arrangement had been that the 
two senior officers should act in turn as Commander-in-chief, 
holding the position for two months at a time, and deciding 
which should take it first by drawing lots. Taube accordingly 
took charge, and on September 28th the fleet put to sea, but 
the weather was bad, and on October 1st, off Skagen, the two 
squadrons parted. The Danes reached Copenhagen on the 
5th and the Swedes on the 28th. A few days later they 
returned to Karlskrona. The Russians had only nine battle- 
ships in commission in the Baltic this year, and these were 
only at sea for about six weeks in the neighbourhood of Revel. 
Two battleships and four frigates went as far as Danzig in 
the autumn, and two new battleships arrived from Archangel, 
but otherwise the Russian Navy did nothing. 

Next year, however, both Russia and Sweden began hos- 
tilities against Prussia. The former, as the ally of Austria, 
joined in the war early in the year, but it was not until the 
autumn that the Swedes decided to follow suit. The first 
objective of the Russian attack was Memel in East Prussia, 
about 100 miles north-east of Danzig, and this town was 
attacked both by land and sea. A detachment left Kronstadt 
for Memel on May 12th, consisting of the following ships : 

Battleship: Gavriil 66. Prams: Elefant 36, Dikii Byk 36. 
Galliot: Rak. Frigates: Vachmeister 32; Selafail 32. Bomb 
vessels : Donder 10, Yupiter 10. 

Two days previously the Revel squadron of six battleships 
and three frigates had put to sea to blockade the Prussian 
coast. The Memel detachment under Captain Lyapunov met 
with very heavy weather and reached Libau on June 1st con- 
siderably damaged; the Gavriil 66 had to be sent to Revel for 
repairs and the other ships remanied at Libau. A last, on 
June 25th the Kronstadt fleet arrived, and next day Lyapunov's 
ships sailed with it for Memel. Here they arrived on the 


27th, while Admiral Mishukov, with the Kronstadt fleet went 
on as far as Bruster Ort, a cape half-way between Memel and 
Danzig-, and was joined there on June 30th by the Revel 
squadron under Rear- Admiral Lewis. 

The Russian force now comprised the following- seventeen 
battleships : 

Kronstadt ships. Sv. Pavel 80, Sv. Nikolai 80, Sv..Ioann 
Zlatoust I. 80, Astrachan 66, Sv. Sergii 66, Sv. Rafail 66, 
Aleksandr Nevskii 66, Uriil 66, Sv. loann Zlatoust II. 66, 
Ingermanland 66, Poltava 66. 

Revel ships. Revel 66, Moskva 66, Natalia 66, Syevernyi 
Orel 66, Shlisselburg 54, Varachail 54. 

An English fleet was expected to enter the Baltic to help 
Prussia, and Mishukov accordingly sent out a series of 
cruisers to give him warning of its approach. Meanwhile the 
prams and bomb-vessels of Lyapunoy's squadron began the 
bombardment of Memel on July 2nd in conjunction with the 
Russian army, and on the 5th the town surrendered.* Mishukov 
now moved to Danzig, and arrived there on July 15th. 

It soon became obvious that no English fleet was likely to 
put in an appearance, and the Russian fleet received fresh 
orders. On August 19th Mishukov left Danzig with ten 
battleships. He had sent home his three 80 gun ships on the 
12th, and he left on the German coast five battleships and a 
frigate under Admiral Myatlev. With the rest of his fleet 
he sailed for Karlskrona to co-operate with the Swedes. The 
Uriil 66 and Rafail 66 had to be detached on the way, and 
sent to Revel for repairs, and finally on September 3rd heavy 
weather forced the Russians into Karlshamn. At once Mishu- 
kov received orders to return to Russia ; on the 7th he weighed 
anchor, and on the 15th he was back at Revel. Myatlev had 
soon abandoned his position. The Moskva 66 and Gavriil 66 
had to be sent home almost at once, and on August 28th he 
reached Revel with his other ships. On September 8th he put 
to sea again with the Poltava 66, Moskva 66, and the Uriil 66, 
from the main fleet, and proceeded to Kronstadt, leaving the 
Gavriil 66, Varachail 66, and Shlisselburg 54 at Revel. On 
the 22nd, a week after Mishukov's return, the two last-named 
ships were sent out again with the Natalia 66, Syevernyi Orel 
66, and Revel 66, under Vice-Admiral Polyandskii. Mishukov, 
with the remaining ships, left Revel on September 25th, and 
reached Kronstadt on the 28th, but Polyandskii went to 
Danzig, where he lay from October 2nd to 23rd, sending out 
his ships in turn to cruise at sea, and was not back at Revel 
till November 6th. 

*The Russian ships stayed there till the end of September. The Vachmeister 
32 was wrecked near Revel on October 14th. 

1757. 225 

The Eussian galley fleet had not found much to do. Early 
in June thirty-seven galleys reached Libau,* and in August 
ten of these were sent past Memel into the Kurisches Haff with 
supplies for the army. At the beginning of September this 
detachment engaged some Prussian troops on the eastern branch 
of the Pregel, but this was its only fighting. Twenty-one 
galleys wintered at Libau and sixteen at Memel. On land 
the Eussians had been thoroughly successful. Not only had 
they taken Memel, but they had also defeated a Prussian army 
on August 30th at Wehlau, 75 miles to the south. Now, how- 
ever, came a change in Eussian policy. The Tsarina Elisabet 
fell ill, and Bestuzhev, her Chancellor knowing that her heir 
Peter, formerly Duke of Holstein, was disposed to side with 
Frederick the Great, thought it wiser to withdraw the Eussian 
army, and thus sacrificed the advantages of the year's cam- 

Both in Denmark and Sweden the year had witnessed con- 
siderable mobilisations. At first both countries were officially 
neutral, and it was arranged to continue the joint North Sea 
fleet. The following were the ships equipped for this 
purpose : 

Swedes. Louisa Ulrika 72, Frihet 66, Hessen Cassel 64, 
Uppland 50, Sodermanland 50, Drottningholm 42, Illerim 36, 
P os til j on 32. 

Danes. Dronning Juliane Marie 70 Sejer 60, Sjaelland 60, 
Slesvig 50, Ditmarschen 50, Nelleblad 50, Doque 30, Hvide 
0rn 30. 

The Danes under Schoutbynacht E0meling left Copenhagen 
about the middle of June, and a little later the Swedes arrived. 
Now difficulties arose. As the Swedish commander had held 
the position of Commander-in-Chief for a fortnight in 1756 
the Danish Government claimed that Eemeling should be the 
first to act as such this year, but the Swedes insisted that 
either Schoutbynacht Lagerbjelke, their senior officer, should 
be in command for the balance of the two months, or that 
a new draw should take place. No agreement could be reached, 
and on July 16th, instead of going to Flekkero to join the 
Danes, the Swedish squadron returned to Karlskrona. It was, 
as a matter of fact, recalled to assist in the transport of 
troops to Pomerania for the attack on Prussia. Eleven battle- 
ships and four frigatest were commissioned for this purpose, 
and this fleet, together with the North Sea Squadron, trans- 
ported during August no less than 17,000 soldiers to the 

* Four others were lost on the way. 

t Prins Carl Fredrik 72, Stockholm 68, Fredrik Rex 62, Adolf Fredrik 62, 
Sophia Charlotta 60, Finland 60, Bremen 60, Prins Wilhelm 54, Sparre 54, 
Pommern 54, Fredrika Amalia 52, Svarta Orn 40, Mercurius 36, Phoenix 36^ 
Jama 32. 


Pomeranian coast. At the same time, two prams and four 
galleys* were sent from Karlskrona to Stralsund, and were then 
stationed in the Grosses Haff to blockade Stettin. Meanwhile, 
negotiations were going on as to the command of the North 
Sea fleet, and eventually the Swedes gave way. On 
September 19th the Swedish squadron joined the Danes at 
Flekkero, and Remeling took charge. The combined fleet 
cruised in the North Sea till October 14th, when they returned 
to Copenhagen. The Danish ships were laid up for the winter, 
and the Swedes reached Karlskrona on the 23rd. 

Next year there was no Swedish fleet in the North Sea. 
Instead of joining the Danes, the usual small squadron joined 
; the Russians for operations in the Baltic. Sweden, in fact, 
was rapidly inclining towards a definite alliance with Russia, 
and this naturally roused Danish suspicions, since the ap- 
proaching accession of the Duke of Hqlstein to the Russian 
throne threatened a revival of the entire Holstein question. 
Their squadron of six battleships and two frigates! was there- 
fore employed in the transport of troops from Norway to 
Holstein, partly to guard against any possible developments 
of the European war, and partly to impress the Swedes and 
Russians. The Revel fleet of five battleships and two frigates 
put to sea on June 19th, and met the Swedish squadron of 
six battleships and two frigates off Gothland on the 29th. On 
July 3rd the two squadrons lost touch with one another in a 
fog, but on the 18th the Kronstadt fleet of eleven battleships, 
two frigates, and three bomb vessels joined the Revel ships, 
and two days later off Bornholm the Swedes rejoined. The 
same evening the combined fleet anchored in Kjoge Bay. 

It was composed of the following ships: 

Swedes. Gotha Lejon 74 (Y.-Ad. Lagerbjelke), Fredrik 
Rex 62, Bremen 60, Sophia Charlotta 60, Sparre 54, Fredrika 
Amalia 52, Folk 36, Phcenix 36. 

Russians from Revel. Syevernyi Orel 66 (Y.-Ad. Polyand- 
skii), Natalia 66, Revel 66, Shlisselburg 54, Varachail 54, 
Rossia 32, Kreiser 32. 

Russians from Kronstadt. Sv. Nikolai 84 (Ad. Mishukov), 
Sv. Pavel 80, Sv. loann Zlatoust I. 80, Aleksandr Nevskii 66, 
Sv. Sergii 66, Gavriil 66, Uriil 66, Moskva 66, Ingermanland 
66, Poltava 66, Astrachan 66, Yagudiil 32, Archangel Michail 
32, Yupiter 10, Samson 10, Donder 10. 

Total, 22 battleships, with 1,440 guns. 

An English fleet was again expected in the Baltic, and to 
prevent its passage the Russo-Swedish fleet lay in Kjoge Bay 

* Hector 26, Achilles 26, Carlskrona 12, Bleking 12, Cronoborg 12, Malmo 12. 
t Kjobenhavn 70, Oldenborg 60, Sejer 60, Delmenhorst 50, Ditmarschen 50, 
Slesvig 50, Bornholm 40, Doque 30. 

1758-1759. 227 

until September 8th. The Danish squadron anchored in Kjoge 
Bay on August 21st, but did not actually join the combined 
fleet. On leaving Danish waters the Swedes went straight to 
Karlskrona, but the Russians visited Riigen and the Pome- 
ranian coast, and did not reach Revel until October 3rd. 
The Moskva 66 was wrecked near Libau, but most of her 
crew were saved by the galleys. The Kronstadt ships left 
Revel on October 10th, and reached Kronstadt next evening. 

In 1759 the Danes, being still suspicious of Russia and 
Sweden, commissioned a fleet of twelve battleships and six 
frigates,* but these ships never left Copenhagen. The Russians, 
on the other hand, got to sea early in the year. On 
April 29th two frigatest left Revel to cruise near Pillau, and 
they were followed on May 10th and 13th by three battleships. 
Two of these, the Varachail 54 and Astrachan 66, went to Riga 
to convoy storeships to Pillau, while the third, the Natalia 66, 
was sent to Kiel on a similar errand. The remaining ships of the 
Revel squadron, the Syevernyi Orel 66, Revel 66, and Sv. 32, put to sea on May 13th and proceeded to Danzig. 
Arriving there on the 23rd, they found a Swedish frigate, but 
on the 29th they left again and steered west. The Swedish army 
in Stralsund wished to occupy the island of Usedom north of 
Stettin, and the Russian ships therefore took up a position off 
Svinemiinde, the entrance to Stettin Harbour. In the mean- 
time a Swedish squadron had left Karlskrona. Its composition 
was as follows : Go'tha Lejon 74, Hessen Cassel 64, Bremen 
60, Sophia Charlotta 60, Uppland 54, Prins Wilhelm 54, 
Illerim 36, Falk 36 . 

Vice-Admiral Lagerbjelke had intended to join the Russians 
and proceed to Kjoge Bay as in the previous year, but finding 
that there was no prospect of the arrival of an English fleet, 
he returned to Karlskrona and was then sent to help the 
Russians at Svinemiinde. Accordingly, on June 28th, when 
Vice-Admiral Polyandskii returned with part of the Russian 
squadron^ from a visit to Danzig, he found off Svinemiinde, 
besides two Russian ships, a Swedish force of four battleships 
and two frigates. Three days later the combined fleet weighed 
anchor to cruise off Kolberg, but on July llth it entered the 
Swedish port of Karlshamn. Putting to sea for a few days 
at the end of the month, it picked up the Astrachan 66, 
Varachail 54, and Rossia 32, but attempted no active opera- 

* Dronning Juliane Marie 70, Kronprintz 70, Wenden 70, Oldenborg 60, Sejer 
60, Stormar 60, Sjaelland 60, Gr0nland 50, Fyen 50, Delmenhorst 50, Nelleblad 
50, Slesvig 50, M0en 40, Bornholm 40, Hvide 0rn 30, Doque 30, Christiansborg 
24, Vildmand 18. The Doque was replaced in June by the Ditmarschen 50. The 
Qr0nland, Fyen, M0en, and Christianborg were employed on convoy duty. 

t Kreiser 32, Rossia 32. 

t The Natalia 66 had rejoined on the 18th. 



tions and stayed in Karlshamn till the middle of August.* 
The Revel 66 had been left off Svinemiinde, and she was 
relieved early in August by the Natalia 66 and sent to Danzig 
to land her sick. On August 14th the combined fleet left 
Karlshamn again. Two days later the Swedes returned to 
Karlskrona and on the 17th the Russians reached Danzig. 
The same day the Kronstadt fleet arrived. It had left Krpn- 
stadt on August 5th, and was composed of the following 
ships: Sv. Nikolai 80, Aleksandr Nevskii 66, Gavriil 66, 
Sv. Sergii 66, Uriil 66, Poltava 66, Ingermanland 66, Shlissel- 
burg 54, Sv. Nikolai 54, Archangel Michail 32. 

For some time the resulting fleet of thirteen battleships and 
four frigates lay idle at Danzig, t and on September 3rd the 
Kronstadt ships left for their home port. At the same time 
the Revel squadron left Danzig for a cruise, but was back 
again on the 14th, and went home on the 26th. On 
October 6th it reached Revel, and two days later it went into 
the harbour, + but three battleships, two frigates, and some 
small craft were sent from Revel to Danzig and did not return 
till November 18th. 

Meanwhile the Swedish galley squadron had found some 
occupation. The Prussians in Stettin had collected a consider- 
able flotilla in the harbour, and it became necessary to attack 
them; the galleys at Stralsund were therefore sent into the 
harbour through the passage between Usedom and the main- 
land. They left Stralsund on August 14th and passed Wolgast 
two days later; but at Anclam, fifteen miles to the south, the 
water became so shallow that they had to be lightened. On 
the 22nd the Prussians attacked, but were driven off by the 
Swedish batteries, and on September 2nd the Swedish ships 
entered the Kleines Haff, the western part of Stettin Harbour. 
The Prussian flotilla withdrew to the passage between the 
Kleines Haff and the Grosses Haff, and on September 10th the 
Swedes attacked. 

The two flotillas were as follows : 

Prussians. Galliots : Konig von Preussen 14, Prinz von 
Preussen 14, Prinz Heinrich 14, Prinz Wilhelm 14. Galleys: 
Jupiter 11, Mars 11, Neptunus 10, Merkurius 10; five armed 

Swedes. Galleys : Carlskrona 13, Cronoborg 13, Malmo 13, 

* The Kreiser 32 joined on August llth. 

t The Sv. Michail 32 was sent to Svinemiinde, and joined the Natalia 66 and 
two Swedish frigates. 

The Natalia 66 had rejoined from Svinemiinde. 

Revel 66, Varachail 54, Neptunus 54, Kreiser 32, Possia 32. The Neptunus 
had sailed from Archangel with the JRafail 66 and four pinks on July 20th. 
The battleships had reached Revel on September 13th and 25th respectively, 
the pinks on October 5th. 

1759-1760. 229 

Bleking 13. Half galleys : Svdrdfisk 5, Delphin 5, Cabilliou 5, 
Stor 5. One bomb vessel, three sloops, fourteen armed boats. 

Ruthensparre, the Swedish commander, advanced in four 
lines. The four galleys composed the first, the half -galleys the 
second, the bomb vessels and the sloops the third, and the 
boats the fourth; but the fleet formed single line abreast on 
coming into range. Three half-galleys and five boats were 
sent into Neuwarp Bay, to the south, to observe ten ships 
there, but these were found to be neutrals. With the rest 
of his fleet Ruthensparre closed in and boarded. After four 
hours' resistance all the larger Prussian ships were captured, 
though the smaller boats escaped. Over 600 prisoners were 
taken, but the Swedes lost only thirteen killed and twenty-one 
wounded. As a result of this action the island of Wollin was 
evacuted by the Prussians, and occupied by the Swedes, so 
that the latter, having already taken Usedom, had complete 
control over the approaches to Stettin. 

On land the Russian army had advanced again, and had 
taken Konigsber'g, a town eighty miles east of Danzig. It 
then moved west in conjunction with the Austrians, and on 
August 12th the allies defeated the Prussians at Kunersdorf, 
near Frankfurt-on-the-Oder. As before, the Russians failed 
to take advantage of their victory, and the Austrians alone 
were unable to effect anything. 

Next year Kolberg became the objective of the Allies. This 
town is situated on the coast, one hundred miles east of 
Stralsund, and was, therefore, a suitable goal for a combined 
naval and military attack. Denmark had at last acceded to 
the Russo-Swedish alliance, and the arrangement was that the 
Russian and Swedish ships should operate together in the 
Baltic, while the Danish fleet prevented any foreign fleet from 
coming to help Prussia. With this object a Danish squadron 
of six battleships and two frigates* was commissioned, but 
most of the ships were sent away on convoy work, and the 
three or four vessels left at Copenhagen could have done little 
to protect the passage of the Sound and the Belt. 

However, no enemy appeared, and the Russians and the 
Swedes were free to act as they liked in the Baltic. The 
Russian Kronstadt fleet of fourteen battleships and three bomb 
vessels put to sea on August 5th. Four days later it picked 
up seven battleships and three frigates from Revel, and on 

* Kronprintz 70, Sejer 60 (1), Stormar 60, Oronland 50 (2), Jyen 50 (3), Eben- 
etzer 50 (4), Christiansborg 24 (5), Vildmand 18 (6). (1) Sent to Morocco with 
an Ambassador, May 31st October 22nd. (2) Sent for convoy duty in Mediter- 
ranean, December 24th. (3) Sent with convoy to Mediterranean, May 6th 
November 14th. (4) Sent to Iceland for fishery protection, April 17th July 29th. 
(5) Sent with convoy to West Indies, May 21st October. (6) Sent into Baltic 
and to convoy from Norway, August 19th October 18th. 


September 5th the entire Russian fleet arrived off Kolberg. 
Its composition was as follows : 

Kronstadt ships : Sv. Dimitrii Rostovskii 100, Sv. Kliment 
Papa Rimskii 80, Sv. Nikolai 80, Sv. Pavel 80, Sv. Andrei 
Pervozvannyi 80, Sv. loann Zlatoust I. 80, Syevernyi Orel 66, 
Ingermanland 66, Gavriil 66, Sv. Aleksandr Nevskii 66, Uriil 
66, Sv. Sergii 66, Shlisselburg 54, Sv. Nikolai 54, Samson 10, 
Yupiter 10, Bonder 10. Revel ships : Poltava 66, Astrachan 
66, Rafail 66, ^eveZ 66, Natalia 66, Varachail 54, Neptunus 
54, /tomVz 32, Kreiser 32, Sv. Michail 32. 

Two days after his arrival Admiral Mishukov sent in his 
bomb vessels with his two 54-^un battleships and tne frigates 
Rossia and Kresier to open fire on the fortifications. At the 
same time he landed a force of 3,000 troops and seamen, who 
occupied a small fort on the eastern bank of the river Persante. 
Next day, August 18th, the following Swedish ships arrived : 

Prins Gustaf 70, Enighet 70, Adolf Fredrik 62, Frihet 66, 
Sodermanland 50, Sophia Charlotta 60, Illerim 36, Ekholm- 
sund 26. 

The Swedes, however, took no part in the bombardment, and 
eventually the attack had to be abandoned. The landing 
force was re-embarked on September 19th, but left behind 600 
prisoners and twenty-two guns. Next day the Swedish fleet 
left for Karlskrona, and on the 21st the Russian ships also 
put to sea. Putting into Revel from September 29th to 
October 5th, they detached five battleships and a frigate* to 
winter there, and reached Kronstadt on October 9th. 

The Russians and Austrians had met with a considerable 
amount of success on land, but had accomplished nothing 
decisive. The latter, after winning one battle and losing a 
second, joined the Russians, and succeeded in occupying 
Berlin; but this occupation lasted only four days, from 
October 9th to the 13th. On the approach of Frederick the 
Great the Allies withdrew, and on November 3rd they were 
defeated by him at Torgau, in Saxony. The Swedes had done 
little to influence the course of the war, either ashore or afloat. 
Their light vessels were stationed at various points in the 
neighbourhood of Stralsund and Stettin, but no fighting 
occurred this year. 

In 1761 the Prussians had again a fairly important force 
in Stettin Harbour. Besides two galleys, Pallas and Juno, 
two prams, Pluto and Proserpina, and seven boats, they had 
built two frigates, Preussen and Schlesien, carrying twelve 
18-pounders each. As a reply to these General Major Ehrens- 
vard, commanding the Swedish flotilla, cut down his two prams 

*Sv. Kliment Papa Rimskii 80, Rafail 66, Revel 66, Natalia 66, Poltava 66, 
Sv. Michail 32. Two new battleships from Archangel, the Moskva 66 and Sv. 
Petr 66, also wintered at Revel. 

1760-1761. 231 

Hector and Achilles, to reduce their draught, and brought 
them into the harbour. This addition to the Swedish strength 
prevented any general action, though a few Swedish boats were 
taken by a surprise attack in the night of September 5th. 

At sea the year 1761 was practically a repetition of 1760. 
Denmark commissioned ten battleships and four frigates,* but, 
save for convoy work and sailing trials, these ships lay idle 
in Copenhagen Harbour. As before, the Russian squadrons 
combined near Revel, and moved west. The junction took 
place on June 29th, and a month later the fleet anchored off 
Riigenwalde, thirty-five miles east of Kolberg. A few ships 
were sent to reconnoitre off Kolberg, and on August 22nd 
the whole fleet proceeded thither. On the 25th the bombard- 
ment began. The ships employed were the battleships Astra- 
chan 66 and Rafail 66, the frigates Archangel Michail 32 and 
Rossia 32, and the bomb-vessels Samson 10, Yupiter 10, and 
Donder 10. On August 27th the Swedish fleet arrived, and 
the allied fleet was thereafter composed as follows : 

Russians: Kronstadt ships: Sv. Dimitrii Rostovskii 100, 
Sv. Andrei Pervosvannyi 80, Sv. Nikolai 80, Sv. Pavel 80, 
Sv. loann Zlatoust 80, Ingermanland 66, Astrachan 66, Gavriil 
66, Shlisselburg 54, Varachail 54, Neptunus 54, Rossia 32, 
Donder 10, Samson 10, Yupiter 10. Revel ships : Sv. Kliment 
Papa RimsUi 80, Natalia 66, Revel 66, Moskva 66, Sv. Petr 
66, Poltava 66, Rafail 66, Archangel Michail 32. 

Swedest :Prins Gustaf 72, Prins Carl 60, Sophia Charlotta 
60, Bremen 56, Sparre 52, Uppland 52, Illerim 36, Jarramas 34. 

The Swedes, as before, took no part in the bombardment ; but 
they assisted in the landing of a Russian force of 2,000 men 
on September 2nd. The attack went on until September 25th, 
but little effect was produced, and on the following day the 
landing force was re-embarked. On October 5th the greater 
part of the Swedish squadron left for home, and on the 9th 
the Russian fleet also sailed. Two Russian battleships and 
a frigate were left off Kolberg, with two Swedish battleships, 
but withdrew on October 18th. The Russian fleet reached 
Revel on November 2nd.+ Kolberg surrendered to the Russian 
army on December 17th. 

* Dannemark 70, Dronning Louise 70, Oldenborg 60, Sejer 60, Island 60, 
Stormar 60, St. Croix 50 (1), Ebenetzer 50, Slesvig 50 (1), Fyen 50 (1), M0en 40 
(2), Falster 30 (3), Hvide 0rn 30 (4), Christiansborg 24 (3). (1) Convoyed troops 
to Holstein in May. (2) Sent to the Mediterranean. (3) On trial in the Baltic. 
(4) Training duties in the Baltic. 

t Guns from list given to the Russian Admiral (Materials X 618 n). 

j The Revel 66 had reached Revel on September 19th. The Sv. loann 
Zlatoust I. 80, Gavriil 66, and Shlisselburg 54 had left the fleet on September 
21st and arrived at Kronstadt on October 12th. The Sv. Andrei Pervozvannyi 
80, Sv. Nikolai 80, Sv. Pavel 80, Rossia 32, and the three bomb vessels came 
to Kronstadt later. 


Frederick the Great was in serious difficulties. True, he 
had up to now managed to hold his own, and even to gain 
some success against the Austrians, but the struggle against 
France, Austria, and Eussia was more than the Kingdom of 
Prussia could support, and its eventual destruction was in- 
evitable. However, on January 5th, 1762, the Tsarina Elisabet 
died, and her successor,, Peter III., at once ordered his troops to 
act in support of the Prussians. This altered the situation in 
many ways. Sweden was quick to follow the lead of Russia, 
and concluded peace with Prussia on May 22nd. A fleet of 
thirteen battleships and six frigates* was sent to Pomerania to 
bring back the Swedish troops and small craft, and this ex- 
pedition ended the share of Sweden in the war. 

Denmark, on the other hand saw cause for mobilisation in 
the fear of a revival of the Holstein question. With this in 
view a large fleet was commissioned. The original order called 
for the mobilisation of twenty-four battleships and ten frigates ; 
but on receiving satisfactory assurances of Sweden's neutrality 
Frederik Y. reduced Eis fleet to the following fourteen battle- 
ships and eight frigates : 

Fredericus V. 90, Kronprintz 70, Dronning Juliane Marie 
70, Wenden 70, Nordstjern 70, Jylland 70, t)ronning Louise 
70, Dannemark 70, Oldenborg 60, Sejer 60, Ebenetzer 50, St. 
Croix 50, Fyen 50, Delmenhorst 50, Meen 40, Havfru 30, 
Hvide 0rn 30, Falster 30, Christiansborg 24, S0e Ridder 18, 
Langeland 18, Vildmand 18. 

At the same time a large army was assembled in Holstein, 
and after various ships had returned from scouting and convoy 
duties, Admiral de Fontenay left Copenhagen on July 13th 
and took up a position between Meen and Riigen. 

Meanwhile, the Russian Revel fleet had put to sea on 
June 12th. Part of it reached Kolberg on the 26th, and part 
on July 4th. It consisted of the following eight battleships 
and three f rigatesf : 

Sv. Kliment Papa Rimskii 80, Revel 66, Poltava 66, Natalia 
66, Petr 66, Moskva 66, Rajail 66, Neptunus 54, Archangel 
Michail 32, Rossia 32, Sv. Sergii 32. 

Hardly had this fleet left Kolberg when another important 

change took place; Peter III. was dethroned by his wife, who 

became Tsarina as Ekaterina II. This was on July 9th, and a 

. week later Peter died in prison. The new Tsarina at once 

i.. recalled her troops from Germany, and announced her inten- 

* Hessen Cassel 64 ; Prins Carl 60 ; Frihet 66 ; Bremen 60 ; Sophia Charlotta 
60; Prins Wilhelm 54; Pommern 54; Prins Carl Fredrick 68; Uppland 50; 
Fredrika Amalia 52; Sodermanland 50; Ootha 66; Sparre 54; Hook 36; Falk 
36; Postiljon 32; Jagare 34; Phoenix 36; Fred 42. 

t The Sv. Takov 66 from Archangel, after wintering at Be'rgen, reached Revel 
on May 31st. 



tion of becoming neutral. On August 5th, therefore, the 
Danish fleet was ordered back to Copenhagen, and on the 14th 
the Russians left Kolberg for Revel.* 

This ended the naval operations of the Seven Years War in 
the Baltic, and a general peace was not far off. In America 
and the Atlantic the fighting had gone in favour of England, 
and the junction of Spain with France in January, 1762, had 
only led to the loss of Spanish territory in the West Indies. 
At the same time Frederick the Great, in spite of the with- 
drawal of the Russians, had gained a series of victories in 
every direction and managed to extricate his kingdom from 
the worst of its difficulties. All parties to the war were ready 
for peace, and two treaties signed in February, 1763, put an 
end to the struggle. The two essential points in these treaties 
were that Prussia was confirmed in the possession of Silesia and 
that Canada became English. There were, of course, other 
political and territorial changes, but these were the two most 

For thirty-five years after the end of the Seven Years War 
the Baltic enjoyed a period of Peace, but in spite of this there 
were various mobilisations of greater or less importance which 
must be considered. In 1768 Ekaterina II. declared war on 
Turkey, and next year she decided to send a fleet from the 
Baltic to the Mediterranean to join in this war. Accordingly 
on August 6th, 1769, Admiral Spiridov left Kronstadt with 
seven battleships and eight smaller vessels. His progress was 
slow, and most of his ships had to put in for repairs at various 
neutral ports, but by January 1770, five of his battleships had 
reached the Mediterranean, and four bf these were together in 
the English harbour of Port Mahon in Minorca.! A second 

* The Sv. Aleksandr Nevskii 66; Gorod Archangelsk 54; and, Sv. Feodor 32 
reached Revel from Archangel in November. 

t The following table shows the movements of Spiridov's battleships for 












So. Evstafie 
Syevernyi Orel .. 
Trech lerarchnv .. 



Sept. 12 
Sept. 9 

home Aug 
Sept 23 

ust 20th. 
Oct. 5 

Eeplaced i 
Oct. 21 

Nov. 6 

)y Rostisla 

Nov. 8 (Cc 
Nov. 13 

i from Arc 

nverted to 
Feb. 22 

Nov. 29 
April 5 
Dec. 13 

Trech Svyatitelei.. 





Sv. lanuarii 

Dec. 16 



Aug. 24 

Oct. 5 

Oct. 22 

(Falmouth, October 25th to November 13th. Lisbon, November 21at 

to January 2nd.) 


squadron of three battleships and five other ships left Kron- 
stadt on October 20th and reached Portsmouth early in 
January.* At last, in June, 1770, a fleet of nine battleships 
was assembled in the Grecian Archipelago. Elphinstone's 
division had already been engaged by the Turks, and on July 
5th the Russian fleet attacked fourteen Turkish battleships in 
the Bay of Tchesma, near Scio. Both flagships were burnt, 
but the action was indecisive, though the Turks retreated. 
That night the Russians sent in fireships and burnt the entire 
Turkish fleet with the exception of one battleship, RJiodos 60, 
which was taken. This was the only important naval action of 
the war. Besides the Sv. Evstafie 66 burnt in action the 
Russians lost by accident the Svyatoslav 80 and the prize 
Rhodos 60, but in January, 1771, they were joined by three 
more battleships from the Baltic. t In December, 1772, 
another three battleships}: arrived, and a year later four more 
foITowebtTf' A treaty of peace between Russia and Turkey was 
concluded in 1774, and during the following year thirteen 
Russian battleships returned to the 

Denmark also sent a squadron to the Mediterranean at this 
time. In 1746, with the aid of a squadron of three battle- 
shipsll commercial treaties had been concluded between Den- 
mark and the various North African States, but the Algerians 
had ceased to respect their agreement, and in 1770 it became 
necessary to use force. In the previous year eight battleships 
and two frigates** had been commissioned at Copenhagen, and 
had undertaken a short cruise in the Baltic in October. For 
the expedition to Algiers a squadron was prepared consisting of 
four battleships, two frigates, ft two bomb-vessels, and two store- 
ships, and on May 2nd, 1770, these ships left Copenhagen under 
Schoutbynacht Kaas. After an unsuccessful bombardment of 
Algiers on July 8th Kaas withdrew to Port Mahon, where he 
was replaced by Schoutbynacht Hooglant. In November 
another battleship was sent out, and a year later two others, J+ 

* Ne iron menya 66 (R.-Ad. Elphinstone) ; Saratov 66 ; Tver 66 (sent back to 
Revel and replaced by the Svyatoslav 80 from the First Squadron). 

t Sv. Qeorgii Pobyedonosets 66; Vsevolod 66; Azia 66. 

Tchesma 80; Pobyeda 66; Graf Orlov 66. 

Isidor 74; Sv. Aleksandr Nevskii 66; Dimitrii Donskoi 66; Mironosits 66. 

|| Three others, the Sv. lanuarii 66, Trech Svyatitelei 66, and Azia 54 had been 
sold. The Ne iron menya 66 was cut down. 

II Oldenborg 60; Sydermanland 46; Delmenhorst 50. 

** Dronning Juliane Maria 70; Sjaelland 60; Christiansoe 30; Norske L0ve 
70 ; Siesvig 50 ; Faer0e 20 ; Island 60 ; Mars 50 ; Prinsesse Wilhelmine Caroline 
60 ; St. Croix 50. 

ft Prins Friderich 70; Prinsesse Sophia Magdalena 60; Siesvig 50; Mars 50; 
Christians0e 30; Havfru 30. 

t Gr0nland 50; Prinsesse Wilhelmine Caroline 60; Sejer 60. 

1770-1779. 235 

but diplomacy managed to bring the Algerians to terms, and 
in 1772 the squadron returned to Copenhagen. 

In the following year both Denmark and Russia had 
considerable fleets in commission in the Baltic. Both in 
Denmark and in Sweden there had been a change of rulers. 
Adolf Fredrik of Sweden had died in 1771, and was succeeded 
by Gustaf III., while Frederik V. of Denmark had been suc- 
ceeded by Christian VII. in 1766. There was a good deal of 
mutual suspicion among the three Baltic Powers, but for the 
moment hostilities were averted. Denmark mobilised a fleet 
of twelve battleships and four frigates,* while the E/ussian 
squadrons at Kronstadt and Revel consisted respectively of 
six battleships with four frigates! and of seven battleships 
with one frigate. + Three of the Danish battleships were sent 
to transport troops from Norway to Jylland, and on June 20th 
the rest of the fleet put to sea to cruise between Bornholm and 
Oland. The Russian Kronstadt squadron reached Revel on 
June 21st, and left again on the 29th for Gothland; on 
August 27th it was back at Revel, and on September 28th it 
sailed for Kronstadt. On June 25th five battleships left Revel 
for the Western Baltic, || and on July 13th they anchored in 
Kjo'ge Bay. Six days later the Danish fleet returned to 
Copenhagen. On August 2nd the Russians put to sea again, 
and after cruising for a few days off Bornholm they reached 
Revel on September 7th. An offensive and defensive alliance 
between Russia and Denmark was signed on August 12th, 

1774. Next year another small Russian squadron visited 
Danish waters. Five battleships and a frigatell left Revel on 
July 27th, and arrived in Kjoge Bay on August 17th. On 
September 22nd they entered Copenhagen Harbour, and on 
October 3rd they left again for Revel, where they arrived on 
October llth. Fifteen Russian battleships were in commission 
in 1775, but never left their home waters. 

In 1779 all three Baltic powers mobilised squadrons of a 

* Praegtige 80 ; Kronprintz 70 ; 0resund 70 ; Norske L0ve 70 ; Prins Friderich 
70; Neptunus 60; Island 60; Prinsesse Sophia Magdalena 60; Stormar 60; 
Sjaelland 60; St. Croix 50; Ebenetzer 50; Christiansoe 30; Falster 30; S0e- 
Ridder 18; Langeland 18. 

f Sv. Panteleimon 74; Sv. Andrei Pervozvannyi 72; Vyatcheslav 66; Viktor 
66; Sv. Yakov 66; Oorod Archangelsk 54; Oremyashtchii 32; Alexsandr 8; 
Nadezhda 10; Ekaterina 20. 

+ Sv. Aleksandr Nevskii 66 ; Pamyat Evstafia 66 ; Mironosits 66 ; Knyaz 
Vladimir 66 ; Boris i Glyeb 66 ; Deris 66 ; Preslava 66 ; Sv. Feodor 32. 

Sjaelland, St. Croix, and Neptunus. 

|| Sv. Aleksandr Nevskii, Deris, Mironosits, Knyaz Vladimir, and the 
Vyatcheslav from the Kronstadt Squadron. 

II Vladimir 66; Vyatcheslav 66; Deris 66; Preslava 66; Boris i Glyeb 66; 
Sv. Astafii 32. 


fair strength. The revolt of England's American colonies in 
1775 led, in 1778, to the outbreak of war between England and 
France, and in the following year Spain also attacked England. 
To protect their trade the three Northern Powers sent out 
considerable fleets. The chief part in 1779 was taken by 
Sweden, which mobilised ten battleships and six frigates, and 
sent all but four battleships into the North Sea. The Danes 
also commissioned a fleet of ten battleships and six frigates, 
but only five battleships and four frigates left the Sound. Two 
Russian battleships and two frigates were sent out from Revel, 
and were joined in the North Sea by a similar force from 

Lists of the various fleets follow : 

Swedes: Sophia Magdalena 70, Gotha Lejon 70, Kung 
Adolf Fredrik 70, Prins Gustaf 70, Wasa 62, Prins Fredrik 
Adolf 62, Prins Carl 62, Sophia Albertina 62, Hertig Fer- 
dinand 60, Finland 60. 

Danes: Sophia Friderica 70, Jylland 70, Elephant 70, 
Prinds Friderich 70, Holsteen 60, Wagrien 60, Indfodsret 60, 
Dannebroge 60, Ebenetzer 50, Gronland 50. 

Russians: Vyatcheslav 66, Preslava 66, Chrabryi 66, 
Nikolai 66. 

Of the Swedish fleet the Gotha Lejon, Prins Gustaf, Prins 
Carl, and Finland were left in reserve at Karlskrona, but the 
rest of the fleet went into the North Sea. After cruising 
there for some time it sent off its frigates with various con- 
voys and returned to Karlskrona, stopping at Copenhagen on 
the way. Two Danish battleships, the Wagrien and Ind- 
fedsret, cruised on the west coast of Norway during the 
summer, and two others, the Prinsesse Sophia Frederica and 
Prinds Friderich, were sent out for trials, while the Holsteen 
went to the Cape of Good Hope to convoy homeward-bound 
Indiamen. The Russian Revel ships passed the Sound at the 
end of May, and sailed for the North Cape. In July the 
Archangel ships joined them, and in October the squadron 
passed Copenhagen on its way to Kronstadt.* 

In 1780 the " Armed Neutrality " was formed. Russia, 
Denmark, Sweden, Prussia, Holland, Portugal, Austria, and 
the Two Sicilies agreed to insist on the rights of neutral trade. 
England at once declared war on Holland, but took no steps 
against the other countries. The following were the fleets 
mobilised by the Baltic Powers to support their claims : 

Swedes: Gotha Lejon 70, Prins Carl Fredrik 70, Prins 
Fredrik Adolf 62, Fredrik Rex 62, one frigate, besides the six 
already at sea. 

Danes: Prinsesse Sophia Friderica 70, Jylland 70, Prinds 

* The Chrabryi had to winter in Norway and the Vyatcheslav at Copenhagen. 

1779-1780. . 237 

Friderich 70, Justitia 70, Dannebroge 60, Indfodsret 60, 
Wagrien 60, Mars 60, Grenland 50, five frigates. 

Russians : First squadron : Isidor 74, Azia 66, Amerika 66, 
Stao; Rossii 66, Tverdyi 66, two frigates. ^Second squadron: 
Panteleimon 74, $z;. Nikolai 66, Blagopoluichie 66, Aleksandr 
Nevskii 66, Ingermanland 66, one frigate. Third squadron : 
lezekiil 78, Knyaz Vladimir 66, Spir-idon 66, David Selunskii 
66, Z>em 66, one frigate. -"/> ^ ty/i/' 

The three Russian squadrons left Kronstadt together on 
June 22nd, and reached Copenhagen on July 3rd. Four weeks 
later they left the Sound for the North Sea. The first 
squadron, under Eear-Admiral Borisov, and the third, under 
Brigadier Palbin, called at the Texel and at Dover, and 
reached the Tagus on September 8th. The first squadron 
anchored off Lisbon, but the third cruised for nine days off 
Cape St. Vincent. On September 19th the third squadron 
left Lisbon to return to the Baltic, but bad weather kept it 
back, and eventually, on November 5th Palbin came back to 
Lisbon for the winter.* Borisov's squadron left Lisbon on 
October 19th, and arrived at Leghorn on November 6th. t 

In the North Sea were the Danish and Swedish squadrons 
and the second division of the Russian fleet. Rear-Admiral 
Kruse left the Sound with the Russian squadron on July 31st. 
He put into the Downs from August llth to 22nd for repairs, 
and then was compelled by sickness to go to Christianssand, in 
Norway. Here he stayed from August 30th to September 27th, 
and on October 4th he was back at Copenhagen. Joined by the 
Ne tron menya 66 from Archangel, J he left Copenhagen on the 
13th, and reached Kronstadt on the 19th. The Danish fleet, 
under Vice-Admiral Yon Schindel, entered the North Sea a few 
days after the Russians, and cruised for two months off the 
English and Scottish coast. At the end of September it 
suffered severely in a gale, and its ships eventually returned 
to Copenhagen one by one during October and November.! 

* The David Selunskii 66, having a great part of her crew sick, had been 
detached on August 22nd to Portsmouth. Arriving there on the 26th she left 
again on October 22nd to meet the squadron, but failing to find it went to 
Copenhagen and anchored there on November 5th. The Deris 66 had to be left in 
the Tagus while the squadron was off Cape St. Vincent. On September 30th 
she parted from the squadron, and after looking for it at sea for a month she 
entered Portsmouth harbour on November 15th. 

t The Slava Rossii 66 was wrecked near Toulon on November 3rd. 

The lanuarii 66, which had left Archangel with the Ne tron menya in July, 
had to winter at Bergen. The Chrabryi 66 and Vyatcheslav, which had wintered 
in Norway and at Copenhagen, reached Kronstadt early in the summer. 

The Prinds Friderich 70 was lost near Laes0, in the Kattegat, on September 
30th. The Indf0dsret 60 was sent in August to the Cape of Good Hope, and 
was not back until August 1781. The Bornholm 36 went to the West Indies. 
She was engaged in December by three English privateers, and her convoy 
was taken from her. 


Three Swedish battleships cruised in the North Sea, but the 
fourth, the Prins Fredrik Adolf 62, was ordered, for some 
reason, " to watch the coast of Bahus," near Gothenburg. 

Swedish, Danish, and E/ussian mobilisations for 1781 were 
as follows: 

Swedes. Rung Gustaf III. 70, Sophia Magdalena 70, Kung 
Adolf Fredrik 70, Gotha Lejon 70, Fredrik Rex 62, Prins 
Fredrik Adolf 62, Wasa 62, Prins Carl 62, Sophia Albertina 62, 
Hertig Ferdinand 60, 

Danes. Elephant 70, Pr. Sophia Friderica 70, Norske Love 
70, Justitia 70, Pr. Wilhelmine Caroline 60, Pr. Sophia Magda- 
lena 60, Wagrien 60, Grenland 50, Ebenetzer 50. 

Russians. Panteleimon 74, Ne iron menya 66, Evropa 66, 
Pamyat Evstafia 66, Viktor 66; also the four battleships of 
Bprisov's squadron, the three of Palbin's, the three that had 
wintered in foreign ports, and two from Archangel. 

The two Russian squadrons at Leghorn and Lisbon were 
recalled. The former put to sea on April 29th, spent three 
weeks at Cadiz, and reached Copenhagen on July 28th. The 
latter left Lisbon on May 15th, and after a day at Ports- 
mouth and three weeks in the Downs, arrived at Copenhagen 
on July 10th. Leaving again on the 14th, it reached Kron- 
stadt on the 26th, while Borisov's squadron did the same a 
month later.* The outward bound fleet under Rear- Admiral 
Suchotin left Kronstadt on June 5th. The grounding of the 
Panteleimon 74 delayed it at Copenhagen for some days, but 
on July 7th it entered the North Sea. It passed Gibraltar on 
August 9th, and reached Leghorn on the 26th. 

From the beginning of May to the end of August four of the 
Danish battleshipst were stationed at the entrance of the 
Sound. The rest of the fleet was also there during June, but 
in July it cruised in the North Sea. One battleship had been 
cruising there before this,* and two others remained at sea 
till the middle of September. Three battleships]! were also left 
till then in the Sound, but the other ships were laid up in 
August. The Swedish fleet cruised in the North Sea, and 
sent out four convoys, two under frigates to the Mediterranean 
and two under battleships to Cape Pinisterre. The two battle- 
ships were unfortunate: the Sophia Albertina 62 was wrecked 
on the Dutch coast, and the Wasa 62 was so much damaged 

* The David Selunskii, lanuarii, and Deris reached Kronstadt on May 19th, 
July 1st and July 6th respectively. The two Archangel ships, Trech Svyatitelei 
66 and Svyatoslav 66 left Archangel on July 21st and reached Kronstadt on 
September 23rd. 

t Elephant, Wilhelmine Caroline, Sophia Magdalena, Gr0nland. 

+ Sophia Friderica. 

Sophia Magdalena, Ebenetzer. 

|| Justitia, Norske L0ve, Gronland. 

1780-1783. 239 

in a gale on the Dogger Bank that she had to go to the 
Norwegian coast for extensive repairs. 

Both Sweden and Denmark reduced their armaments in 
1782, but Russia had again a considerable force at sea. 
Details of this year's fleets follow : 

Swedes. Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotta 62, four frigates. 

Danes. Justitia 70, Sophia Friderica 70, Oldenborg 60, 
Holsteen 60, Indfodsret 60, two frigates. 

Russians. Konstantin 74, David 66, Svyatoslav 66, Pobye- 
! donosets 66, lanuarii 66, two frigates, Chrabryi 66, Nikolai 66, 
Tverdyi 66, Blagopolutchie 66, Trech Svyatitelei 66, two 
frigates; also Suchotin's five battleships and two from Arch- 

The four Swedish frigates were sent off with convoys, while 
the battle-ship remained on the Swedish coast. The Danish 
battleship Indfodsret 60 left Copenhagen for the East Indies 
in June, and was lost at sea with all hands on her return 
next year. One frigate was sent out to the West Indies, and 
the rest of the squadron stayed near home. It reached Hel- 
singer on June 20th and lay there for some time, and then 
cruised in the Kattegat and Skaggerrack. The Oldenborg 60 
stayed in the Sound till the end of September, but the other 
ships were laid up at the beginning of that month. The 
Russian squadron at Leghorn put to sea on May 13th, and 
reached Kronstadt on July 13th. The two outward-bound 
fleets under Vice-Admiral Tchitchagov and Rear- Admiral Yon 
Kruse left Kronstadt on July 1st. They were at Copenhagen 
from July 24th to August 1st, and ten days later they parted 
off the south coast of Norway. Tchitchagov' s fleet was in the 
Downs for the first few days of September, and then proceeded 
on its way to the Mediterranean. It was scattered by heavy 
weather, but no ship was lost, and at various dates between 
October 15th and November 28th its ships arrived safely at 
Leghorn. Kruse's. ships visited Dover, and then had to spend 
nearly a month at Christianssand for repairs. On Septem- 
ber 21st they anchored off Copenhagen, and on the 30th they 
were back at Kronstadt.* 

The Treaty of Paris in 1783 put an end to England's wars 
with France, Spain, and Holland, and thus did away with 
the necessity for the " Armed Neutrality." Six Swedish 
battleships were commissioned at Karlskrona, but did not leave 
harbour. The Russian squadron at Leghorn stayed there the 
whole year, and a squadron of five battleships under Suchotin 
went no further than from Kronstadt to Revel and back, though 
two battleships! and two frigates were sent from Archangel 

* The Vysheslav 66 and Rodislav 66 had arrived there from Archangel on 
September 8th. 
f Metcheslav 66 and Boleslav 66. 


to the Baltic. The Danish battleship Oldenborg 60 was sent 
on convoy duty to the Mediterranean, but no other Danish 
battleships were mobilised. In 1784 relations between Den- 
mark and Sweden were somewhat strained, but only four 
Danish battleships* were commissioned, and these were only 
used for training purposes. The Russian squadron under 
Admiral Tchitchagov was recalled from the Mediterranean, 
and reached Copenhagen on August 8th. Here it was joined 
by three battleshipst from Archangel and by seven from 
Kronstadt.J Tchitchagov left Copenhagen on August 25th 
and reached Kronstadt with his fifteen battleships on 
September 1st. 

For the next three years neither Sweden nor Denmark had 
any battleships in commission, but there was a large Russian 
fleet at sea in 1785. A squadron of fifteen battleships left 
Kronstadt under Vice-Admiral Kruse on July 18th. It went 
as far west as Borah olm, returned to Revel, and after another 
short cruise was back at Kronstadt on September 6th. In 1786 
and 1787 the Russian Kronstadt fleet consisted of only five 
battleships, which cruised as far as Bornholm. During these 
three years five newly-built battleshipsll had come to Kron- 
stadt from Archangel, but otherwise there were no further 
naval movements in the Baltic before the outbreak of the war 
between Sweden and Russia in 1788. 

* Sophia Friderica 70, Oldenborg 60, Wagrien 60, Ditmarschen 60. 

t Yaroslav 74, Vladislav 74, Izyaslav 66. 

t lezekiil 78, loann Bogoslov 74, Vysheslav 66, Boleslav 66, Metcheslav 66, 
Rodislav 66, Evropa 66. 

Trech lerarchov 100, Rostislav 100, lezekiil 78, loann Bogoslov 74, Vladislav 
74, Taroslav 74, Pobyedoslav 74, Konstantin 74, Izyaslav 66, Metcheslav 66, 
Boleslav 66, Rodislav 66, Vysheslav 66, Trech Svyatitelei 66, Svyatoslav 66. 

|| In 1785 the Mstislav 74 and Vseslav 74, and in 1787 the Sv. Petr 74, Kir 
loann 74 and Panteleimon 66. 

1783-1788. 241 



In September, 1787, Turkey declared war on Russia. This 
gave Gustaf III. a chance of recovering the territory lost by 
Sweden in the two last wars, and in June, 1788, he left Stock- 
holm for the invasion of Russian Finland. He was un- 
doubtedly encouraged in this adventure by England and 
Prussia, though their help went little beyond compelling Den- 
mark to remain neutral. Still, there was good reason to expect 
success in an attack on Russia at this moment, since by far 
the greater part of the Russian army was engaged in the war 
with Turkey. Besides this, a considerable detachment of the 
Russian fleet was ordered to sail for the Levant under Greig 
to draw off the attention of the Turks from the new Russian 
Black Sea Squadron, which was at present only six battleships 
strong. Altogether Russia had a force of fifty-four battle- 
ships at this time, as compared with twenty-six in the Swedish 
fleet, but of these six were in the Black Sea, five were still at 
Archangel, where they had been built, fifteen were about to 
leave for the Mediterranean, and, of the twenty-eight remain- 
ing, nineteen were quite unfit for sea. All of the twenty-six 
Swedish battleships were more or less efficient, so that there 
was a possibility, if arrangements were made properly, of being 
able to bring odds of practically three to one against the nine 
Russian battleships in the Baltic. Here, however, the scheme 
failed; through undue haste on the part of Gustaf III. the 
attack was made when only three of the fifteen battleships 
destined for the Mediterranean had actually started, and, 
moreover, before the whole of the Swedish fleet was ready for 

On April 19th, 1788, orders reached Karlskrona to com- 
mission a squadron of twelve battleships and five frigates, on 
May 31st Carl, Duke of Sodermanland, hoisted his flag as Com- 
mander-in-Chief, and on June 9th the fleet left Karlskrona. 

Its composition was as follows : 

Gustaf III. 70 (Duke Carl), Prins Gustaf 70 (Wachtmeister), 
Sopha Magdalena 70, Gustaf Adolf 62, Hedvig Elisabeth Char- 
lotta 62, Dygd 62, Ara 62, Forsigtighet 62, Fadernesland 62, 
Omhet 62, Rdttvisa 62, Wasa 60, 4 frigates of 40 each, 1 
frigate of 34, 8 small craft. 

Sending the Patriot sloop to Danzig for information as to 



the Russian movements Duke Carl worked slowly eastward, 
exercising his fleet on the way. On June 21st, between Goth- 
land and Dago several Russian ships were sighted. The 
weather was thick, and for some time it was impossible to 
make out their force, but at nine o'clock in the evening it 
became clear enough to see that they were three three-deckers 
and four frigates. These were the first detachment of the 
fleet intended for the Mediterranean, and had been sent on in 
advance to give the three-deckers time to lighten ship for the 
passage of the Sound. News of the Swedish preparations had 
reached Russia on May 24th, but for the moment no alterations 
had been made in the Russian plans. On June 15th Vice- 
Admiral Von Dessen left Kronstadt with the battleships Sara- 
tov 100, Trech lerarchov 100, TcTiesma 100, the frigate 
Nadezhda 32, and three storeships bound for Copenhagen, but 
at the same time three frigates* were sent out to look for the 
Swedish fleet, and the five battleships intended for the Baltic 
were added to Greig's fleet. 

Duke Carl, on meeting Von Dessen's ships, found himself in 
an awkward position. He had strict orders not to attack until 
he received definite instructions to do so, but on the other hand 
he knew that the outbreak of war was only a matter of a day 
or two. and was naturally loth to let slip such a valuable prize. 
Still, he decided to obey his orders, but tried to make the 
Russians attack him first. On the morning of June 22nd he 
sent the Froja 40 to demand a salute from Von Dessen, hoping 
that he would refuse it, but the Russian commander, though 
insisting that he paid the honour to Duke Carl as a Prince, not 
as a Swedish Admiral, gave the required salute, and had there- 
fore to be allowed to proceed on his voyage in safety. The 
Swedish fleet steered north towards Hango; the Froja sighted 
the three Russian frigates, and on the 25th the fleet met the 
Mstislavets 44, which fired a salute and went off to Kronstadt 
with the news of the approach of the Swedes. On June 29th 
she reached Kronstadt, and on July 3rd Greig put to sea with 
his fleet. 

Meanwhile Gustav III. had embarked his army of 8,000 
men in the galley fleet and had left Stockholm on June 24th 
with 28 galleys and 30 gun-boats. On June 26th the Russian 
Ambassador was asked to leave Stockholm; on July 1st the 
Swedish galley-fleet passed the sailing fleet off Hango, next 
day the troops were landed at Helsingfors, and on the 3rd the 
Swedes began a bombardment of the Russian fortress of 
Nyslott in the interior of Finland. Duke Carl had sent out 
four ships to cruise on the 2nd, and four days later he weighed 
with the whole fleet, picked up his cruisers, and steered 

* Mstislavets 44, Yaroslavets 36, Oektor 26. 

1788. 243 

towards Bevel. On July 7th lie received orders to open hos- 
tilities, and next day he captured the Russian frigates Yaro- 
slavets 36 and Gektor (Hector) 26 near Nargen, just north of 
Revel ; the Russian ships were taken by surprise, and surren- 
dered without firing. After this the Swedish fleet sailed with 
its prizes to Mjolo, south of Helsingf ors ; the Ara went 
aground, but was got off unharmed, and on July llth Duke 
Carl was reinforced by four ships from Karlskrona, the Enighet 
70, Prins Carl 62, Prins Fredrik Adolf 62, and Camilla 40, 
convoying a further 3,000 troops. On July 14th he left Mjolo, 
steering eastwards, to meet the Russians. 

At the same time Greig was working slowly westward. He 
had shifted his flag to the Rostislav 100, one of the five ships 
intended to be left in the Baltic, and had arranged his fleet 
of seventeen battleships in the usual three squadrons under 
Rear- Admiral M. Yon Dessen, himself, and Rear- Admiral 
Koslanianov. On July 9th the fleet left Krasna Gorka, in the 
evening of the 14th it approached the island of Hogland, and 
in the morning of the 17th it sisrhted the Swedes north-west of 
that island. The wind was E.S.E., a light breeze, and the 
Russians to windward in a close-hauled line on the starboard 
tack, while the Swedes were on the port tack in a bow and 
quarter line, thus having the general direction of their line 
parallel to that of the Russians. At about 11 a.m., as the 
Russians finished forming their line, Duke Carl also put his 
fleet on the starboard tack by making them tack together. At 
1.30 p.m. he reformed his line on the port tack in the natural 
order, it having been up to now in reversed order. About 2.30 
the Swedish fleet tacked together to a bow and quarter line 
on the starboard tack, and a little before 4 o'clock it tacked 
together again and formed close-hauled line on the port tack. 
Meanwhile the Russian fleet had been gradually coming down 
before the wind more or less on the starboard tack, and now, 
wearing simultaneously to the port tack, it bore away towards 
the Swedish line. 

The composition and order of the two fleets were as 
follows : 

Swedes. Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotta 62, Grip 40, Omhet 
62, Prins Gustaf 70, Rdttvisa 62, Camilla 40, Enighet 70, 
Froja 40, Dygd 62, Wasa 60, Gustaf III. 70 (.), Fadernes- 
land 62, Ara 62, Minerva 40, Forsigtighet 62. Thetis 40, Prins 
Carl 62, Sophia Magdalena 70, Prins Fredrik Adolf 62, Prins 
Gustaf Adolf 62 : 20 ships, 1,180 guns. 

Russians. Boleslav 66, loann Bogoslov 74, Vseslav 74, 
Vysheslav 66, Metcheslav 66, Rodislav 66, Sv. Elena 74, Sv. 
Petr 74, Mstislav 74, Rostislav 100 (f.), Izyaslav 66, Vladislav 
74, Viktor 66, Yaroslav 74, Kir loann 74, Pamyat Evstafia 
66, Deris 66 : 17 ships, 1,220 guns. 

R 2 


Possibly the Swedish ships may have carried more guns 
than are given here; certainly some of them carried more in 
the latter part of the war, but probably the figures given are 
correct for 1788. 

Out of the line the Swedes had five frigates and a sloop,* the 
Russians seven frigates. t 

At the moment of contact the Swedish fleet was in excellent 
order, and the Russians quite the reverse. At 3.30, as he 
came down with the wind on the starboard quarter, Greig had 
signalled to the rear squadron, then leading the line, to bear 
away for the enemy's van. Unfortunately this order was also 
carried out by three other ships, the Boleslav, Metcheslav, 
and Vladislav, and though Greig shortly signalled to the 
whole fleet to bear away, these ships had quite lost their posi- 
tion in the line. Further, on his signalling at four o'clock 
to the fleet to wear to the port tack, three other ships the 
Bogoslov, Pamyat Evstafia, and Deris tacked instead, and 
thus got to windward of the line away from the enemy. As a 
result the Russian fleet went into action not in the line of 
battle as arranged, but somewhat as follows*: 

Vseslav 74, Vysheslav 66,Rodislav 66, Sv. Elena 74, Sv. Petr 
74, Mstislav 74, Rostislav 100 (ahead of line), Izyaslav 66, 
Boleslav 66 (ahead of line), Viktor 66, Yaroslav 74 (behind 
line), Metcheslav 66 (ahead of line), Kir loann 74, loann 
Bogoslov 74 (behind line), Vladislav 74 (ahead of line), Pamyat 
Evstafia 66, Deris 66 (behind line). 

True to precedent, Greig, in the Rostislav, attacked the 
Swedish flagship Gustaf III. and her next astern, the 
Fadernesland. This left ten Swedes for the seven Russian 
ships ahead of the flagship, but as three of the Swedes were 
frigates the odds were pretty even. In the rear the Russians 
did badly. Greig's next astern, the Izyaslav, attacked the 
Ara and Minerva, but the six following Swedes were able to 
concentrate on the Boleslav, Metcheslav, and Vladislav, since 
the rest of the Russians kept deliberately at long range. At 
length the fire of the leading Russian ships overcame that of 
the lighter Swedish vessels, and these gradually bore away. 
There was an almost complete calm, and all movements were 
difficult; but at last, at about eight o'clock, Duke Carl wore 
his fleet to the starboard tack and reformed his line. Mean- 
while Greig, in the Rostislav, finding it difficult to keep astern 

* Jarramas 32 ; Jarislawitz 32 (ex-Russian), Hector 22 (ex-Russian) ; Spreng- 
port 24, Trolle 24, Patriot 16. 

t Vryatchislav 40, Premislav 36, Podrazhislav 36, Slava 36, Mstislavets 40, 
Nadezhda Blagopolutchia 36, Vosmislav 36. 

$ See plan. 



-* *" 






e H 

.=> ? * "3- ^ 





1788. 245 

of the Mstislav and Sv. Petr, had luffed up, passed to wind- 
ward of them, and come into action ahead of them. This 
brought him to the position of fifth in the line, and on follow- 
ing Duke Carl's example and ordering his ships to wear, 
Greig became engaged with the Prins Gustaf 70, flagship of 
Count Wachtmeister, commander of the Swedish Van. This 
ship had already suffered severely from the fire of the leading 
Russian ships, and was in no condition to engage so formid- 
able an antagonist, but her disabled state and the lack of wind 
prevented her escape, and at last, about nine o'clock, she 
surrendered. An hour later Greig signalled to his fleet to 
cease firing and haul to the wind. At about eleven a boat 
arrived from the Vladislav 74 to say that she had been 
obliged to surrender. She had been from the opening of the 
action one of the few ships in the Russian Rear which had 
approached close to the Swedes and had naturally suffered 
severely. Her rigging was cut to pieces, she had lost a third 
of her crew, the undamaged Russian ships in the rear did 
little or nothing to help her, and there was no course left 
save surrender. 

Both fleets were now on the port tack again, and Greig at 
once signalled to his ships to bear away and endeavour to 
retake the Vladislav, but the signal was not seen in the dark- 
ness ; all the ships near him with which he could communicate 
by boat were badly damaged, and the comparatively fresh 
ships in the rear were out of reach. He was therefore com- 
pelled to abandon all idea of saving the Vladislav, and hauled 
to the wind again to reform his fleet and repair damages. 

The action had been indecisive. Both sides had suffered 
severely and both had lost a ship, but neither could be said 
to be beaten. The Russians lost 321 killed and 702 wounded, 
the Swedes 130 killed and 334 wounded, exclusive in each 
case of the losses in the ships captured. Here the Russians 
lost 783 men,* 257 being killed or wounded, and the Swedes 
'687 men, of whom 148 were hors de combat. The total loss 
on the Russian side was therefore 1,806, to 1,151 for the Swedes. 

Neither side seems to have made any attempt to renew the 
action next day. The Swedes sailed for Sveaborg, outside 
Helsingfors, to refit and replenish their ammunition supply, 
and arrived there in the evening of the 19th, while the Russians 
worked slowly east and anchored on the 22nd near the island 
Seskar, forty miles west of Kronstadt. From here Greig sent 
home his most damaged ships, the Vseslav 74, Metcheslav 66, 
Boleslav 66, Izyaslav 66 and the prize Prins Gustaf 70, and 
was reinforced by the Konstantin 74, Pobyedonosets 66, 
Panteleimon 66, and Svyatoslav 66. Early on August 5th he 

* Swedish figures. Russians say 770. 


weighed anchor and sailed west towards Sveaborg, and ap- 
peared off that port about eight o'clock next morning. The 
\ Swedes had meanwhile sent out a small detachment of three 
battleships and four frigates, but these ships usually returned 
at night, and the arrival of Greig's fleet found four of them 
the forsigtighet 62, Prins Fredrik Adolf 62, Prins Gustaf 
Adolf 62, and Thetis 40, at anchor outside Sveaborg. The 
morning was foggy and the Russians got close in without being 
seen. Three of the Swedes cut their cables and escaped, but 
the Prins Gustaf Adolf waited to weigh anchor; and then, 
though apparently likely to get away safely, ran aground on 
an unknown shoal in the harbour mouth and surrendered 
after a few shots from Koslanianov's new flagship the Yaroslav 
74. Finding her too much damaged to be refloated, Greig 
had her burnt next day after removing her crew of 553 men. 
In the meantime the galley fleets were showing some activity. 
As has been said, the Swedish flotilla of twenty-eight galleys 
and thirty gunboats had reached Sveaborg on July 2nd. Here 
it was reinforced by a number of vessels of the Finnish flotilla, 
but for some time it lay idle. On July 18th six gunboats 
from Sveaborg captured a Russian vessel of twelve guns out- 
side Fredrikshamn, and on the 25th the troops re-embarked 
in the flotilla for an attack on that port. Leaving Sveaborg 
on July 26th, the main body passed Svenskund on the 28th, 
but on the previous day two divisions of gunboats (between 
thirty and forty boats) had chased away a Russian force of 
six kaiks and two " secret boats " which had reached Fredrik- 
ehamn on the 25th. This small detachment was under Slisov, 
and had left Kronstadt on the 16th for Viborg, afterwards 
proceeding to Fredrikshamn at the request of Musin Pushkin, 
the Russian commander-in-chief in Finland. Slisov, however, 
found tnat the Swedes were approaching in too great strength 
to allow of any thought of engaging them, and accordingly 
retreated under fire. On August 5th he took up a position in 
Bjorkosund, south of Viborg, where he remained for a month. 
Delayed by bad weather, the Swedish landing took place on 
August 3rd, and hardly was it complete when Gustaf III. 
decided to abandon the attack. Siegroth, the Swedish general, 
at once reshipped his troops and withdrew the flotilla to Sven- 
skund ; from the beginning of the landing to the end of the re- 
embarkation only thirty-one hours had elapsed. A few gun- 
boats had opened fire on the town in support of the attack, 
but these were also recalled. On the llth the army was 
again landed at Borga, twenty-five miles east of Helsingfors. 

The withdrawal from Fredrikshamn was brought about by 
the attitude of many of Gustavus' officers and subordinates. 
The Finns especially refused to join in a war which had not 

1788. 247 

been sanctioned by their assembly, and many of the Swedes 
followed their example. The result of the battle of Hogland 
had upset all plans for an advance on Petersburg by sea, and 
the new situation prevented any further advance by land. At 
the same time Denmark, joining in the war, attacked Southern 
Sweden, and it became necessary to think of home defence 
rather than aggression. Now, however, Greig's fleet became 
an important factor. In a general way it is possible for small 
craft to work along the Finnish coast inside the skargard, and 
thus secure from attack by larger ships, but at two places 
promontories running out into deep water allow big ships to 
get in close enough to prevent this. These two positions ara 
at Hango and Porkala, the first about seventy, and the second 
twenty-five miles west of Sveaborg. Greig now stationed a 
detachment at Hango to intercept communications between 
Stockholm and Sveaborg. He had left Sveaborg on 
August 7th, but had told off eight battleships under 
Koslanianov to remain off Porkala. After a visit to Nargen, 
he was again off Sveaborg on the 15th, and then, rejoined by 
Koslanianov, returned to Revel, and remained there from the 
17th to the 21st. On the 23rd he appeared off Sveaborg again 
with two more battleships from Kronstadt, the lezekiil 78 and 
Boleslav 66, and on the 25th he sent Captain Trevenen to 
Hango with the Rodislav 66, Premislav 36, Slava 36, and 
Evangelist Mark 20, reinforcing him two days later by the 
Pamyat Evstafia 66, and on September 3rd by the Panteleimon 
66. With the rest of the fleet Greig cruised in the Gulf of 
Finland, showing himself off Sveaborg on August 27th and 
September llth, and returning at intervals to Nargen or Revel. 
The Swedes naturally made every effort to restore communica- 
tion with the west. They sent to Tvarminne, just east of 
Hango, two frigates, one hemmema, one turuma, and some 
gunboats under Stedingk, of the Sprengport 24, and early 
in September sent Ankarsvard with four turumas, three mortar 
boats, and six gunboats to take over the command. At the 
same time they shifted the Trolle 24 from Barosund to Porkala, 
and sent thither from Sveaborg the Froja 40, Minerva 40, 
and Hector 22. Meanwhile they had to fall back on the method 
of unloading stores on the west side of Hango, 'transporting 
them across the isthmus of Lappvik, and resnipping them on 
the east. 

At last, on October 14th, the Swedes began to move. A 
number of storeships had reached the west side of Hango 
Head, and began to try and pass eastwards. At the same 
time eight gunboats from Tvarminne came out, and succeeded 
in the calm in getting past ine Evangelist Mark, and joining 
the transports to the west. Trevenen sent in a second frigate, 


and the Swedes attempted nothing further. Two days later, 
however, the turuma l\ord, the hemmema Oden, and nine gun- 
boats attacked the Evangelist Mark. A brisk action took place, 
but without result. At the same time the Russians sent in their 
boats, and chased ashore fourteen of the Swedish transports. 
While these operations were going on Greig had been cruising 
between the Finnish coast and Revel. On September 17th he 
left Nargen, proceeded to Porkala, and returned on the 21st, 
being joined on the way by the Metcheslav 66, in exchange 
for the Boleslav b'6, which had had to be sent home. Again, 
between September 28th and October 1st he sailed to Hango 
and back. He had prepared a plan for an attack on the 
Swedish frigates at Porkala, but before he could carry out 
his intentions he was taken ill, and on October 16th he died. 

Koslanianov assumed the chief commaiid, but did little of 
importance. He was ordered to send his six worst ships to 
Kronstadt, and accordingly detached Rear-Admiral Spiridov 
with the lezekiil 78, Konstantin 74, loann Bogoslov 74, 
Svyatoslav 66, Viktor 66, and Deris 66. On October 24th the 
Russian ships left Hango, and on the 27th they rejoined the 
fleet, while the. same day there left to join Yon Dessen in the 
Sound the Pobyedonosets 66, Metcheslav 66, and Panteleimon 
66. On October 31st Koslanianov took all his ships save four 
frigates into Revel for the winter, and hauled down his flag. 
As soon as the position at Hango was abandoned by the 
Russians it was occupied by the Swedish ships Sprengport 24, 
Oden 26, and some gunboats. The frigates at Porkala were 
recalled, and preparations made for sailing to Karlskrona, but 
the whereabouts of the Russian fleet was unknown, and it 
was not thought safe to move till informed on this point. At 
last Klint, in the Makrill 4, heard from a fisherman that he 
had seen the entire Russian fleet sailing for Kronstadt. This 
was, of course, a mistake, but it was sufficient. Duke Carl, 
who had gone ashore as commander-in-ehief , returned to his 
flagship, and in the morning of November 20th, with ice 
already forming in the harbour, the fleet left Sveaborg. South 
of the Aland Islands it was scattered by heavy weather, but 
eventually reached Karlskrona safely on the 27th, with the 
exception of the Grip 40, which lost the fleet, and put into 
Kalmar Sound, and had to winter there. Duke Carl went 
ashore next day, and on December 6th Wrangel hauled down 
his flag. 

Slisov, with the Russian galley flotilla, had returned to 
Kronstadt on September 4th. He put to sea again on 
September 21st with a force of six galleys, one kaik, one 
double sloop, one bomb cutter, three gunboats, one brigantine, 
and one pram. Three days later he anchored in Trangsund, 

1788. 249 

the entrance to Viborg, and remained there till October 14th, 
when he laid up his ships in Viborg. From the middle of 
August a so-called " reserve squadron " was in existence under 
Vice-Admiral Kruse, but this was little more than a depot 
for supplying Greig with fresh ships. The battleships that 
passed through Kruse's hands were the Boleslav 66, Metcheslav 
66, lezekiil 78, Pobyedoslav 66, and Evropa 66, besides a 
number of frigates and other vessels; but the two last-named 
battleships were the only vessels which Kruse retained till 
his return to Kronstadl in the first days of October. 

At the same time as the operations in the Gulf of Finland, 
there was a certain amount of activity in the Western Baltic 
and North Sea. Von Dessen, after his meeting with the 
Swedish fleet, proceeded on his way, and reached Copenhagen 
on July 8th. Here he was joined by two vessels bought in 
England, the Merkurii 18 and Del/in, by the frigate 
Nadezhda 32 from Revel, and by two ships laden with artillery 
and stores for Archangel, the Kilduin 26 and Solombala 24. 
The Danes were bound by treaty obligations to support Russia 
with a force of six battleships, three frigates, and an army 
of 12,000 men, but these had not yet materialised. On 
July 30th Von Dessen left Copenhagen, but head winds kept 
him at Helsinger till August llth. The Swedish force at 
Gothenburg consisted of the three forty-gun frigates Diana, 
Bellona, and Venus, and Von Dessen's object was partly to 
locate these ships, and partly ensure the safety of the Kilduin 
and Solombala. He failed in both parts of this plan. On 
August 13th, hearing from merchantmen that the Swedes were 
near Bergen, he sent off the transports to work north along 
tke English and Scottish coast, and then returned to anchor 
off Skagen. The Swedes were, however, close at hand, and 
had sighted his fleet without being seen themselves. On the 
15th, as Von Dessen lay at anchor five ships appeared. These 
were the three Swedes, and the two Russian transports, which 
had been chased all night and captured that morning. The 
Solombala, however, had not had a proper prize crew put on 
board, owing to the heavy weather, and managed to escape to 
the Russian fleet; but the Kilduin and the Swedish frigates 
proceeded quietly towards Marstrand, and were in safety long 
before the Russian battleships could get near them. On 
August 27th Von Dessen anchored again at Copenhagen. 

Here he was joined on September 8th by four battleships 
and two frigates from Archangel, under Rear-Admiral 
Povalishin, these being the ships completed there both in 
1787 and 1788. Povalishin had put to sea from Archangel on 
July 16th with the following seven ships : 

Maksim-Ispovyednik (No. 9) 74, Sysoi Velikii (No. 8} 74, 


Aleksandr NevsJcii 74, Syevernyi Orel 66, Prochor (No. 75} 66, 
Archangel Gavriil 38, Porno shtchnoi (No. 41} 38. 

His flagship, the No. 9, went aground near Trondjhem, and 
was sufficiently hurt to make it necessary to send her for 
repairs to Christianssand, where she wintered. Povalishin, 
therefore, shifted his flag to the No. 75, and brought his fleet 
to Copenhagen without further incident. 

The following day Von Dessen was joined by three Danish 
battleships and a frigate. Denmark had at last decided to 
join in the war, and early in September marched an army over 
the Norwegian frontier as far as Lake "VVener. As early as 
July the Danes had commissioned the following ships : 

Norske Love 70, Justitia 70, Prinsesse Louise Augusta 60, 
Ditmarschen 60, Oldenborg 60, Prinsesse Wilhelmine Caroline 
60, Moen 40, Store Belt 36, Christiania 20. 

Finding that two of the battleships, the Norske Leve and 
Prinsesse Wilhelmine Caroline were unseaworthy, they 
replaced them by the Nordstjern 70 and Arveprinds Friderich 

On the outbreak of hostilities they sent into the Kattegat 
and North Sea the Justitia, Prinsesse Louise Augusta, Olden- 
borg, Meen, and Store Belt, and joined to the Russian 
squadron the Nordstjern (flag of Rear-Admiral Krieger), 
Arveprinds Friderich, Ditmarschen, and Christiania, flying in 
these ships the Russian flag. Von Dessen then detached the 
Nadezhda 40 and Del fin to join the Danes in the North Sea, 
and left Copenhagen for the Baltic on September 15th. A 
week later, when still off Amager, the island east of Copen- 
hagen, he received orders from Greig by the Vryatcheslav 40 
to blockade Karlskrona and prevent the return of the Swedish 
fleet. After another week's delay he left on September 30th 
and took up his position off Karlskrona next day. He only 
stayed there just a month. In spite of receiving new orders 
on October 27th to stay off Karlskrona at all costs, and in 
spite of the news that three battleships were to join him from 
Revel, he abandoned his post on October 31st, sailed for Copen- 
hagen, and anchored there on November 10th. The total force 
which he could have put in line in the event of a meeting with 
the Swedish fleet would have been twelve ships three 100's, two 
74's, two 70's, two 66's, one 60, and two 38's with 856 guns; 
while the Swedes, with the loss of the Prins Gustaf and Prins 
Gustaf Adolf, the separation of the Grip, and, on the other 
hand, the capture of the Vladislav, would have had eighteen 
ships with 1,082 guns, by no means an overwhelming pre- 
ponderance considering the probable condition of their ships. 
Still, Von Dessen saw fit to disobey his orders and the Swedes 
got into Karlskrona unmolested. 

1788. 251 

The Danes meanwhile had accomplished little. They had 
advanced on Gothenburg and invested it on October 6th, but 
three days later they were forced by England, Prussia, and 
Holland to conclude an armistice which was shortly followed 
by a treaty of peace, and by the middle of November all their 
troops were back in their own territory". This part of the war 
had brought about a few semi-naval operations. The Danish 
Armv was supported on the coast of Sweden by the following 
flotilla eight galleys, of 15-9 guns each, five " boats," and six 
" double sloops " ; while the Swedes had five gunboats in the 
skargard and two galleys on Lake Wener. Such success as 
there was rested with the Swedes,; their gunboats took twenty- 
five small transports on their way from Norway and eight 
vessels bound for Norway with captured guns, while the 
Danish galley Flekkero was wrecked on the Swedish coast. 
Directly after Yon Dessen's return to Copenhagen the Danish 
vessels hauled down the Russian flag, and the Danes thence- 
forth took no part in the war. Yon Dessen was joined during 
November by the Panteleimon 66, Pobyedonosets 66, and 
Metcheslav 66. At the beginning of December he sent out 
Captain Odintsov with two battleships, two frigates, and one 
cutter to cruise in the Kattegat, but winter soon forced this 
detachment back. Having made no proper arrangements for 
wintering, the Russian ships suffered considerably from ice 
and bad weather, losing anchors, being forced aground, and 
being carried hither and thither in the ice. On December 28th 
Yon Dessen received orders to hand over the squadron to 
Povalishin and return to Petersburg. 

The fighting of 1788 had been indecisive, and had satisfied 
neither side. The Swedes had failed in their attempt to take 
the Russians by surprise; but, on the other hand, the Russians 
had made no use of the disaffection in Sweden and Finland. 
Gustaf III. had now got the approval of his people for the 
war, and both sides prepared for great efforts. Potentially 
the Russians were by far the stronger, but circumstances did 
much to modify their superiority. In 1788 the Swedes had 
commissioned only fifteen of their total force of twenty-six 
battleships, whereas the Russians, out of forty-eight, had had 
thirty-one battleships at sea. This year Gustaf III. ordered 
the preparation of twenty-one of his twenty-five battleships, 
while Ekaterina II. proposed to commission thirty-five out of 
forty-one available for sea. At the first glance it would seem 
that the superiority of the Russians was well enough marked, 
in spite of its being on paper somewhat less than that of 1788, 
since in that year no less than eight Russian battleships had 
been far removed from the scene of action, whereas this year 
it was hoped to bring all available forces to bear together. 


Still, in many ways the position was by no means unfavour- 
able to Sweden. The Swedish fleet at Karlskrona was con- 
centrated, while the Russians were in three different ports. 
At Copenhagen were eleven battleships, at Revel ten, and at 
Kronstadt fourteen (ten for the active fleet and four for a 
reserve). Against these the Swedes had twenty-one battleships 
in one fleet, and were besides favoured by the fact that the 
break up of the ice would inevitably allow them to get to sea 
.before either of the two eastern Russian squadrons. They 
j were also at least equal to a combination of any two of the 
I three Russian divisions, and the junction of all three divisions 
! would be no easy task. They failed, however, to make use of 
their natural advantages ; the ice at Karlskrona broke up at the 
end of April, but it was not until July that the Swedish fleet 
put to sea, and thus, of course, it forfeited all the benefits 
of its position. 

The first fighting took place in the western part of the 
theatre of operations. On April 30th the Merkurii 22*, under 
Lieutenant Crown, left Copenhagen to reconnoitre Karlskrona, 
and on May 10th off that port she met and took the Snappupp 
12. On the previous day Koslanianov had reached Copenhagen 
and taken over the command of the squadron, and on the same 
day Vice-Admiral Schindel hoisted his flag as commander- 
in-chief of a considerable Danish fleet commissioned to protect 
the Russians while in Danish waters. 
This fleet was as follows : 

Praegtige 80, Fyen 70, Kronprinds Frederik 70, Nordst- 
jern 70, Justitia 70, Elephant 70, Norske Leve 70, Mars 60, 
Infedsret 60, Prinsesse Louise Augusta 60, Ditmarschen 60, 
Friderichsvaern 36, Cronborg 36, M0en 36, with the " block- 
ships " without masts : Sejer 60, Island 60, Grenland 50, 
Ebenetzer 50, and twenty-seven other vessels, prams, gunboats, 

These ships formed a line with the Russians across the 
mouth of the harbour ready for any Swedish attack, but the 
Danes declined to give any active help. Two Swedish frigates, 
the Illerim 32 and Jarislawitz 32, left Karlskrona on May 14th 
for Bornholm on scouting duty, and about the same time the 
Venus 40 put to sea from Gothenburg, while the equipment 
of the fleet in Karlskrona was begun. On May 26th Kos- 
lanianov sent off Captain Lezhnev with the No. 8 74, No. 75 
66, Archangel Gavriil 38, No. 41 38, and Merkurii 22 to cruise 
in the Kattegat and fetch the No. 9 from Christianssand 
Four days later this squadron fell in with the Venus 40 near 
Marstrand. The Swedish vessel retreated up Christiania Fjord, 
and Lezhnev, with the larger Russian ships, pursued, without 

* She orignally carried 18 12-prs., but these had been replaced by 22 24-prs. 
carronadea (Golovatchev, i. 110). 

1789. 253 

much ardour; but Crown, in the Merkurii, taking advantage 
of the falling wind on the 31st, brought his ship up under 
sweeps, engaged the Venus finst on one quarter and then on 
the other, and brought down her foretopmast, whereupon 
seeing that there was no hope of escape, she surrendered with 
a losis of one man killed and a few wounded; the Merkurii 
lost her maintopmast and had two men wounded. Crown was 
promoted, given the order of St. George, and appointed to 
command the prize* ; 302 Swedes were captured. Lezhnev 
then proceeded to Christianssand, but it was not till July 23rd 
that he rejoined Koslanianov with the No. 9, though the 1\ o. 75 
and the prize Venus had done so a fortnight earlier. In the 
meanwhile the Danish fleet had moved to Drager, south of 
Amager, on July 1st, and had been followed during the next 
week by the Russian ships, the larger of which had to be 
disarmed to pass through the channel. 

While these operations were going on in the west the 
Russian fleets at Kronstadt and Revel had been preparing 
for action. At Revel were the following ten battleships : 

Rostislav 100, Mstislav 74, Kir loann 74, Sv. Petr 74, Sv. 
Elena 74, Yaroslav 66, Pamyat Evstafia 66, Rodislav 66, 
Izyaslav 66, Boleslav 66. 

These were put under the command of Admiral Tchitchagov, 
who was appointed commander-in-chief of the sailing fleet. At 
Kronstadt the squadron intended to join Tchitchagov consisted 
of the following ten battleships, under Rear-Admiral 
Spiridov : 

Djvyenadtsat Apostolov 100, Knyaz Vladimir 100, lezekiil 78, 
Prints Gustav 70, Vseslav 66, Pobyedoslav 66, Svyatoslav 66, 
Deris 66, Viktor 66, Vysheslav 66. 

The Revel squadron got out into the roadstead on May 13th, 
and the Kronstadt ships on the 24th; Spiridov put to sea on 
June 1st, and joined Tchitchagov at Revel on the 5th. Mean- 
while Tchitchagov had sent out two small detachments, the 
first, consisting of two frigates and a cutter,! left on May 20th 
for Hango, and the second, a battleship, a frigate, and a 
cutter, $ sailed for Porkala a week later. The Hango detach- 
ment returned with the news that it would be impossible to 
Erevent the passage of small craft there, since the Swedes, 
y building fortifications, had made it unsafe for big ships 
to go in close enough for this. At the same time, the ships 
from Porkala also came back and reported that many Swedish 
small craft were in motion in those waters. Tchitchagov then 

* She carried 26 24-prs. on her main deck, with 14 6-prs. on the forecastle 
and poop. Her main deck was pierced for 30 guns, 
t Premislav 42, Pospyeshnyi 32, Letutchii 28. 
J Boleslav 66, Slava 38, Neva 8. 


decided to occupy a position off Porkala instead of Hango, 
and on June 12th he sent thither, under Captain Sheshukov, 
the Boleslav 66, Premislav 42, Mstislavets 40, Letutchii 28, 
and Neva 8. 

Sheshukov arrived off Porkhala just in time to intercept a 
detachment of seventeen Swedish rowing craft on their way from 
Stockholm to Sveaborg, and these attacked him on June 14th 
and 15th, but were repulsed and forced to retire to Barosund, 
some twenty miles to the west. The Swedish flotilla was 
thus divided into two parts : those vessels that had wintered at 
Sveaborg, and those that had done so at Stockholm. At the 
former port there were in all sixty-two fighting vessels (one 
hemmema, seven turumas, two frigates, three udemas, three 
pojemas, twenty-seven gunboats, and nineteen galleys, &c.), 
besides twenty-four transports, while at Stockholm there were 
fitting out about sixty-five small craft. The first of the Svea- 
borg ships got to sea on May 26th, and by June 21st the 
entire flotilla was assembled in Svensksund or Rochensalm, 
about twelve miles south-west of Fredikshamn. Here they 
remained for some time, while their gunboats entered the 
eastern mouth of the Kymmene River, and interrupted the 
communications of the Russian troops in the delta, finally 
forcing them to withdraw about the middle of July. At the 
same time they sent several vessels into the Gulf of Finland, 
and captured as many as ten Russian storeships. 

Meanwhile the Russian flotilla had been increased to an 
extraordinary extent. In 1788 it had consisted only of the 
few vessels under Slisov, but for 1789 it was to be over 150 
strong. All these ships were built at Petersburg between the 
autumn of 1788 and the spring of 1789, and naturally they 
developed many defects. Still, by June 23rd Prince Nassau- 
Siegen, the new commander-in-chief of the Russian flotilla, 
was able to leave Kronstadt with a force variously stated 
at from forty-seven to seventy-two ships.* On June 27th he 
reached Rodhall, an island in Viborg Bay, and was joined by 
Slisov from Viborg, though with only five galleys of a force 
of twelve ships, since lack of men had prevented the commis- 
sioning of the rest. A few days later he landed 6,000 men 
between Viborg and Fredrikshamn, but soon re-embarked 
them, and finally anchored south of Fredrikshamn on 
July 15th. Two days before this Tchitchagov had left Revel 
with his fleet of twenty battleships, steering towards Karl- 
skrona; but in the meantime there had been a certain amount 
of activity in the Gulf of Finland. Sheshukov had, as has 

* " Materials " XIII. 641 Journal of galley S. Peterburg 47 ships ; " Mate- 
rials " XIII. 636 Journal of shebek Lctutchaya 58 ships ; Golovatchev i. 156, 72 


been said, left Revel for Porkala on June 12th, and on arriving 
there had frustrated the attempts of vessels from Stockholm 
to pass eastwards. This showed the necessity of occupying the 
position at Porkala; but Sheshukov's ships were wanted to 
rejoin Tchitchagov, and it thus became essential to hurry to 
sea some of the ships of the Reserve Squadron to relieve him. 
On June 23rd two battleships and two frigates, the lanuarii 66, 
Evropa 66, Simeon 38, and Patrikii 38, left Kronstadt at the 
same time as Nassau Siegen's flotilla, and joined Tchitchagov 
at Revel on the 27th. On July 3rd Tchitchagov sent them 
under Glebov, of the lanuarii, to relieve Sheshukov at Por- 
kala;* next day they did so, and on the 6th Sheshukov reached 
Revel; but before being relieved he had fought another brisk 
action with the Swedes. This was on July 2nd. Eight 
Swedish vessels attacked the smaller Russian ships between 
Trasko and Porkala. The Russian ships were the Sv. Mark 
(or Evangelist Mark} 20, Letutchii 28, and Neptun 18; the 
Swedish vessels had about thirty guns in all. Naturally the 
Swedes were unsuccessful, and eventually, after about two and 
a half hours' fighting they were forced to retreat, and a small 
battery which they had built was silenced and captured. Oh 
the arrival of Glebov, Sheshukov handed over to him the 
Letutchii, Sv. Mark, and Stchastlivyi, and returned with his 
other ships to Revel. 

It is now necessary to consider the movements of the various 
sailing fleets. Tchitchagov left Revel on July 13th, with 
twenty battleships, six frigates, and nineteen small craft. 
Koslanianov was then at Drager, south of Copenhagen, with 
eleven battleships, four frigates, and three smaller ships, 
supported to some extent by a Danish fleet of eleven battle- 
ships, three frigates, and many other miscellaneous vessels. 
The Swedes, on the other hand, had already left Karlskrona 
with twenty-one battleships, nine large, and four small 
frigates, on July 6th. Probably feeling uncertain as to the 
best course to pursue, Duke Carl spent some days between 
Bornholm and the Danish coast, exercising his crews, and 
occasionally coming in sight of the Russian and Danish ships 
off Drager. On the llth he moved eastward, but continued 
to cruise rather aimlessly backwards and forwards without any 
definite object. At last, on July 24th, he got into touch with 
Tchitchagov's fleet. This was in the evening, and early next 
morning Tchitchagov, in his turn, heard of the approach of 
the Swedes. At nine o'clock in the morning of July 25th a 
Danish cutter joined th Russian fleet, and reported that she 
had sighted the Swedes at dawn thirty-six miles south of 
Oland, and fifty-eight miles north-west of the Russians. Her 
1 * The Simeon was detached to cruise in the Gulf of Finland. 


commander also stated that lie had orders to take any instruc- 
tions to Koslanianov, and Tchitchagov therefore wrote sug- 
gesting Oland as rendezvous. He was then steering north, 
close-hauled on the port tack. At 12.30 p.m. the Swedes were 
sighted to the north-west ; the Russians were then east by south 
of the southern end of Oland, and thiry-six miles distant from 
it. Tchitchagov now formed his fleet into two lines bearing 
N.N.E. and W.S.W. respectively from his flagship. The 
wind was north-west, so that these lines formed the two lines 
of close-hauled sailing, one being in line ahead, and the other 
in a line of bearing on either tack. At present he continued 
to steer N.N.E., while the Swedish fleet gradually approaching 
formed line-of-battle on the port tack. At 5.30 Tchitchagov 
also formed line on the port tack. The wind freshened, and 
Duke Carl, finding he could not use his lower-deck guns, 
decided not to attack until next day. Both fleets hove to on 
the port tack for the night. 

The opposing forces were very well matched. The Russians 
had in line twenty battleships and the Swedes twenty-one 
battleships and eight large frigates.* 

Swede. Dristighet 64, Rdttvisan 62, Zemire 40, Gotha 
Lejon 74, Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotta 64, Louisa Ulrika 74, 
Thetis 40, Manlighet 64, Uppland 44, Omhet 62, Prins Carl 64, 
Galathea 40, Forsightighet 64, Wladislaff 76, Gustaf III. 74, 
Adolf Fredrik 74, Fadernesland 66, Minerva 40, Wasa 
62, Riksens Stdnder 60, Euredice 40, Dygd 64, Grip 44, Ara 64, 
Sophia Magdalena 74, Tapperhet 64, Froja 40, Enighet 74, 
Prins Fredrik Adolf 64. Twenty-nine ships, 1,736 guns. 

Russians. Mstislav 74, Deris 66, Pobyedoslav 74, Dvyen- 
adtsat Apostolov 100, Prints Gustav 74, Vysheslav 66, Boleslav 
66, Kir loann 74, Svyatoslav 66, Rostislav 100, Yaroslav 74, 
Rodislav 66, lezekiil 78, Viktor 66, Sv. Petr 74, Izyaslav 66, 
Knyaz Vladimir 100, Sv. Elena 74, Pamyat Evstafia 66, 
Vseslav 74. Twenty ships, 1,498 guns. Out of line the Swedes 
had two frigates, and the Russians six frigates and two bomb- 

As before, there is isome uncertainty about the exact number 
of guns, but the figures given are probably roughly accurate. It 
will be seen that the Swedes had a superiority in number of ships 
in line of 38 per cent, and in guns of 16 per cent., but as the 
relation of these figures shows their ships were on an average 
much smaller than the Russians, and therefore unable to 
stand the same amount of punishment. In weight of metal 
fired they were also superior, but there can be little doubt that 
the superior size of individual Russian ships was enough to 
counter-balance this advantage. 

* The Camilla 40 was absent from the fleet. 

i 5 

T ' - - - - * T - 

1789. 257 

At dawn on July 26th both fleets were still hove to on the 
port tack. The wind was N.W. and the Swedes about four 
miles to windward. At nine o'clock the wind veered north, 
and at twelve o'clock backed again to W.N.W., but both fleets 
remained on the port tack. The Swedes bore down gradually, 
but got into disorder as they did so. Duke Carl's orders were 
to concentrate on the enemy's Bear and double on its aftermost 
ships, but at the same time he ordered the Yan squadron to 
steer for the head of the Russian line, presumably to prevent 
the leading Russians from going about and coming to the 
help of their rear division. This, of course, made an opening 
in the Swedish line, and at the same time the Rear, under 
Admiral Lilljehorn, deliberately kept to windward and astern 
of its station. It is true that the four rearmost ships tried to 
obey the order to bear away and double on the Russians, but, 
finding that they were unsupported, they had to haul to the 
wind again.* Lilljehorn claimed afterwards that the bad 
sailing of the four leading ships of his divison made it essential 
to keep the rest back in line with them, and pointed out that 
Duke Carl's signal for each squadron commander to take 
charge of his own division made it natural to look on the 
division rather than the fleet as the tactical unit. Be the 
reasons what they may, the fact remains that the Swedish 
Rear and the last two ships of the Centre hardly came into 
action at all. Duke Carl, with the five ships ahead of his 
flagship and his next astern, steered for the enemy's rear, and 
at two o'clock opened fire. Now comes a distinct conflict of 
evidence as to the movements of the Russian fleet ; Gyllengranat 
basing his accounts on Duke Carl's report, states that the 
Russians continually bore away, but Golovatchev, supported 
by the logs of the Russian ships, is equally positive that they 
never bore away from the close hauled line. It seems, how- 
ever, that they must have done so to some extent, since other- 
wise, when the Swedes had once come into range, they could 
never have left it again unless it is assumed that the Russian 
ships were extraordinarily leewardly. It therefore seems 
probable that the Russians must have borne away to some 
extent, especially since it is easy to find reasons for 
Tchitchagov's wanting to postpone a decisive action until after 
his junction with Koslanianov. Assuming, then, that the 
Russians did bear away to some extent, the rest of the battle 
becomes simple enough. At two o'clock the Swedish Centre 
came into action with the leading ships of the Russian Rear, 
but within three-quarters of an hour the range had increased 
so much that the Russians ceased fire. At this moment the 

* There is apparently no truth in the story that they were recalled by signal 
from Lilljehorn (see " Tid. i Sjo." 1908, 86). 


Swedish Van opened fire on the Russian Van and the leading- 
ships of the centre, but these latter soon ceased fire again, 
leaving only the Russian Van in action. Duke Carl then 
brought the Swedish Centre up to join in this action, and at 
about 5.30 the Russian Centre was also engaged. Half an 
hour later the Deris 66 left the Russian line in consequence of 
damage caused by bursting guns, and soon after the Mstislav 74 
lost her fore-topmast and main-top-gallantmast, and was 
accordingly unable to keep to the wind. As before, the 
Russians bore away slightly, and by eight o'clock firing stopped 
on both sides, as the Swedes hauled to the wind and the range 

The action had been little more than a skirmish. On the 
Russian side thirty-four were killed and 176 wounded, but half 
of these (fifteen killed, ninety-two wounded) were in the Deris, 
whose injuries were caused almost entirely by the bursting of 
three guns. The only other ship much damaged was the 
Mstislav, the Russian .leading ship, which was injured aloft, 
and had her captain, Mulovskii, killed, besides eighteen other 
casualties. The Sv. Petr 74, in which guns also burst, lost 
twenty-seven men, but ten ships had no loss at all. These were 
the eighth to thirteenth and the seventeenth to twentieth in 
the line, and these figures show clearly enough the nature of 
the Swedish attack. On the Swedish side the loss was also 
slight, and here again most of the casualties were caused by 
the bursting of a gun in the Dristighet. 

Both fleets stayed hove to on the port tack all night. In 
the morning of the 27th the wind backed somewhat. Tchitcha- 
gov went about to the starboard tack, and Duke Carl, thinking 
an attack on his rear was intended, did the same and bore 
down towards the Russians. As before, Tchitchagov bore 
away, and no action took place. The wind dropped entirely 
during the night, but about eight o'clock on the 28th it sprang 
up from S.E., and soon backing to E.N.E., gave the Russians 
the weather gauge. At first Tchitchagov was on the port tack 
and the Swedes on the starboard, but when the Russians 
tacked in succession and headed north, Duke Carl tacked his 
fleet together and formed line of bearing. At about eleven 
the Russians again tacked in succession, whereupon the Swedish 
fleet went about together to a close-hauled line on the star- 
board tack in the hope of cutting off the Russian rear, but 
seeing that this was impossible they soon reverted to the line 
of bearing. Finally Tchitchagov got to the starboard tack 
again, and Duke Carl did the same; but as soon as darkness 
came on he altered course and steered for Karlskrona to drop 
his sick and pick up fresh men before sailing to attack Kos- 
lanianov, thinking, as he says in his report, that Tchitchagov 

1789. 259 

intended to stay where he was, or even to return to the Gulf 
of Finland. 

It seems doubtful if this was really his idea, at any rate when 
he arrived off Karlskrona in the morning of the 29th and heard 
that Koslanianov was still off Drager he at once proceeded, 
not to Kjoge Bay to attack Koslanianov, but to Bornholm to 
wait for Tchitchagov. Early on June 30th the Eussians were 
sighted to the east. At first the wind was from the north, 
and the Russians had, if anything, the weather position, but 
later it backed to N.W. and put the Swedes to windward. 
Duke Carl kept his fleet in line on the starboard tack all night, 
and began to bear away towards the Russians next morning, 
but Tchitchagov, still anxious to avoid an action, bore away 
also, and nothing happened. At last, seeing that the wind 
was fair for Koslanianov to leave Kjoge Bay, Duke Carl went 
about and steered for Karlskrona, where he arrived at 5 p.m. 
on July 31st. This left the way clear for the junction of 
Koslanianov and Tchitchagov, and this duly took place. On 
July 30th Koslanianov heard from merchantmen of the battle 
of Oland, and at once sailed to join Tchitchagov without 
waiting for the Danes. Next day his advanced ships (the 
Venus and the two cutters) sighted a large fleet near Born- 
holm. The Danish frigate Cronborg informed him that these 
were Swedes, and he therefore steered to clear them; but on 
August 1st he found out his mistake, and that night the two 
fleets joined. By 7 p.m. on August 2nd the combined Russian 
fleet, now consisting of thirty-one battleships, was off Karls- 
krona, and was just in time to prevent the exit of a small 
squadron composed of the battleships Wladislaff 76 and Omhet 
64, the frigates Thetis 40, Minerva 40, and Camilla 40, the 
cutter Folk 12, and the ppjama Disa 16. Tchitchagov, how- 
ever, attempted nothing with his large fleet ; he cruised in the 
neighbourhood of Karlskrona till August 6th, when he was 
driven off by heavy weather, and then decided to return to 
Russia, urging want of water as a pretext. Sailing eastward, 
he cruised at the mouth of the Gulf of Finland till August 
19th, when he anchored south of Nargen. He had, it is true, 
effected the junction with Koslanianov, and had brought the 
combined fleet safely back to Russia, but he had done nothing 
whatever towards defeating and destroying the Swedish fleet. 
His thought all along had been to join Koslanianov first and 
then fight, but it must have been obvious that in face of such 
a superiority the Swedes would retire to Karlskrona and stay 
there. Unquestionably he should have tried to fight a decisive 
action when he had the chance, leaving Koslanianov either to 
turn a, defeat into a victory or to render a victory already 
gained more complete. At the same time Duke Carl lost his 



chance by allowing the Russian fleets to meet without any real 
fighting. Placed as he was between the two fleets it would 
have been easy for him to attack either. Of course the defec- 
tion of Lilljehorn on July 26th upset his plans for that day, 
but there can be little doubt that he might have brought the 
Russians to action during the next few days if he had really 
wished to do so. As it eventually proved, he had lost almost 
the only good chance of success that came in the way of the 
Swedish Navy during this war. 

Simultaneously with the return of Tchitchagov to Nargen, 
where he arrived on August 19th, active operations began on 
the coast of Finland. Here the position was roughly as 
follows : At Fredrikshamn was the Russian flotilla under 
Nassau-Siegen, while the Swedes from Sveaborg were in 
Svensksund, ten miles to the south-west, and those from Stock- 
holm were still unable to get past the Russian ships at Porkala. 
A Russian report of July 12th estimated the total strength of 
the Swedish flotilla at seventy-five vessels with 1,049 guns, 
and the Russian at eighty-two ships and 1,246 guns. At the 
same time there was in theory a sailing ship squadron under 
Kruse acting in the Gulf of Finland. This squadron, however, 
was far from its theoretical strength. As early as June 23rd 
the Evropa 66, lamuarii 66, Simeon 38, and Patrikii 38 had 
sailed for Kronstadt, but these ships had at once been appro- 
priated for the position at Porkala. Later two other battle- 
ships were commissioned, the Ne iron menya 66 and Sv. Nikolai 
100. A third battleship, the Konstantin 74, could only be 
given about a fifth of her proper crew, and was, therefore, 
useless. The squadron was to have contained a number of 
rowing vessels, but at Nassau-Siegen's request these were 
turned over to him. On July 8th the Ne iron menya got to 
sea, and ten days later Kruse followed in the Sv. Nikolai. He 
found the Ne iron menya and Patrikii at Seskar, left them 
there and went on to Revel, where he met the Simeon on 
convoy duty. Here also were two small transports, which he 
armed and sent to sea ; these were the Buivol 14 and Pospieshnii 
10. On July 30th he got to sea again, and by August 7th he 
was off Hogland with the following squadron : 

Sv. Nikolai 100, Ne iron menya 66, Patrikii 38, Simeon 38, 
Buivol 14, Pospyeshnii 10. Bomb-vessels from Kronstadt : 
Perun 24, Grom 14. 

On the 15th he left his battleships, and proceeded in the 
Simeon with the rest of his squadron to the south side of 
Svensksund, where he joined, and took command of, the 
southern detachment of the Russian flotilla. 

The same day there was a skirmish on the north side of 
the Swedish position. Ehrensvard, who under Gustaf III. 

1789. 261 

was in command of all the Swedish galley fleet, sent twenty- 
three vessels* under Major Hjelmstjerna to reconnoitre towards 
Fredrikshamn during the night of August 14th-15th. At dawn 
on the 15th this detachment became engaged with the Russians 
north of Korkiansari, a group of islets about half-way between 
Svensksund and the mouth of Fredrikshamn Bay. Nassau- 
Siegen at once sent Count Litte, his second in command, to 
collect all the smaller vessels and outflank the Swedes. About 
six o'clock the Swedish squadron retreated through the channel 
between the islands and re-formed west of Korkiansari. The 
Russians then advanced, and at the same time their lighter 
vessels rounded the islands towards the flanks of the Swedes. 
Hjelmstjerna, who had been reinforced by six more gunboats, 
retreated slowly to Svensksund, and by 10.30 the action was 
over, with but little loss on either side.t The Swedish account 
states that the Russians had 61 ships in action, but Golovatchev 
only mentions 35. 

There was now a considerable force on either side of the 
Swedes. On July 23rd Nassau-Siegen had sent Winter, with 
eleven of his larger ships, to Aspo, twenty miles south of Fred- 
rikshamn, to join Kruse and attack the Swedes from the south. 
Other vessels from Petersburg joined Winter, and with the 
arrival of Kruse the squadron reached a total of 31 ships.* To 
the north of the Swedes was Nassau-Siegen with about 60 ships, 
while Ehrensvard, the Swedish commander, had 62 fighting 
ships and 24 transports. Nassau-Siegen's plan was that Kruse 
should attack first, and he himself come to his assistance at 
once, but Kruse, supported by the opinion of a council of war, 
urged strongly that the first attack should be delivered by the 
northern squadron. Events proved that he was right, but 
Nassau-Siegen would not hear of such a thing, and wrote to 
the Empress urging Kruse's removal, though meanwhile Kruse 
expressed himself willing to carry out any orders, in spite of 
his disapproval of the plan. He therefore moved northwards 
on August 19th as far as Merenkari, half-way between Aspo 
and Svensksund. On the way the Patrikii 38 went aground. All 
efforts to tow her off failed, and Kruse had to leave the Buivol 
and a cutter to unload her. He spent the next two days in 
sounding and marking the channels, and weighed from Meren- 
kari at 6 a.m. on the 23rd, with a light S.S.E. breeze. He had 
with him 20 vessels, and had arranged their various stations 
and duties with the greatest care, but at eleven o'clock, as he 

* Udemas Ingeborg 11, Oamla 11, Pojama Brynhild 16, half-galley Lopare, 1 
gun-vessel 17, 18 gunboats 6 each. 

t The Russians lost 20 men, the Swedes 11. 

t This figure includes 9 half-shebeks which are not heard of in the subse- 
quent operations. 


approached Svensksund, General Major Balle, from Nassau- 
Siegen's fleet, came on board the Simeon and announced that 
he nad been sent to take over the command. Kruse at once 
left the ship and went to Fredrikshamn ; Balle took the squa- 
dron a little further forward and anchored again about mid- 

The harbour of Svensksund, or Eochensalm, in which the 
Swedes lay, is a space roughly circular, enclosed by a number 
of islands, rocks, and shoals ; through it runs the channel lead- 
ing to Fredrikshamn from the west running in this particular 
section about S.W. and N.E. It is bounded on the north- 
east by a row of small islands stretching from the mainland to 
the large island of Kutsalo and running at right angles to the 
channel which passes south of the larger islands and between 
them and the smaller rocks north-west of Kutsalo. This passage 
is the real Svensksund, but the harbour to the south was 
usually given that name. The islands of Kutsalo and Lach- 
masari form the south-eastern side, while to the north-west lie 
Kotka and Mussala. Between the northern islands and Kotka 
and between Kotka and Mussala run channels leading respec- 
tively to the east and west branches of the river Kymmene. 
The harbour is more or less open to the south-west save for the 
island of Yikari, which lies south of Mussala and west of 
Lachmasari, but half-way between here and Svensksund proper 
there is a rather narrow passage formed by a series of rocks 
which extend from Kotka to the north of Lachmasari. The 
passage here lies between two islets known as Krakskar and 
Sandskar, or Yarisari and Kukuari, and is about half-a-mile 
broad. Besides Svensksund there are three passages through the 
islands on the north-east, but these are only suitable for very 
small craft; they are all north of Svensksund, between it and 
the mainland. 

To defend this position Ehrensvard had the following 

1 frigate, 24 ; 1 hemmema, 26 ; 6 turumas, 48 each ; 1 pojema, 
16; 3 udemas, 11 each; 5 galleys, 14 each; 23 gunboats, 6 each; 
4 bomb-vessels, 5 each; 3 gun-vessels, 17 each; 1 schooner, 14; 
1 half-galley, 6. Forty-nine vessels in all, with 686 guns.* 

The two Russian squadrons were as follows : 

Northern squadron under Nassau-Siegen. 1 shebek, 2 half- 
prams, 2 secret boats, 5 bomb and other cutters, 22 kaiks and 

* Golovatchev, the Russian historian, estimates the Swedish strength at a very 
much higher figure. He puts it at 62 fighting ships, with 783 guns. Apparently 
the figure 62 represents the number of vessels that wintered at Sveaborg, and 
these may not all have been present. I have followed Mankell and Gyllengranat 
for the number of ships and have taken figures for the guns from all available 

1789. 263 

alleys, 34 gun'boats and double sloops. Sixty-six vessels, with 
79 guns.* 

Southern squadron under Balle. One frigate, 38; seven 
shebeks, two 50's, one 46, four 32's ; one " secret boat," 44 ; two 
bombs, 14 each; three cutters, two 28's, one 14; six kaiks and 
double sloops, 8 each. Twenty vessels, with 404 guns.t 

Ehrensvard had decided to deal with Balle first. He had 
accordingly sunk vessels in Svensksund and the passage to the 
north of it to prevent the passage of the Russian ships, and had 
detached two galleys and eleven gunboats to prevent the 
Russians from removing the obstructions and to protect the two 
remaining small channels. The rest of his ships he drew up 
between Krakskar and Sandskar in a curved line concave to- 
wards the south-west. His line was arranged thus: East of 
Krakskar came the twelve gunboats and four mortar vessels 
with their bows to the south. Then came in order, with their 
port broadsides bearing the turumas Lodbrok and Sigurd 
Ormoga, the frigate af Trolle, the udema Gamla, and (bows on) 
the galleys Holland, Stockholm, and Smdland. So far the line 
had run almost due east, but it now began to curve until at 
its left flank behind Sandskar it was running about S.S.E. 
After the galleys came the turumas Ivar Benlos, Bjorn Jern- 
sida (Ehrensvard's flagship), Sallan Vdrre, and Rogvald, the 
hemmema Oden, the udemas Ingeborg and Thorborg, the 
pojama Brynhilda, and finally three gun-vessels (bows on). 

This was the line which Balle had to attack with his 20 ships, 
but there is little doubt that if Nassau-Siegen's squadron had 
reached the scene of action in reasonable time the Russian 
attack would have been quite successful. This is where it 
failed. Nassau-Siegen did not move until ten o'clock, over 
three hours after Balle had begun to advance, and the obstruc- 
tions in Svensksund and the fire of the Swedish gunboats de- 
layed him so much that it was not until seven in the evening 
that his ships entered the harbour, and by that time Balle had 
been beaten and repulsed. 

Balle weighed anchor at 6.30 a.m. and advanced with a 
light southerly breeze. The Pospyeshnii led the way, and was 
followed by the kaiks towing the two bomb-vessels. After these 
came six of the shebeks and the frigate, and, finally, the two 
cutters, one shebek, and the " secret boat." With the excep- 
tion of the Grom, which was to attack the left wing of the 
Swedes, the Russian ships were to take up their positions, one 
after the other, starting from the western end of the Swedish 
line. About 10.30 a.m. the Swedes and the leading Russians 
opened fire. The Russian ships took up their stations as fol- 

* Golovatchev's figures. Mankell gives Nassau-Siegen 78 ships and Balle 26. 


lows : At the western end of the line came the Pospyeshnii, 
Perun, three kaiks, and the shebek Letutchaya. The next ship, 
the Minerva, cast anchor too far out, so the Bystraya, which 
had got in closer, moved forward to a position next to the 
Letutchaya, leaving the Minerva behind the line. This caused 
a certain amount of confusion, since the following ships took 
station, not on the Bystraya, but on the Minerva. The Proser- 
pina, Bellona, Simeon, Diana, and the two cutters Lebed and 
Baklan came between the Minerva and the Grom, which with 
one kaik and two double sloops was at the south-east end of the 
line, leaving the shebek Legkaya and the " secret boat " 
Ostorozhnoe as a reserve. The approach was very slow, and it 
was not until after midday that the Russian line was complete. 
By that time the Pospyeshnii, Perun, Letutchaya, and Bystraya 
were all badly damtigea 1 . The Grom had been aground but had 
been towed off again. About 1.30 the Letutchaya had to leave 
the line, but her place was taken by the Legkaya and 
Ostorozhnoe. At three o'clock the Pospyeshnii signalled for 
help, and was soon followed by the Perun, Bystraya, Legkaya, 
and Ostorozhnoe; the Pospyeshnii and Perun drifted into the 
Swedish line and were captured, but the Legkaya and Ostorozh- 
noe managed to withdraw by hauling on their stern cables. The 
Minerva, Proserpina, and Bellona were damaged and had run 
out of ammunition, and in a word the Russians were beaten. 
Nothing could be done to recover the two captured vessels, but 
Balle managed to withdraw the rest of his fleet, in spite of the 
pursuit of the Swedish gunboats. 

Meanwhile where was Nassau-Siegen? For some reason he 
had not ordered an advance until ten o'clock, when Balle was 
almost engaged. Slisov was first in action with the Russian 
left wing, and attacked the Swedish vessels behind the rocks 
between Svensksund and Kutsalo. He had the greater number 
of the Russian kaiks, galleys, and gunboats, and was supported 
by a battery of three mortars on Kutsalo and four mortar-rafts 
behind that island. The sailing ships were towed into position 
opposite Svensksund, and Litte tried to force a passage through 
the channel north of Svensksund with all the rest of the small 
craft except eight gunboats which were sent to try the 
northernmost passage between Tiutinen and the mainland. 
Slisov's detachment opened fire soon after midday, but it was 
a long time before any impression was made on the Swedish 
defences. Slisov's ships could not get through anywhere south 
of Svensksund, the gunboats on the north were repulsed by the 
Swedish fire, and both Svensksund and the channel north of it 
were blocked by sunken vessels. The Russians set to work to 
remove the obstructions, but under the fire of the Swedish gun- 
boats it was a slow business. One galley, the TsyvUsk, was 


[To face page 264. 

1789. 265 

blown up and others badly damaged. At three o'clock Ehrens- 
vard sent from the Swedish line the turuma Sdllan Vdrre to 
reinforce the gunboats at Svensksund, but she went aground 
and he had to send the hemmema Oden instead. At last, about 
five o'clock Litte got through one of the channels north of 
Svensksund with twelve gunboats, but his galleys could not 
get through and had to go to Svensksund, where a passage was 
finally made at about seven. Meanwhile Litte's gunboats had 
surrounded and captured the Sdllan Vdrre. The Swedish gun- 
boats and galleys retired, and joined their main fleet, and 
Ehrensvard prepared to meet this second enemy, but he was 
short of ammunition, and in face of a force of as many as fifty- 
four of the Russian ships from Svensksund he had to retreat. 

By this time Balle had been out of action for some time. He 
had, in fact, got away from the Swedish gunboats by about six, 
and had found a defensive line between Yikari and Lachma- 
sari with the Simeon and the less-damaged vessels to the west 
and the disabled ships to the east. As the Swedes retreated, 
Balle's westernmost ships opened fire, though with little effect, 
but the pursuing Russian flotilla was more successful. The 
Swedish frigate af Trolle went aground and was taken, the 
Perun and Pospyeshnii were recaptured, the turuma Rogvald 
and the hemmema Oden surrendered at about 10 p.m., and 
finally the pursuers came up with the turuma Bjorn Jernsida 
about midnight. She managed to blow up one of the Russian 
gunboats, but had to surrender after an hour's action. This 
ended the battle, and the rest of the Swedish fleet proceeded 
safely to Svarthplm, a fortress south of the town of Louisa and 
some twenty miles west of Svensksund. They had lost alto- 
gether eight fighting ships three turumas, Sdllan Vdrre, Rog- 
vald, and Bjorn Jernsida (48 each) ; one frigate, af Trolle 24 ; 
one hemmema, Oden 26 ; one galley, Cederkreuts 14 ; with one 
gunboat 6 captured and another gunboat 6 sunk. They had also 
lost sixteen other vessels ; fourteen transports burnt to prevent 
their capture, and two hospital ships taken. The Russians had 
one galley, Tsyvilsk, and one gunboat blown up, besides a number 
of small vessels very badly damaged. In men the losses were 
more equal. The Swedes lost in killed, wounded, and priso- 
ners 1,345 to the Russians' 1,035, but 500 of the Swedish pri- 
soners were sick taken in the hospital ship, so that their 
actual loss in the battle was 845 only. The Russian historian 
Golovatchev expresses doubts as to these figures, and argues 
that as the Russians took 1,137 prisoners this only leaves just 
over 200 for killed and wounded. This, however, seems quite 
a reasonable figure. Balle's squadron, which was subjected to 
a tremendous concentrated fire for seven hours, only lost 359 
men, and it is certain that none of the Swedish ships save those 
captured were ever exposed to such a fire. 


It is difficult to know how to describe this battle. Up to six 
o'clock it was undoubtedly a Swedish victory, and even in their 
retreat the Swedes only lost a sixth of their strength. Pre- 
sumably the whole day's work must be considered a Russian 
victory, but by no means a decisive one. Through Nassau- 
Siegen's delay Balle's squadron had been so much damaged as 
to be of little use for any further operations. There was 
apparently no excuse for this delay; Kruse and his council of 
war had urged Nassau-Siegen to attack first, and he had re- 
fused; he had also failed to recognise the possibility of block- 
ing Svensksund, and as a result had left Balle to face the entire 
Swedish force. On the side of the Swedes either Ehrensvard 
or Gustaf III. had made the fatal error of delaying the retreat 
for too long. Had it not been for want of ammunition it would 
have been possible for them after disposing of Balle to move 
northwards and attack Nassau-Siegen as he came through 
Svensksund, but without sufficient powder and shot the only 
reasonable thing to do was to retreat directly after Balle had 
left the way clear for them to do so. Altogether, both sides 
had much to be proud of, but both had also much to regret in 
the day's fighting. 

The retreat of the Swedes made it possible for the Russian 
flotilla to co-operate with the army in an attack on the Swedish 
forces in Finland. With this object Nassau-Siegen prepared 
a landing-force of 5,000 men, and on September 1st tried, with 
eighteen galleys and kaiks, to land at Broby, between the two 
branches of the river Kymmene, while at the same time he 
entered the eastern mouth of the river with twelve gunboats 
and attacked Suttula. The attacks were unsuccessful, but the 
possibility of landings in its rear compelled the Swedish army 
to retreat as far as Abborfors, on the western branch of the 
Kymmene, where it could be supported by the flotilla at Svart- 
holm, only ten miles away. Nassau-Siegen reconnoitred the 
Swedish position at Abborfors, but found the fortifications too 
strong to allow him to attempt anything. After this the 
Russian flotilla did little or nothing, and in October it retired 
to winter quarters at Fredrikshamn and Viborg. The Swedes 
did no more than the Russians; they lay for some weeks at 
Svartholm, where they were joined by four armed merchant- 
men from Helsin^fors, and on September 23rd they took up a 
position near Pellinge, half-way between Svartholm and Svea- 
borg, but the Russians made no attack and the Swedes soon 
withdrew to Sveaborg for the winter. 

The only other fighting of 1789 arose as a result of the 
Russian occupation of the position off Porkala, but, besides 
this, the various Russian squadrons showed some little activity. 

1789. 267 

The Swedes had collected in Barosund a small squadron of 
vessels from Stockholm, and between this and the Russian 
Porkala detachment there was a certain amount of fighting. 
Rayalin, the Swedish commander, tried on July 31st to attack 
the Russian battery on the point at Porkala, but was prevented 
by head winds. On August 21st the Sv. Mark 20 and Letutchii 
28 attacked two Swedish storeships near Porkala, but were 
driven off by two gunboats and two smaller boats. On the 26th 
Rayalin made another unsuccessful attack on the Russian 
battery ; three galleys and two gun-vessels passed the headland 
and engaged the Russian squadron of two battleships, one 
frigate, and two cutters, while four galleys and some gunboats 
attacked the battery. The Russians were too strong, and 
Rayalin had to retreat. Tchitchagov's withdrawal from Karls- 
krona left the way open for the Swedish sailing fleet to put to 
sea. The object of the detachment which the Russians had 
intercepted at the beginning of the month had been to attack 
the ships at Porkala, and on August 25th Fust, the Swedish 
captain in charge, got to sea. Another battleship had been 
added to his force, so that he now had the three battleships 
Wladislaff 76, Omhet 64, and Rattvisan 62; three 40-gun 
frigates, Thetis, Minerva, and Camilla; and some small craft. 
On September 4th he was off Hango, and the same day the 
Russian squadron at Porkala was joined by the Rodislav 66, 
bringing its strength up to three 66-gun battleships Evropa, 
lanuarii, and Rodislav, with the Sv. Mark 20 and Letutchii 28. 
On the 6th the Swedes reached Barosund, but here they sighted 
the masts of a large fleet towards Revel, and at once decided to 
return; on September 15th they were back at Karlskrona. The 
masts which they had seen were, in fact, those of Tchitcha- 
gov's fleet, which had just left Revel to cruise in the Gulf of 
Finland. This cruise lasted till October 21st, but nothing of 
interest took place, and Tchitchagov was never in command of 
his full fleet. At first he left at Revel the No. 8 74, No. 9 74, 
and Deris 66. On September 10th and llth three of his ships, 
the Syevernyi Orel 66, Panteleimon 66, and Aleksandr Nevskii 
74, arrived at Porkala, while three others, the Metcheslav 66, 
Svyatoslav 66. and Pamyat Evstafia 66, were detached to 
IsTargen. On September 10th Kruse, who had returned to the 
Sv. Nikolai 100, reached Revel with that ship, and the Ne iron 
menya 66. On September 21st he was off Nargen, and took 
charge of the three last-named of Tchitchagov's ships. On 
October 12th the Vseslav 74 and Yaroslav 74 arrived from 
Tchitchagov's fleet, and on the 21st the rest of that fleet entered 
the Revel harbour. 

Meanwhile, on September 16th, all the Russian ships at 
Porkala except the two battleships Evropa and lanuarii had 


proceeded to Barosund, and on the 18th they attacked the 
Swedish flotilla there. On the Russian side were eight ships, 
with 374 guns, the Aleksandr Nevskii 74, Rodislav 66, 
Syevernyi Orel 66, Panteleimon 66, Vryachislav 46, Sv. Mark 
20, Letutchii 28, and Stchastlivyi 8 ; on the Swedish 1 turuma, 
5 galleys, and 2 gun-vessels, with 152 guns, besides batteries 
on either side of the channel.* After an hour's action the 
Swedes retreated, with the loss of one galley, which ran 
aground and had to be burnt. The Russians pursued, and the 
Syevernyi Orel 66 ran aground on Jakobs Ramso, north of the 
channel. All attempts to refloat her proved in vain, and 
eventually, after the removal of her guns and stores, she was 
burnt. The Swedes retreated towards the mainland at Ingo 
and Bastubacka, lying respectively north and north-west of 
their former position. Those in Ingofjard were attacked on 
the 19th by two of the smaller Russian vessels, but managed 
to repulse them. The Russians then attempted landings be- 
tween Ingo and Bastubacka, but were unsuccessful in each 
case.t They also built a battery on Elgso, the island south of 
the channel, but this was captured by the Swedish troops from 
the mainland in a surprise attack in the early morning of Sep- 
tember 30th, and thenceforth became part of the Swedish 
scheme of defence. At last, on October 23rd, a number of 
Swedish gunboats reached Barosund from the west, and the 
next day the Russian squadron abandoned its positions both at 
Barosund and Porkala. On the 26th, off Nargen, three ships, 
the Aleksandr Nevskii 74, Rodislav 66, and Gavriil 38, ran 
aground; the first and last named were refloated, but the 
Rodislav had to be burnt. Ravalin took the Swedish flotilla to 
Helsingfors for the winter on October 27th. 

A little before this the Swedish fleet in Karlskrona had been 
to sea again. On October 14th it left the harbour 21 battle- 
ships strong, and cruised for a week in the Southern Baltic, 
but returned on the 21st with nothing accomplished. At the 
same time the Russian fleet was laid up for the winter. On 
October 22nd Kruse left Revel for Kronstadt with nine battle- 
ships, and on the 28th Koslanianov followed with eight more. 
Six other battleships were also sent to Kronstadt, and Tchit- 
chagov at Revel was left with only ten battleships, six frigates, 
and various small craft. Koslanianov' s detachment was over- 
taken by a gale on its way to Kronstadt and had to anchor off 
Rodskar, south-west of Hogland, on the 29th. It weighed 
anchor next morning, and reached Kronstadt in safety, but 
the Vysheslav 66 was unable to weather the island, and had to 

* Russian accounts put the Swedish force at 15 galleys, 1 half-galley, 20 gun- 
boats, and 30 armed boats. 

t They were reinforced to a strength of 3 battleships, 5 frigates, 2 bomb- 
vessels, and 6 cutters 

1789. 269 

remain at anchor. Her stern had already struck the rocks, and 
on the wind shifting from south-west to west she struck again 
and disabled her rudder. On the 30th the wind went round 
to north-west; she got under way, and anchored again, three 
miles from Rodskar. The wind, however, went back to south- 
west, the ship first dragged her anchors, and finally lost them 
one after another, and on November 4th, having already sent 
part of his crew to Hogland and having lost his last anchor, 
Captain Teziger abandoned the ship with the rest of the officers 
and men and proceeded to Kronstadt in the boats. Later in 
the year the Swedes also lost a ship by the accidental burning 
of the Minerva 40 at Karlskrona on December 6th.* 

On shore the year 1789 had been as indecisive as the previous 
year. The Swedes had advanced as far as Hogfors, on the 
eastern branch of the Kymmene, but after the battle of Svensk- 
sund they had been forced to retreat again to Abborfors, on the 
western branch, leaving the position as it had been before the 
opening of the year's fighting, t At sea, too, the position was 
little changed. Since the beginning of the war the Swedes 
had lost two battleships and the Eussians four, while each had 
captured one battleship from the enemy. Two fleet actions 
had been fought without result, and it seemed as if the numeri- 
cal superiority of the Russians was of little use to them. Their 
coast-flotilla had certainly won a victory, but had gained little 
in doing so, and the fact that a considerable part of the Stock- 
holm flotilla wintered this year in Helsingfors might well 
enable the Swedes to gain an advantage in this direction next 
year. Swedish prospects for 1790 looked therefore brighter 
than before. Peace had been definitely signed with Denmark, 
and, furthermore, the people of Sweden and Finland were now 
united as to the justice of the war. It therefore seemed reason- 
able to expect greater success than had been achieved up to 
now, and with this object every possible ship was commis- 
sioned. All the 25 available battleships were prepared 24 in 
Karlskrona and one, the Fredrik Rex 60, in Finland. The 
eight large frigates at Karlskrona were also fitted out, and the 
two at Gothenburg, the Bellona and Diana, sent round to 
Karlskrona, while an East Indiaman, Louisa Ulrika, was taken 
over in Gothenburg and armed with 50 guns to take their place. 
In all, the Baltic fleet was to consist of 25 battleships, 10 large 
frigates, 5 smaller frigates, and 14 small craft, while in 
Gothenburg there were to be 1 large armed merchantman, 

* They also lost the Orn cutter wrecked outside Karlskrona, while in August 
the Russian cutter Delfin had been wrecked on Bornholm. 

t Both sides had a few small-craft on Lake Saima, the biggest of the Finnish 
lakes, and on September 7th an action took place near Nyslott between twelve 
Swedish armed vessels and six Russian gunboats, in which four of the Swedes 
were captured. 


I frigate, and 2 smaller vessels. Against this the Russians 
proposed to put 29 battleships in three squadrons 10 at Revel, 

II in the active fleet at Kronstadt, and 9 in the Reserve.* As 
regards the flotillas, both countries made great efforts, so that 
for 1790 the Swedes had a paper strength of as many as 349 
vessels, and the Russians 201. 

This year the Swedes made full use of their geographical 
situation, and both with their sailing fleet and their flotilla 
they were ready before the Russians. Gustaf III. intended to 
do everything possible to advance and capture Petersburg, and 
for this the support of fleet and flotilla on the army's right flank 
was essential. As early as March 4th three ships left Karls- 
krona. They were the Jarramas 32, Vila Fersen 18, and Husar 
18, and their object was a surprise attack on the harbour of 
Rager Yik. They were joined on the way by the Kossack 10, 
but the two smaller vessels were left behind, and the attack 
was executed after a visit to Hango by the two first-named 
ships alone. They entered the port on March 17th, opened 
fire, landed 110 men, and were soon masters of the fort. All 
the stores in the town were destroyed, the guns of the fort 
spiked, a ransom of 4,000 roubles extorted, and the two frigates 
left again the same day. On the 26th they were back at 
Karlskrona. Other vessels at sea were the Thetis 42, Camilla 
42, Illerim 32, Hector 26, and the small craft Hook and Louisa 
Ulrika. On April 30th the Swedish fleet left Karlskrona. It 
consisted of 22 battleships, 12 frigates, and 13 other vessels. 
As before, Duke Carl was in command, with Admiral Modeo 
and Colonel Lejonankar as his subordinates. The idea was to 
attack and destroy the Russian ships at Revel before they could 
be joined by the ships from Kronstadt. Favoured by a steady 
easterly breeze, the fleet made good progress, and on May 12th 
it was off Rager Vik. In the meantime the Russians, alarmed 
by the Swedish attack at Rager Vik, had been making every 
effort to get ready the Revel fleet. The ice broke up on March 
27th, and various small craft were sent out cruising in the first 
days of April. Tchitchagov arrived on April 20th, and on the 
27th the fleet began to leave the dockyard for the outer harbour. 
On May 9th and 10th Tchitchagov sent out on scouting duty 
the battleship Kir loann 74, the frigates Premislav 42, and 
Podrazhislav 38, and the cutter Stchastlivyi 8. On the llth 
the Swedes were sighted along the coast to the west, and early 
next morning Tchitchagov put his ships in a line running N.E. 
and S.W. across the harbour. During the night of the 
12th/13th the wind dropped, but sprang up in the morning 

* They also commissioned 13 frigates, 5 of which were of 40 guns or more, but 
these were not intended, like the corresponding Swedish vessels, for use in the 
line of battle. 

1790. 271 

from the west and rapidly freshened. The Swedes were sighted 
at dawn beyond Nargen, hove to on the port tack, and 
Tchitchagov at once recalled his cruisers. His fleet was in 
three lines running N.E. from the wall of the harbour, in the 
following order : 

First line. Kir loann 74, Mstislav 74, Venus 44, Sv. Elena 
74, Izyaslav 66, Yaroslav 74, Rostislav 100, Pobyedonosets 66, 
Boleslav 66, Saratov 100, Prochor (ex No. 75) 66. 

Second line. Pobyeditel (bomb) 18, Premislav 42, Podraz- 
hislav 38, Slava 38, Nadezhda Blagopolutchia 38, Strashni 
(bomb) 14. 

Third line (order unknown). Merkurii 29, Neptun, Stchast- 
livyi 8, Letufchii 28, Vyestnik, Lebed 28, Volchov 8, Olen. 

The first line thus contained ten battleships and one frigate, 
with 804 guns, and the second two bombs and four frigates, 
with 188 guns. 

Against this Duke Carl brought a fleet of 21 battleships and 
6 larger frigates, having left the Zemire 42 at Hango and the 
Manlighet 64 and Thetis 42 cruising in the Gulf of Finland. 

The following list gives the order in which his fleet sailed : 

Dristighet 64, Tapperhet 64, Riksens Stdnder 60, Camilla 
42, Dygd 64, Adolf Fredrik 70, Froja 42, Gotha Lejon 70, 
Euredice 42, Ara 64, Fredrik Adolf 62, Fddernesland 64, 
Galatea 42, Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotta 64, Wladislaff 74, 
Forsigtighet 64, Gustaf III. 74, Louisa Ulrika 70, Prins Carl 
64, Sophia Magdalena 74, Omhet 62, Rattvisa 62, Wasa 64, 
Enighet 70, Uppland 44, 6rrip 44. 26 ships, with 1,580 guns. 

With such a superiority in strength a complete victory was 
to be expected, but instead the Swedish fleet suffered a defeat. 
For this its tactics were responsible, and Duke Carl and his 
chief of staff, Nordenskjold, have been severely blamed for the 
manner in which the attack was conducted. The method of 
attack employed was for one ship after another to run along 
the Russian line from end to end and then haul to the wind 
and withdraw. It was, in fact, the attack delivered by the 
French fleet on the English at St. Cristopher in y 1782, as 
opposed to that of Nelson at Aboukir Bay in 1798. However, 
the recent discovery of Duke Carl's orders shows that the attack 
as originally planned would have been far more like Nelson's. 
These orders lay down " doubling " on the Russian ships to the 
extent of two or three to one, boarding, and anchoring if neces- 
sary, and, besides this, three divisions of three frigates each 
were to endeavour to take the Russian line in flank from either 
end, while the other two frigates, Grip and Uppland, were to 
deal with the Russian ships near Nargen. There can be little 
doubt that the execution of these orders would have given 
success, but the weather prevented this. The wind got up to 


such an extent that all manoeuvres became difficult ; a delicate 
piece of work such as bringing two or three ships against one 
would have been quite impossible, and the only available 
method was that of running past in line-ahead. Here it is 
right to blame Duke Carl or Nordenskjold, not for the plan 
they had prepared, but for persisting with the attack when that 
plan was impossible instead of waiting for a more favourable 

The Swedes approached rapidly in line ahead, but about 
half-past six their second ship, the Tapperhet 64, went hard 
aground on the Ragnild shoal north of Nargen. This threw 
their fleet into some confusion, but it soon recovered, and by 
eight o'clock it passed between Nargen and Wulf Island, and 
thus entered Revel Bay. The wind was rising all the time, 
and many of the Swedes began to shorten sail. At 10.15 the 
Dristighet 64 came into action. She came down on the star- 
board tack, wore ship, and steered for the Izyaslav 66, the fifth 
ship in the Russian line. From here she ran along the line 
firing, but at long range, and finally hauled to the wind and 
withdrew, without causing or suffering any considerable 
damage. The next three ships did much the same, but the 
fifth, the Adolf Fredrik 70, Modee's flagship, steered for the 
Venus 44 and then kept much closer to the Russian line. Her 
fire was not very effective, but she was considerably damaged 
herself and lost her maintopmast, her foretopsail yard, and her 
crojack yard, besides having 45 men killed and wounded. The 
next nine ships kept at a fairly long range, but the Forsigtighet 
64 and the Gustaf III. 74 bom approached closer. The former 
got away with the loss of her mizzen-top-gallant-mast, but the 
Gustaf III. suffered more severely. Her rudder was damaged, 
and a lucky shot jambed the fore brace so that the foretopsail 
was taken aback and she drifted, stern on, towards the Russian 
line, but she was got under control again and went off in safety. 
It was now a little after midday. The next ship did not come 
so close, but the Prins Carl 64 and Sophia Magdalena 74, which 
came into short range, suffered very severely. The Prins Carl 
lost her main and f oretopmasts ; she tried to set her courses, 
but they were also injured, and she was unable to get away. 
She therefore anchored, and surrendered, after being in action 
for ten minutes. The Sophia Magdalena lost her foretopmast 
but was covered to some extent by the Prins Carl, and escaped. 
As the Omhet 62 approached the Russian line Duke Carl sig- 
nalled from the frigate Ulla Fersen to abandon the action. The 
Omhet therefore, and the ships astern of her, wore at once to 
the port tack and went off northwards, without coming into 
action. Firing ended at about one o'clock. On the way out 
of the bay the Riksens Stdnder 60 went aground north of Wulf 
Island. She could not be moved, and was finally burnt, but 


[To face page 272. 

1790. 273 

the Tapperhet 64 was refloated on the 15th after jettisoning 42 
of her guns. As a result of the action the Swedish fleet had 
thus lost two ships, the Prins Carl 64 and Riksens Stander 60, 
and several other ships were badly damaged. ^ In personnel it 
lost 51 killed and 81 wounded, while the Eussian loss was only 
8 killed and 27 wounded. 

The Swedish rowing fleet was also at sea early. On May 8th 
some 70 gunboats had left Sveaborg and begun to work east- 
wards to attack Fredrikshamn. On the llth, at Pellinge, Gustaf 
III. joined the flotilla and took command. Next day he moved 
to Orrengrund, south of Louisa, and here he was joined on the 
13th by the galleys and larger vessels from Sveaborg. On the 
14th he passed Svensksund and anchored just north of Korkian- 
sari, about five miles from Fredrikshamn. The Russian flotilla 
here had a theoretical strength of 89 ships, but some of these 
were not yet launched, and only about 70 ships were anything 
like ready. The town and its forts were almost destitute of 
troops, and the only possible protection against the Swedish 
landing was the rowing fleet. The three biggest vessels of this 
division of the Russian flotilla were the two " half-prams " 
Leopard 28 and Bars 26, with the captured turuma (or shebek) 
Sallan Vdrre 48. These had been sent by Nassau-Siegen to 
winter at Fredrikshamn, but had had to be kept outside the 
harbour, and were therefore stationed well to the south as the 
outposts of the Eussian position. At 5 p.m. on May 14th 
Slisov, the Eussian commander, heard from the Bars of the 
approach of the Swedes. He at once recalled the three larger 
vessels to a position nearer Fredrikshamn and more suitable 
for defence, and hurried to get the rest of his flotilla out of 
harbour to join them. The position that he chose was between 
Hillnas and Willnas, {he two promontories forming the mouth 
of Fredrikshamn Gulf ; in spite of his lack of men and in spite 
of a head wind, he got his ships into a line across the channel, 
and by 10 p.m. he was ready for action. The Swedes might 
very well have attacked in the evening of the 14th, but Gustaf 
III. saw fit to put off his attack till next day, and thus gave 
the Eussians time to get ready. 

The opposing forces were now as follows : Slisov had sixty- 
three ships : one turuma (or shebek), two half-prams, sixteen 
kaiks, ten double sloops, and thirty-one gunboats,* carrying a 
total of 408 guns and 2,205 men. The Swedes had been joined 
on the 14th by some of the vessels from Stockholm, and had 
now apparently one turuma, two udemas, several smaller 
sailing vessels, eight bomb-vessels, twenty galleys, and about 

* Kaiks, double sloops, and gunboats proper were often classed together 
as " gunboats." 


seventy gunboats,* besides a number of storeships and trans- 
ports. Their fighting ships were, therefore, about 110 in 
number, and carried about 1,000 guns and 10,000 men, a force 
roughly two or three times that of the Russians. 

It was, however, plainly Slisov's duty to delay the Swedes 
at any cost, to give time for the arrival of Russian troops, and 
this he did most effectively. Between 3.30 and 4 o'clock in the 
morning of May 15th the Swedes were close enough to open 
fire. They advanced in three bodies, the big vessels and galleys 
in the centre and gunboats on either side. The right wing of 
the Swedish force had to go east of the island of Lilla Swartan 
to reach its position; but the other two divisions advanced 
direct. The Russians held their fire until the enemy were 
quite close, and then opened fire with great effect. For three 
hours the fight went on ; but at last the Russians' ammunition 
ran short, and Slisov ordered a retreat. The three larger ships 
were abandoned and taken by the Swedes, as were also seven 
smaller craft, while six vessels were sunk and ten burnt to 
prevent their capture. The Russians lost 242 men in all (sixty- 
five killed, twenty-seven wounded, and 150 captured). The 
Swedes had one gunboat sunk, thirty men killed, and thirty 

Gustaf III. failed to follow up his success at once, and the 
Russians had time to get their ships into comparative safety 
under the guns of the forts. It was not until well on in the 
afternoon that the Swedish gunboats advanced and bombarded 
the town and the fortifications. They were received with a 
heavy fire, and after three hours' fighting they retired. Late 
in the afternoon a regiment of Russian troops arrived, and the 
Swedes' chance of an easy success vanished. During the night 
of the 16th-17th, and again on the 18th Gustaf III. tried to 
land his troops at three separate points near the mouth of the 
river Kymmene, but the Swedish army failed to co-operate, 
and the landing forces were repulsed with heavy losses. The 
Swedish flotilla had retired to Svensksund, and from here a 
detachment was sent on the 19th to make a final attack on 
the Russian ships in Fredrikshamn. Captain Virgin, the 
Swedish commander, had a force of eighteen gunboats, seven 
bomb-vessels, and one boat, and with these he opened fire on 
the Russian position at 3.30 a.m. on May 20th. Slisov had 
protected his ships by blocking the channel, and after some 
three hours' fighting Virgin had to withdraw with nothing 
accomplished. Five days later the Swedish rowing vessels 
moved to Pitkopas, about half-way between Fredrikshamn and 
Viborg Bay, and here they stayed till June 2nd, when they 

* These are only approximate figures. Slisov estimated the Swedish force at 
19 galleys, 15 big and 30 small sailing vessels, 10 bombs, and 80 gunboats, etc. 
Mankell puts it as 20 galleys, 70 gunboats, and " several " turumas, udeman, 
and bombs. Golovatchev's figures are certainly exaggerated. 

1790. 275 

crossed the mouth of Viborg Bay and took up a position in 
Bjorko Sund, its eastern approach. While at Pitkopas 
Gustaf III. carried out two successful landings : the first, on 
May 27th, was effected by about twenty gunboats and 200 
troops at Pytterlaks, in the bay north of Pitkopas, and 
resulted in the destruction of nineteen heavy Russian guns 
intended for the flotilla; the second was carried out on the 
same day, with a similar force, against a Russian depot on 
the Fredrikshamn- Viborg road, and was equally successful. 

The Swedish battleship fleet had been forced to remain 
near Revel for some days, to repair the damages which it had 
suffered in the action of May 13th. On the 21st two battle- 
ships and a frigate arrived from Karlskrona. ^ These were the 
Hertig Ferdinand 62, Finland 56, and Illerim 32, and their 
arrival brought the fleet back to its original strength. Duke 
Carl was now ordered to move eastwards to protect the right 
flank of the galley fleet. On May 24th he left the mouth of 
Revel Bay, and on the 26th he anchored a few miles east of 

At the same time the Russian Kronstadt fleet had got to 
sea. The original arrangement had been that two squadrons 
should be got ready at Kronstadt, one of eleven battleships to 
join Tchitchagov at Revel, and a second of eight battleships 
as a reserve. These plans were, however, modified by the 
unexpected approach of the Swedish fleet. The position of 
affairs was such that the success or failure of the Swedish 
advance on Petersburg depended to a great extent on the 
Russian sailing fleet. The sailing fleet which was master of 
the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland would be able to 
support its own coast flotilla, and would thus be in a position 
to decide the movements of the armies ashore. This being 
the case, it became essential to prevent the advance of the 
Swedish battleships, and to keep them in check until the 
arrival of the Russian ships from Revel should enable a 
superior force to be brought against the enemy. On May 15th 
news reached Petersburg of the Swedish attack on Revel, and 
it was at once decided that the reserve squadron should be in- 
corporated with the active fleet, and sent out under Vice- 
Admiral Kruse to protect the approaches to Kronstadt. The 
eleven battleships of the active fleet were ready for sea, but 
only six of the eight reserve battleships were as yet ready to 
join them, and, accordingly, Kruse's strength consisted for the 
moment of only seventeen battleships. With this fleet he left 
Kronstadt on May 23rd, but there was very little wind, and 
his progress westward was very slow. On the 26th, the day 
on which the Swedes anchored near Hogland, Kruse was at 
anchor just west of Tolbukin, about fifteen miles west of 



Kronstadt, and the two fleets were, therefore, about seventy 
miles apart. On the 31st the Swedish fleet appeared off 
Pitkopas, while the Russians were between Styrsudden and 
Dolgoi Nos, fhe two capes that mark the entrance to the 
easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland. That evening 
Brigadier Denisov joined the Russian fleet with a valuable 
reinforcement in the shape of eight newly-built " rowing 
frigates " of thirty-eight guns each. At the same time each 
fleet heard of the other's approach, and early on June 1st they 
were in sight of one another. All through that day and the next 
they worked slowly towards one anotner, with very light and 
variable breezes, and at last, about 3 a.m. on June 3rd a breeze 
sprang up from E.S.E., and enabled the Russians to attack. 
They were then some four miles south of Styrsudden, and 
directly to windward of the Swedes. Both fleets formed line 
on the starboard tack, but the Swedes, contrary to their usual 
custom, only put into line two of their bitr frigates, leaving 
the six others to act as a reserve, and the Russians formed a 
similar division, composed of their four sailing frigates and 
five of the rowing frigates. 

The two lines of battle were as follows : 

Swedes : Dristighet 64, Tapperhet 64, Finland 56, Dygd 64, 
Adolf Fredrik 70, Gdtha Lejon 70, Ara 64, Grip 44, Fredrik 
Adolf 62, Hedv. Elis. Charlotta 64, Fadernesland 64, Wladis- 
laff 74, Gustaf III. 74, Forsigtighet 64, Louisa Ulrika 70, 
Hertig Ferdinand 62, Uppland 44, Manlighet 64, Omhet 62, 
Sophia Magdalena 74, Rdttvisa 62, Wasa 64, Enighet 70. 
Twenty-three ships, 1,470 guns. Frigate division of six ships 
with 252 guns. 

Russians : loann Bogoslov 74, Pobyedoslav 74, Dvyenadtsat 
Apostolov 100, Ne iron menya 66, Panteleimon 66, Vseslav 74, 
Knyaz Vladimir 100, lezekiil 78, loann Krestitel 100, Prints 
Gu'stav 70, Sv. Nikolai 100, lanuarii 66, Sysoi Velikii 74, 
Amerika 66, Trech lerarchov 100, Konstantin 74, Sv. Petr 74. 
Seventeen ships, 1,256 guns. Frigate division of nine ships 
with 358 guns. 

The fleets were thus pretty much on an equality, though 
such advantage as there was rested with the Swedes. 

As nearly always occurred in actions fought in formal line 
of battle, the Van squadrons came into action first. At about 
3.30 a.m. on June 3rd the leading Russian ships opened fire, 
but the action was not general for another hour or more. 
The Russian line was not well kept, and the Ne iron menya 66, 
Panteleimon 66, Sysoi Velikii 74, Amerika 66, and Konstantin 
74 were noticeably behind the rest of their fleet. The Swedish 
frigates came up and took positions in the intervals of their 
line, while Denisov, with the Russian frigate division, went 

""Z -* 

1790. 277 

to help the Van squadron, and fired through its gaps. His 
shots in several cases struck Russian ships, and Suehotin, the 
commander of the Russian Van, ordered him to cease fire, so 
he moved to the extreme northern end of the line, and stationed 
his ships as a continuation of the fleet in that direction. The 
Swedish line was, of course, longer than the Russian, but 
Rear-Admiral Povalishin, in the Trech lerarchov, had taken 
up his position by the Swedish fleet, and not by his own line. 
This left a gap in front of his flagship, and it would have 
been possible for the Swedes to tack and cut off the three after- 
most Russians, but Duke Carl, who was, as usual, in the 
frigate Ulla Fersen 18, failed to notice his opportunity, and 
the chance was lost. After some two hours of close action the 
Swedish Van began to bear away, and at last, about eight 
o'clock their whole fleet bore up and wore to the port tack. 
This ended the action. Kruse signalled to his fleet to tack, 
and got his ships into some sort of a line steering south, but 
there was very little wind, and both fleets were more or less in 
disorder. Presently a breeze sprang up from the west, and 
put the Swedes to windward, but for the moment they made 
no attack. Both fleets had suffered considerably, but so far 
the action had been quite indecisive. The Russians in par- 
ticular had suffered from the bursting of their own guns, and 
on both sides several ships had lost top-gallant-masts and other 

Twenty or more Swedish gunboats were sent from Bjorko 
Sund to join in the action, and about ten o'clock they attacked 
the two northernmost Russian battleships, loann Bogoslov 74 
and Pobyedoslov 74. Denisov, with the frigates, was at once 
ordered to chase off this new enemy, and by eleven o'clock 
three of his rowing frigates were in range. At the same time 
the Swedish frigates approached to support their flotilla, but 
the wind freshened, and this, besides raising the sea, took the 
sailing fleets steadily away from Bjorko Sund, and accordingly 
the Swedish small craft returned to their main body without 
effecting much. Shortly afterwards the loann Bogoslov left 
the line, and in spite of Kruise's signals her captain, Odintsov, 
proceeded to Kronstadt to replace his mizzen-topmast and fore- 
top-gallant-mast. At one o'clock or a little later the Swedish 
fleet bore down to the attack. Firing was heaviest in the 
Van and Centre, but the two fleets never really closed, and 
by three o'clock the action was suspended. Swedish accounts 
say that the Russians bore away, and the Russians deny this, 
but presumably they must have done so to some extent. The 
Swedes wore to the port tack about four o'clock, and a little 
later the Russians tacked and reformed their line on the same 
tack. What win/1 there was was now about north-west, and 


the two lines headed in consequence N.N.E. The Russian 
Sysoi Velikii 74 had to leave the line owing to the damage 
done by bursting guns, but stayed by the fleet. Just after five 
the Swedes bore down again on the Russian line. The retire- 
ment of the Sysoi Velikii had left a gap between the southern- 
most Russian ships and the rest of their fleet, and while the 
Swedish Van and Centre engaged the main body of the 
Russians the Rear was ordered to try and cut off these few 
ships, but the Russians bore up and reunited without difficulty. 
The Swedish fleet then wore to the starboard tack again and 
hove to. This brought about a brisk action with the Russian 
Van, but the Swedes soon hauled to the wind and withdrew. 
At about 6.30 the action ended. 

The whole day's fighting had been quite inconclusive. Kruse 
had, of course, no object in trying to fight a decisive action 
before he could join the ships from Revel, and Duke Carl, who 
should have done everything possible to crush this portion of 
the Russian fleet, made little real effort to do so. The Swedes 
complained that the Russian ships bore up continually when 
in the leeward position, but a really determined commander 
could undoubtedly have brought them to close action if he 
wished. A good many ships were somewhat damaged, but 
none were really unfitted for further fighting. The Russian 
loann Bogoslov 74 had gone off to Kronstadt, but she could 
quite well have remained in the fleet. Kruse's flagship, the 
loann Krestitel 100, had also lost her mizzen-topmast, but 
had never even left the line. The Swedish Hertig Ferdinand 62 
was much knocked about, and had lost her captain, Major 
Whitlock, while the Finland 56 had her maintopmast so much 
damaged that it was impossible to carry even a reefed topsail. 
On the Russian side Vice-Admiral Suchotin, commander of 
the Van, was mortally wounded. 

Soon after the end of the action the Swedes went about 
to the port tack and steered north. At 7.30 the Russians 
wore in succession to the port tack and shortly hove to; the 
Swedes imitated them in both these manoeuvres. At dawn 
on June 4th the wind was south-east and the Russians five 
miles or so to windward. The wind soon died away, and 
about one o'clock it sprang up again from W.S.W. The 
Russian fleet formed line on the starboard tack, but the 
Swedes fell into some disorder, and it was not until nearly 
four o'clock that they were in a position to attack. Their 
Van came into action soon after four, and about an hour later 
the two fleets were completely engaged. The Russian Van 
bore away somewhat, but the rest of the fleet kept to the wind 
and received the Swedish attack steadily. To diminish their 
speed the Russian ships in the Centre backed their maintop- 

Q *#?**#& 

I vi 




u. -> 

1790. 279 

sails ; but the aftermost two ships of the fleet, the Sv. Petr 74 
and Konstantin 74, failed to do this soon enough, and as a 
result the Sv. Petr collided with the Konstantin and the latter 
with the Trech lerarchov 100. Both the 74's were damaged in 
their rigging, and the Rear was thrown into a confused heap. 
Duke Carl at once ordered the Dristighet 64, Tapperhet 64, 
and Dygd 64, to double on the end of the Eussian line, but 
Denisov hurried thither with the Eussian frigate division, and 
was in time to prevent this 0> The Yan and Centre gradually 
drew out of range, and firing stopped in this part of the 
line, but continued brisk in the Eear. The Sv. Petr and Kon- 
stantin wore to the port tack and received the Dristighet, 
Tapperhet, and Dygd with a raking fire. At the same time 
the Swedish fleet as a whole got on to the port tack; the Van 
tacked, but the rest of the fleet wore, and this naturally upset 
their line. A little later Kruse signalled to his fleet to wear 
together, and soon after six both fleets were on the port tack. 
After reforming their line the Swedes attacked again, but the 
action never became really close, and at eight o'clock, as the 
Eussian fleet reformed on the port tack with the wind abeam 
the Swedes wore again together to the starboard tack and 
hauled to the wind. The northernmost Swedish ships were 
sharply engaged by the leading Eussians, but soon drew out 
of range, and by 8.30 the battle was over. 

Details of the losses in this series of actions are somewhat 
uncertain. Apparently the total Eussian loss for the two days 
was 105 killed and 259 wounded. This is from a tabular state- 
ment of June 8th. Kruse's letters of June 4th and 5th put it 
at 89 killed and 217 wounded, but these apparently refer only 
to the fighting of June 3rd. This leaves 16 killed and 42 
wounded for the 4th, and Golovatchev, who states that the 
greater part of the Eussian loss on that day fell on the rear, 
gives the figures for that part of the fleet as 12 killed and 33 
wounded. Eussian accounts state that on the 4th the Swedish 
fleet fired blank to a great extent, and this would account for 
the smallness of the Eussian loss. The Swedish loss is put at 
84 killed and 241 wounded for the morning action of June 3rd 
alone, but in all probability this was really their total loss for 
the two days. The guns of the Eussian ships had proved very 
unreliable, and more than half the ships of the fleet had suffered 
from the bursting of their own guns. In the Konstantin 74 
no less than eleven guns had burst, and in the Sv. Nikolai 100 
seven had done so. Altogether 46 men had been killed or 
wounded in this way. 

Less than half an hour after firing ended the Swedish fleet 
heard from its cruisers that the Eevel squadron was at sea, and 
a little later the Eussian ships were in sight. Tchitchagov, 


the Russian admiral at Revel, Lad been consistently wasting 
time; the Swedish fleet had left Revel Bay on May 24th, and 
Tchitchagov had moved on the 27th as far as the mouth of the 
Bay, but it was not until 10 p.m. on June 3rd that he had 
actually put to sea. Twenty-four hours later, when he sighted 
the Swedes, he was close to the southern coast of the Gulf of 
Finland, eleven miles south of the island of Seskar and about 
twenty miles west of Dolgoi Nos. The Swedes had just pre- 
viously gone about to the port tack and were making off north 
weistward with a fresh breeze from the south-west pursued by 
Kruse's fleet. Tchitchagov might perhaps have intercepted the 
Swedish fleet and brought it to action, but his force consisted 
of only eleven battleships and five frigates carrying respectively 
824 guns and 200 guns, whereas the Swedes had twenty-one 
battleships with 1,382 guns and eight big frigates with 340, 
and Tchitchagov was not the man to attack against odds such 
as these. He therefore hauled to the wind, and kept his posi- 
tion some twenty miles west of the Swedes. During the 
morning of June 5th the two Russian squadrons sighted one 
another. The wind was westerly but light, and the Swedes 
continued to work westward ; the Finland 56, with her damaged 
maintopmast, had to be towed by the frigate Illerim. Six 
galleys left Bjorko Sund at about eleven o'clock to tow some 
of the sailing ships, but these were too far off, and by 1.30 the 
galleys were back with the rest of the flotilla. The wind 
became very uncertain and progress was slow, while the return 
of the smoke of the two previous days' actions made it im- 
possible to see any distance. At 6.30 p.m. the Swedish fleet 
was close to the island of Seskar, and must have been com- 
paratively near Tchitchagov' s fleet. The wind backed to S.S.E. 
and freshened during the night. 

Captain Smith, later the famous Sir Sidney Smith, had 
taken Duke Carl's report to the King, and in the night of 
June 5th-6th he rejoined the fleet with definite orders to 
" enter Viborg Bay to protect the flotilla." With the fresh 
southerly breeze tne Swedish fleet soon reached the northern 
coast, and at 6.30 a.m. on June 6th it anchored near Vidskar, 
about fifteen miles south-west of the entrance to Viborg Bay. 
Earlier in the day Tchitchagov had sighted a fleet approaching 
him, and had promptly taken up a position at anchor in line 
of battle between the islands of Seskar and Peni. However, 
by seven o'clock he knew that the supposed enemy was really 
the Kronstadt fleet, and a little later he began to weigh anchor, 
while Kruse hove to to wait for him. The wind now shifted 
to W.S.W., and made it necessary for the Russians to beat 
to windward to approach the Swedish anchorage, but at 
11.30 the Swedes got under way again. Passing Krysserort, 

,1790. 281 

the promontory marking the western limit of Yiborg Bay, 
they turned south-east behind a large shoal called Salvor 
Grund, and about three o'clock they began to take up a new 
position. The bulk of the fleet anchored in a single indented 
line between Salvor Grund and Biskopso, the island north of 
Bjorko, but three battleships and a frigate were left between 
the shoal and Krysserort, to guard the western entrance to 
the bay.* The Russians followed slowly, and at four o'clock 
in the afternoon of June 7th they also anchored, but without 
much order, between Pitkb'pas and Bjorko, about twelve miles 
south-west of the Swedes. 

For a time now the interest shifts to the rowing fleets. On 
both sides these were very numerous, but in neither case were 
they concentrated in one body. Roughly speaking, the Swedes 
were in two divisions and the Russians in three. The Swedish 
King's main flotilla in Bjorko Sund had been joined by several 
detachments from the west before the arrival of the Russian 
sailing fleet closed the mouth of Viborg Bay and cut off 
further reinforcements, and without counting storeships and 
transports it consisted of six sailing vessels and about 170 
galleys, gunboats, and bombs. Another division of about forty 
boats, mainly gunboats from Stralsund, was on its way east 
along the Finnish coast. The Russian flotilla was more widely 
scattered. Part was at Fredrikshamn, part at Yiborg, and part 
at Kronstadt, while the Swedish force in Viborg Bay effectually 
prevented a junction. In Viborg, under Koslanianov, were the 
largest ships of the Russian flotilla, forty-two in numoer; in 
Fredrikshamn was Slisov's squadron of fifty-nine vessels, 
mainly gunboats, while in Kronstadt Nassau-Siegen was col- 
lecting a division whose theoretical strength was over 120 
vessels, though at the beginning of June it had only reached 
a total of fifty. There were also ten gunboats at Revel; and 
accordingly the grand total of the Russian rowing fleet if com- 
bined would have been 230 ships to the Swedish 220, but for 
the moment the Swedes were in a position of undoubted 
superiority, both in numbers and position. 

The Russian plan was, of course, to concentrate the whole 

* The Swedish dispositions were as follows: Between Krysserort and Salvor 
Grund: Illerim 32; Wasa 64; Louisa Ulrika 70; Enighet 70. E.S.E. from 
Salvor Grund: Finland 56; Grip 44; Rattvisa 62; Dristighet 64; Adolf-Fredrik 
70; Dygd 64; Tapperhet 64; Camilla 42; Gotha Lejon 70; Ara 64; Fredrik 
Adolf 62 ; Fadernesland 64 ; Hedv. Elis. Charlotta 64 ; Wladislaff 74 ; Gustaf HI. 
(f) 74. S.S.E. to Biskopso: Forsigtighet 64; Omhet 62; Sophia Magdalena 74; 
Manlighet 64; Hertig Ferdinand 62; Uppland 44. The five remaining 42-gun 
frigates, Thetis, Froja, Zemire, Euredice, and Galatea were stationed behind 
the line. Two frigates, Jarramas 32 and Jarislawitz 32 were sent further into 
the bay to watch the Russian flotilla in Viborg. The small craft were posted 
in front of the battleship line. 


of their available strength, and carry out a grand combined 
attack on the two Swedish fleets in Viborg Bay, while the main 
object of the Swedes was to press on towards Petersburg. 
On June 7th the Swedes landed 3,000 men at Koivisto, in 
Bjorko Sund, and detachments from this force at once occupied 
Maklaks, on the road to Viborg, and Umajocki, on the road 
to Petersburg. On the 8th Tchitchagov was joined by the 
Chrabryi 66, Svyatoslaw 66, Patrikii 32, and Sv. Mark 20, 
from Kronstadt, and on the following day he moved in close 
to the Swedish line, and anchored again some three or four 
miles from the enemy. The loann Bogosloy 74 rejoined on 
the llth, and on the same day the Sysoi Velikii 66, America 66, 
and two cutters were detached to reconnoitre south of Bjorko 
Sund, and then proceed to Kronstadt for repairs. The Swedish 
flotilla also got under way, and six galleys and about 110 
gunboats went northwards to attack the Russian Viborg detach- 
ment which had taken up its position in Trangsund, seven 
miles south-west of the town. On June 12th this Swedish force 
was off Rodhall, five miles from the Russians, and here it 
was joined by four frigates, one cutter, and two fireships from 
the sailing fleet, and by six more galleys from Bjorko Sund.* 
At the same time Tchitchagov began to take steps to prevent 
any more Swedish small craft from reaching Viborg Bay, and 
with this object he stationed Rear- Admiral Chanykov, with 
five frigates, about two miles west of Krysserort. 

In the meantime Koslanianov at Viborg had been preparing 
to defend the approaches to the inner harbour. He had forty- 
two vessels, mostly of large size,t and with these he had 
decided to meet the Swedish attack in the narrow passage of 
Trangsund. The Russians had also built fortifications on the 
islands on either side of Trangsund, and had made their 
position so strong that there was little prospect of success for 
a direct attack. Gustaf III. therefore told off two detachments 
to try to outflank the Russians. The first, under Sidney Smith, 
consisted of some fifty gunboats, and its duty was to embark 
the Swedish troops from Maklaks, and then endeavour to reach 
the inner part of the bay by means of the easternmost passage 
between the island of Uransari and the mainland. The second, 
of thirty gunboats, was to effect a landing in the island west 
of Trangsund, while the rest of the fleet, four frigates, twelve 
galleys, and thirty gunboats, under the King himself, would 
attack the Russian position in front. Smith embarked his 
troops on the 14th, and on the 16th he captured a Russian 

* There were left in Bjorko Sund six large vessels of the rowing fleet, eight 
galleys, and about twenty gunboats. 

t One pram, two shebeks, two turumas, four frigates, one bomb vessel, four 
bomb-cutters, twenty-three galleys, five gunboats. 

1790. 283 

battery at Kachis, on the mainland, just south of Uransari. 
The general attack was arranged for the 17th, but heavy weather 
caused its postponement, and next day the King, thinking 
that the movements of the Russian sailing ships foreshadowed 
an attack, ordered the abandonment of the attempt on Trang- 
sund, and the return of the flotilla to Bjorko Sund. Smith, 
however, went on, and on the 18th he landed in Uransari. At 
first he met with success, and managed to take one of the 
Russian batteries, but the enemy soon received reinforcements, 
and he only managed to re-embark and retreat after losing over 
300 men killed or captured. On the same day the ships in 
Bjorko Sund embarked the other Swedish troops who had 
been forced back to Koivisto, and then moved north to 
Biskopso, at the northern end of Bjorko Sund, where the 
Swedish flotilla now assembled. 

Three of Chanykov's frigates had been engaged on June 14th 
by an advanced detachment of the Swedish flotilla from the 
west, and on the 17th this force, under Cronstedt, arrived in 
Svensksund about forty ships strong. It made, however, no 
attempt to intercept the Russian Fredrikshamn squadron, 
which put to sea on the 19th, and joined Tchitchagov the same 
day. On the 17th also Tchitchagov had occupied Rondo, a 
small island about two miles south and west of the main 
Swedish line, and on the 18th he had been joined by two bomb 
vessels, six cutters, and five storeships from Revel. He now 
made considerable changes in his dispositions. He had already 
sent five of the eight rowing frigates to join Nassau-Siegen at 
Kronstadt, and he now sent Slisoy with about thirty of his 
ships to do the same. The remaining gunboats, about twenty 
in number, he added to Chanykov's frigate squadron to the 
west of the bay. On the same day, June 20th, he formed 
three small detachments under Rear-Admiral Povalishin, 
General-Major Lezhney, and Brigadier Crown. The first, con- 
sisting of five battleships* and one bomb vessel, was stationed 
south of Krysserort, about one and a half miles from the right 
of the Swedish fleet, the second was posted opposite the other 
extremity of the Swedish line, between Rondo and the shoals 
off Biskopso, and comprised four battleships, t one bomb, one 
rowing frigate, and two fireships, while the third was sent 
to Pitkopas to attack any Swedish rowing vessels, and consisted 
of two frigatest and four cutters. Finally, he moved forward 
with the rest of the fleet, and took up a new position about 
two and a half miles from the Swedes, between Rondo and 
the Repie shoal, south of Krysserort. The loann Bogoslov 74 

* Prints Karl 64; Pobyedoslav 66; lanuarii 66; Boleslav 74; Prints Qustav 70. 
t Sv. Petr 74; Vseslav 74; Panteleimon 66; Ne iron menya 66. 
J Venus 44; Premislav 42. 


had been detached to join the Amerika 66 and Sysoi Velikii 66, 
and co-operate with Nassau-Siegen, and this left Tchitchagov 
with eighteen battleships in the centre of his line, or a total 
force of twenty-seven as compared with twenty-one Swedes. 

The movements of the Russian fleet seemed to Gustaf III. 
to point to a general attack, and he therefore recalled his 
flotilla from Bjorko Sund and stationed it just inside the 
sailing fleet to act as a reinforcement if necessary. The 
position of the Swedish fleet was becoming desperate; pro- 
visions were running short, and eventually, after three councils 
of war, on June 21st, 22nd, and 23rd, it was decided to break 
out of the bay at all costs. At the same time the Russian 
arrangements for a combined attack were gradually pro- 
gressing. On June 24th Nassau-Siegen left Kronstadt with 
his flotilla, and on the 29th he anchored just south of Bjorko 
Sund. The Swedish rowing fleet at once returned to their 
original station, and sent Stedingk with the six sailing vessels, 
eight galleys, ten gun vessels, and about fifty gunboats to 
hold the narrowest part of the passage at Koivisto. In the 
meanwhile Cronstedt had worked eastwards with the Swedish 
rowing vessels from Svensksund. He had sent a few gunboats 
into the Kymmene to help the army, and finally reached 
Pitkopas on June 30th. He was at once attacked by the 
Russian detachment under Crown. At first the Swedes were 
successful, and Crown had to retire; but on July 1st he was 
reinforced, and soon succeeded in driving the Swedes back to 

Both sides were now ready for their final effort. The wind 
had become easterly, and the Swedes arranged to effect their 
escape while the Russian flotilla from Kronstadt was ready to 
force the passage of Bjorko Sund, join Koslanianov from 
Yiborg, and co-operate with the sailing fleet in a grand attack 
on the Swedes from both sides. The Swedish plan was to 
escape by the Krysserort channel early in the morning of 
July 3rd, and with this in view they tried to turn the attention 
of the Russians to the other end of their line. The position in 
the evening cf July 2nd was somewhat as follows : 

The Swedish sailing ships were still at anchor across the 
harbour mouth, but were ready to move ; the flotilla was already 
in movement. The transports and about fifteen gunboats were 
leaving Bjorko Sund to take up their position just north of the 
battleships, a force of about sixty-five gunboats and eight bomb 
vessels under Torning was on its way between Biskopso and 
Torsari to attack the eastern end of the Russian line, and the 
remaining vessels under Stedingk six sailing vessels, twenty 
galleys, ten gun vessels, and fifty gunboats were stationed at 
Koivisto to keep back the Russian flotilla. The Russians had 


[To face page 285. 

1790. 285 

three frigates and two cutters at Pitkopas under Crown, five 
frigates a little west of Krysserort under Chanykov, five battle- 
ships and one bomb vessel under Povalishin nearer the Swedes 
and south of Krysserort, eighteen battleships under Tchitcha- 
gov, Musin Pushkin, and Kruso between Repie and Rondo, and 
four battleships and one bomb vessel under Lezhnev between 
Rondo and Biskopso. Besides these forces Nassau-Siegen and 
Koslanianov were respectively south of Bjorko Sund and in 
Trangsund to the north of the Swedes. The former had a 
force of 113 ships of all sorts three battleships, two frigates, 
six rowing frigates, six shebeks, two half shebeks, one pram, 
one bomb, four cutters, eleven schooners, four half -prams, two 
galiots, three floating batteries, two fireships, forty-six gun- 
boats, and twenty transports ; the latter had forty-two vessels 
one pram, two shebeks, two turumas, four rowing frigates, one 
bomb, four cutters, twenty-three galleys, and five gunboats. 

At 10.30 p.m. on July 2nd Nassau- Siegen's attack began. 
The real fighting line of the Swedish force was formed by the 
gunboats, and in the same way the chief part in the attack was 
taken by the smaller Russian vessels. The converging fire of 
the Swedish gunboats kept back the Russians for over three 
hours, but at last the Swedes received orders to retire in 
preparation for the sortie. The Russians pursued for a short 
distance, but stopped off Koivisto to wait for their bigger 
ships, and the Swedes got away unhindered. They had lost two 
bomb vessels blown up and one gunboat and a fireship cap- 
tured, while the Russians had one schooner blown up and lost, 
in all 150 men. Soon after midnight Torning's gunboats 
opened fire on the easternmost Russian battleships, and a brisk 
action went on until about three o'clock. The Knyaz Vladimir 
74 and lezekiil 78 were sent from the Russian centre to rein- 
force Lezhnev, but the Swedes withdrew, and went behind their 
battleships towards Krysserort. At six o'clock the Swedish 
battleships got under way, and the dash for liberty began. 
The position was then as follows : The sailing ships on both 
sides were in their accustomed places, with the exception of 
the two battleships which had been sent from the Russian 
centre to join Lezhnev, and were therefore somewhat east of 
their usual stations. The two Russian flotillas were 
both stationary. Nassau-Siegen with his three battleships 
and all his smaller craft was just north of Koivisto, while 
Koslanianov had left Trangsund and had formed line a little 
to the south. The Swedish rowing fleet, on the other hand, 
was in active movement preparing for the sortie, and was just 
forming into its final order behind the battleships. First came 
its larger ships under Stedingk, next came the bomb vessels 


they pressed on after the ships just ahead of her. Both the 
Mstislav and the Sophia Magdalena lost their maintopsail 
yard, but the Swede also lost her mizzen-mast, and at 9.30 she 
surrendered. The Chrabryi 66 was at once ordered to stand 
by to assist either ship while the rest of the fleet continued the 
chase. At ten o'clock the Kir loann and Venus engaged one 
of the aftermost Swedish battleships and the frigate Grip* 
but darkness was coming on, and firing stopped after about an 

Duke Carl had intended to take his fleet to Louisa, half-way 
between Fredrikshamn and Helsingfors, but the wind, which 
had been heavy enough in the afternoon, dropped towards 
evening, and became too light to allow of his making any 
progress close-hauled, and he therefore decided to keep straight 
on for Sveaborg. The Russians steered a little too much to 
the south during the night, and at dawn on July 4th, with a 
north-east wind, they were somewhat to leeward. The Swedes, 
too, were by now close to Sveaborg, and at about eight o'clock 
in the morning of July 4th they anchored near Mjo'lo at the 
entrance of the harbour. Two of their ships were, however, 
to leeward of the rest; these were the Gotha Lejon 70 and the 
Rdttvisa 62, which had lost her foretopmast. The Wladislaff 
74, Dristighet 62, and Camilla 42 were ordered to assist them, 
but reported damages, and did not do so. The two Russian 
ships Izyaslav 66 and Venus 44 came up with the Swedes about 
eight o'clock. The Izyaslav steered for the Gotha Lejon, but 
on the Swedish ship's bearing away to wear because in her 
damaged state tacking was impossible, the Izyaslav bore away 
too, and left her to escape, but attacked the Rdttvisa, which 
was already engaged with the Venus. This second Swedish 
ship surrendered after about half an hour's action, but the 
Gotha Lejon was towed into safety by the boats of the Swedish 

In the evening the Swedes got under way again, and beat 
up towards Sveaborg, but soon had to anchor, and it was not 
until 11 a.m. on the 5th that a southerly wind enabled them 
to reach their destination. 

They had lost the following ships: Finland 56, run 
aground in Yiborg Bay and taken; Enighet 70, Zemire 42, 
burnt near Krysserort; Louisa Ulrika 70, Hedv. Elis. 
Charlotta 64, O'mhet 62, Uppland 44, Jarislawitz 32, run 
aground outside Viborg Bay and taken; Sophia Magda- 
lena 74, taken by Mstislav 74 near Holland; Rdttvisa 
62, taken by Izyaslav 66 near Sveaborg. The Swedish fleet 
consisted, therefore, on its arrival at Sveaborg of fourteen 

* Russian accounts say that the Grip actually surrendered. 

1790. 289 

battleships and six big frigates,* while Tchitchagov, even 
after sending the Mstislav and her prize, the Sophia Magda- 
lena, to Revel, had seventeen battleships and four frigates 
with which to establish a blockade, and was besides soon 
joined by other ships from Viborg. 

The Swedish sailing fleet had therefore no longer any chance 
of meeting the Russians on anything like equal terms; but 
the rowing fleet was in a more favourable position. It had, as 
has been said, left Yiborg Bay at the same time as the battle- 
ships, and had as soon as possible taken to the channel through 
the skargard. A schooner and three galleys had gone aground 
on leaving the bay, but this was only a trifling loss. It has 
been suggestedt that Tchitchagov might easily have cut off 
its retreat by heaving to on the starboard tack across its path, 
but it seems very doubtful if he was ever in a position to do 
this, and even so his true objective was clearly enough the 
Swedish battleship fleet. Still, Crown's ships at Pitkopas were 
certainly favourably placed to attack the Swedish flotilla, and 
in the afternoon of July 4th they did so. Many of the Swedish 
vessels surrendered, but Tchitchagov ordered Crown in the 
Venus 44 to join the sailing fleet, and this compelled him to 
leave his prizes to be retaken by other Swedish ships. This 
unlucky signal of Tchitchagov's was, as a matter of fact, the 
means of saving Gustaf III. from capture, since it was only 
the recall of the Venus that allowed the escape of the yacht 
C aiding in which the Swedish King was. Still the other two 
frigates and two cutters of Crown's detachment did fairly well, 
and the loss of the Swedes in this part of the day's fighting 
reached the high total of four galleys, eleven gunboats, and 
some thirty transports. 

The sea was rapidly getting up, and it became difficult for 
the rowing vessels on either side to do much. Nassau- Siegen 
had gone north through Bjorko Sund on the opening of the 
action, and had at once started in pursuit of the Swedes, but 
it was not until noon that he rounded the northern end of 
Biskopso, and by that time the Swedish flotilla was quite out 
of reach. In spite of this he went after them, but Koslanianov 
saw the uselessness of doing so and merely brought his vessels 
as far as Rodhall some five miles south of Trangsund. Nassau- 
Siegen had appointed a rendezvous at Aspo nine miles south of 
Svensksund, but the weather was too much for his ships, and 
he was driven beyond Hogland. Slisov, with part of the 
Russian flotilla, managed to get shelter at Aspo Gaddar ten 
miles east of the rendezvous. In the morning of July 4th he 

* Near Louisa were the newly commissioned Frednk Rex 62, Diana 42, and 
Bellona 42. 
t Golovatchev ii. 159/160. 



sighted part of the Swedish, flotilla under the King himself, 
and at once sent to demand their surrender, but Gustaf III. of 
course refused, and the Swedes went on their way to Svensk- 
sund, where they joined Cronstedt's squadron. That evening 
the rest of the Swedish flotilla assembled near Louisa, and on 
the 5th its whole force was concentrated in Svensksund. Its 
total loss had been 7 galleys, 11 gunboats, and 30 transports. 
At the same time the Russian flotilla slowly got together again. 
Slisov, with about forty vessels, went to Eredrikshamn for 
repairs on July 5th, and the same day Koslanianov, from 
Viborg, reached Kutsalo, just east of Svensksund, with 45. 
Many scattered ships joined him here, but it was not until 
July 7th that Nassau-Siegen's own squadron reached Aspo. He 
decided to attack the Swedes at once, and by midnight of July 
8/9th he had concentrated the entire Russian flotilla at the 
southern entrance of Svensksund harbour. 

The Swedish force was very considerable. Cronstedt's rein- 
forcements more than made up for their losses, and their total 
available strength was as follows : 

Six sailing vessels (2 hemmemas, 1 turuma, 2 udemas), 18 
galleys, 153 gunboats * (99 " sloops " and 54 " yawls "), 10 gun- 
vessels, 8 bombs, 1 yacht. They had thus 196 fighting ships 
of all sizes, and carried about 1,200 guns.t 

Against them the Russians could bring the following + : 

Thirty sailing vessels (8 frigates, 8 shebeks, 1 hemmema, 8 
schooners, 3 bombs, 2 half-prams), 23 galleys, 77 gunboats and 
kaiks, 3 floating batteries, 8 bombs a total of 141 ships, with 
about 1,500 guns. 

The Swedish force occupied practically the same position as 
in August, 1789. The northern approaches were blocked, and 
a force of 1 turuma, 1 galley, and 33 gunboats was told off to 
protect them. Between the two islets of Krakskar and Sands- 
kar lay the Swedish centre, consisting of 2 hemmemas, 2 
udemas, 1 cutter, 17 galleys, and 15 gunboats. This line ran 
N.W. and S.E. and covered, roughly, the position of the 
Swedish fleet in the previous year, but on this occasion it 
formed only a part of the scheme of defence. Stretching south- 
west from Krakskar to an islet close to Musala came the 
Swedish right wing of 61 gunboats, while on the left from 
Sandskar to Kutsalo behind a row of islets and rocks was 
another force of 44 gunboats. The emht bomb-vessels were 
not in the fighting line. Three or four had been sent as scouts 
to the other side of Svensksund, and the rest lay as a reserve 
between the two Swedish lines. 

* Gunsloops (Kanonsluparne) carried two big guns and four swivels, while 
gunyawls (Kanonjollarne) carried a single big gun. 
t Golovatchev gives them 295 warships, 65 transports, and 1,000 gune. 
$ These are only approximate figures. 


[To face page 291. 

1790. 291 

This was the position which. Nassau-Siegen had to attack, 
and he did so confidently enough. July 9th was the day of the 
Tsarina's accession, and he chose that date for his expected 
victory. His arrangements were that his fleet should go in in 
four lines ; the left wing under Slisov was to consist of 40 gun- 
boats and kaiks, with three floating batteries and three bomb- 
vessels, and was to lead the attack. Next was to come the 
right wing of 37 gunboats and 8 bombs under Bukshevden, and 
then the two lines of the centre, 23 galleys under Litte and 
the sailing vessels under Koslanianov. 

The morning of July 9th was by no means promising. There 
was a freshening south-westerly breeze and a heavy driving 
mist, but Nassau-Siegen never thought of postponing his 
attack. At 8 a.m. the Russian fleet got under way, and at 
9.30 the action began between the Russian left and the Swedish 
right. At first everything went well enough, but the wind and 
sea rose, and the Russian gunboats began to lose station. At 
about noon the sailing ships got into position, but at the same 
time the Russian left wing had to retreat. The Swedish right 
wing advanced steadily, and, being reinforced by twenty or 
more of the gunboats from the northern line, it was able to 
take up a new position with its extreme right further south 
than before, and its line therefore at a smaller angle with the 
centre. This put it in a good position to rake the ships of the 
Russian centre, and these soon fell into confusion. At about 
two o'clock Nassau-Siegen got the gunboats on his left into 
lino again and renewed the attack, but after another two hours' 
fighting they again had to retreat. Meanwhile the gunboats of 
the Swedish left wing had begun to advance between Kutsalo 
and Lachmasari to outflank the Russians. Seeing this the 
Russian gunboats here also retreated. This left the Russian 
centre exposed, and its galleys soon began to sink. The 
rowers went to the pumps, and many of the galleys, though 
anchored, were driven ashore. Soon after seven Nassau-Siegen 
decided to retreat, but many of his sailing ships could not get 
away and were captured or burnt. Firing ended at 10 p.m., 
but the Russians could not get far, and they were attacked at 
daybreak on the 10th and driven in confusion to Aspo, losing 
several ships on the way. Their losses were very great; the 
figures available are to some extent inconsistent and unsatis- 
factory, but the list of ships captured or destroyed was pro- 
bably, roughly, as follows * : 

Five frigates, 3 taken, 2 sunk; 4 shebeks, 1 taken, 3 sunk; 
1 hemmema, taken; 2 half-prams, destroyed; 2 floating bat- 

* Nassau-Siegen's report omits the kaiks which are given by Veselago (List 
of Russian ships) as lost and by Backstrom (Ap. 22) as added to the Swedish 



teries, taken; 7 schooners, destroyed; 16 galleys, 7 taken, 9 
destroyed; 7 bombs, 2 taken, 5 destroyed; 10 kaiks, taken; 6 
gunboats, taken; 4 double sloops, taken; 64 vessels lost. 

On the Swedish side only four ships were lost, the udema 
Ingeborg and three gunboats. The loss in men was also com- 
paratively small, since only 181 officers and men were killed 
and 123 wounded. The Russians' loss was 7,369 officers and 
men. About 6,500 of these were captured, the rest killed or 

After its defeat the Russian flotilla went to Fredrikshamn, 
and was joined there by new gunboats from Petersburg, so 
that by the end of July it consisted of 170 fighting ships, 
chiefly gunboats. The Swedes remained in Svensksund, and 
were joined by 1'hemmema and 27 gunboats from Sveaborg. 
Little more happened either at Sveaborg or Svensksund. Both 
sides were ready for j>eace, and negotiations were therefore 
begun. About the middle of July Tchitchagov sent Povalishin's 
squadron to Kronstadt and took the rest of his fleet to Revel. 
Half the fleet went into the harbour, but the rest stayed near 
Nargen. The Russian gunboats left Fredrikshamn on August 
6th and advanced against the 25 Swedish gunboats at Korkian- 
sari, two miles north-east of Svensksund. The Swedes at once 
formed line and prepared for action, but as the Russians made 
no attack they took the opportunity to retire to Svensksund. 
Next day the Russians withdrew to Lilla Svartan, three miles 
nearer Fredrikshamn, and the Swedish force returned to 

_ On August 14th Peace was concluded at Werela on the basis 
of a complete cession of all territorial gains on either side, 
and the re-establishment of the position in Finland exactly 
as it had been before tl^e outbreak of war. On the whole, 
Sweden was lucky to obtain such terms, and it was only the 
changes in the general European situation which had made 
them possible. In the war with Turkey Russia and Austria 
had gained some successes, but at this moment Austria was 
compelled, by the revolt of the Belgian Netherlands and by the 
threatening attitude of Prussia and Poland, to agree to Peace 
with Turkey. This left Russia alone to fight two enemies, and 
Ekaterina at once decided to come to terms with Sweden. 
Gustaf III., in spite of his victory at Svensksund, could hardly 
hope to continue the war with a battleship fleet of less than 
half the strength of its adversaries, and he was therefore glad 
enough to accept such an unexpectedly good offer. 

The three years' fighting had been disastrous for the Swedish 
battleship fleet. In 1788 the Swedes had lost two battleships 
and taken one, while the Russians had lost one and taken one. 

1T90. 293 

Next year the Russians lost three battleships without any cor- 
responding Swedish loss, but in 1790 no less than ten Swedish 
battleships were lost and five of these had been added to the 
Russian Navy. For the three years, therefore, the Swedes 
lost twelve and gained one, while the Russians lost four and 
gained six, exclusive of their gains by new construction. 
Altogether, the Russian Navy at the end of the war had 46 
battleships, without counting those in the Black Sea, while the 
Swedish Navy had fallen to the low figure of IB battleships. 
Denmark had at this date 33 battleships, but several of these 
were really only harbour defence ships and five of them were 
condemned in the next two years.* The Russian superiority 
to the other two Baltic Powers had been more or less assured 
ever since the days of Peter the Great, but after this war with 
Sweden it became far more marked than before, and it was 
not until quite modern days that the rise of the new German 
Navy deprived Russia of ner position. 

* Five battleships and three " blockships " (old battleships used as harbour 
defence ships) were in commission in 1790. 





Russia entered on the year 1791 with only one active enemy, 
Turkey, but with no ally and with two powerful opponents, 
England and Prussia. These two Powers proposed to insist on 
Russia's returning to Turkey her territorial gains, and even 
went as far as the despatch of an ultimatum to that effect. 
Prussia got ready an army, and England prepared a " Russian 
Armament " of 36 battleships, but public opinion in England 
was in favour of Russia, and Pitt had to give way; the ulti- 
matum was intercepted and Russia was left undisturbed. It 
was, however, obviously impossible for the Tsarina to insist 
on the retention of all her conquests, which extended far south 
of the Danube, and she was finally satisfied with the cession of 
Otchakov at the mouth of the Bug and of the territory between 
that river and the Dniester. An armistice was arranged on 
these terms in August, 1791, and in January, 1792, the Peace 
of Jassy put an end to the war and left Russia well established 
on the Black Sea. 

The new Russian Black Sea fleet had done very well. Starting 
the war with five battleships and three 50-gun frigates, it haa 
fought four general actions against superior forces of Turks 
and had in each case been more or less successful. It had also 
co-operated with the army in several attacks on fortified posi- 
tions. It had had one battleship taken by the enemy, but nad, 
on the other hand, captured two Turkish battleships and de- 
stroyed two others, and was able in 1792 with the ships built 
during the war to send to sea a force of nine battleships and 
twelve 46 or 50-gun frigates.* 

As some answer to the preparations of England and Prussia 
in 1791 the Tsarina commissioned a large fleet in the Baltic. 
Nineteen battleshipst were assembled near Kronstadt at the 
beginning of May, and were joined at the end of the month 

* These were often reckoned as battleships. 

t Tchesma 100; Knyaz Vladimir 100; Nikolai 100; Evsevii 100; Pobyedoslav 
74 ; loann Bogoslov 74 ; Sv. Petr 74 ; Maksim Ispovyednik 74 ; lezekiil 74 ; Sysoi 
Velikii 74; Prints Oustav 74; Vseslav 74; Konstantin 74; Metcheslav 66; 
Emgeiten 66; Prints Karl 66; Izyaslav 66; Panteleimon 66; Trech Svyatitelei 
66. The Tchesma was also called loann Erestitel. The Emgeiten was the 
Swedish Omhet. 

1791-1793. 295 

by thirteen others* from Revel. This fleet, however, stayed 
quietly at anchor till the middle of August, when it was again 
laid up. A flotilla of 100 gunboats and 25 larger vessels was 
collected at Krpnstadt, and went as far as Aspo, but was back 
again by the middle of August. Denmark had six battleships 
in commission this year.t In 1792 the Kronstadt squadron 
consisted of only three battleships and the Eevel squadron of 
two. Neither Denmark nor Sweden mobilised any large ships, 
but six Russian battleships came round to the Baltic from 
Archangel,* and two squadrons of 60 and 50 gunboats cruised 
for exercise on the Finnish coast. Two important events took 
place this year. The French Revolutionary Government de- 
clared war against Austria, thus starting the Great War, and 
almost simultaneously the Russians invaded Poland. As early 
as 1772 portions of Polish territory had been seized by Russia 
and Prussia, and in January, 1793, by the Second Partition 
Treaty Russia, Prussia, and Austria all extended their 
boundaries at the expense of their weak neighbour. 

These two factors led to considerable Russian mobilisations 
in 1793. On February 1st the French Republic declared war 
on Holland and England, and five weeks later on Spain. The 
Great War thus became a naval as well as a military struggle, 
and Ekaterina thought it well to make some show of force. 
She therefore fitted out a fleet of fifteen battleships at Kron- 
stadt and another of eleven at Revel. || The first, under 
Admiral Kruse, put to sea on July 16th and joined the Revel 
fleet on the 20th. Admiral Tchitchagov then took charge, and 
on July 21st the combined fleet anchored off Meen south of 
Copenhagen. From here Kruse went on into the North Sea 
with nine battleships. H He cruised there for three weeks, and 
rejoined the fleet off Bornholm on August 25th. On the 31st 
the fleet was back again at Revel, and a week later Kruse left 

* Saratov 100; Trech lerarchov 100; Rostivlav 100; Kir loann 74; Sofia Mag- 
dalina 74; Sv. Elena 74; Mstislav 74; Aleksandr Nevskii 74; Yaroslav 74; 
Pobyedonosets 66; Boleslav 66; Prochor 66; Retvizan 66. Before returning to 
Revel this squadron exchanged the Aleksandr Nevskii, Pobyedonosets, and 
Boleslav for the Sv. Petr, Vseslav, and Maksim Ispovyednik. 

t Neptunus 80; Odin 70; Sjaelland 70; Kronprinds Frederik 70; Fyen 70; 
Mars 60. 

t Boris 74 ; Glyeb 74 ; Petr 74 ; Nikanor 66 ; Pimen 66 ; Parmen 66. 

loann Krestitel 100't; Dvyenadtsat Apostolov lOOt; Evsevie lOOf; Knyaz 
Vladimir lOOt; Nikolai lOOt; Petr 74; Glyeb 74t; Sysoi Velikii 74; Aleksandr 
Nevskii 74; Emgeiten 66t; Tri Svyatitelya 66; Nikanor 66 ; Pimen 66f; 
Parmen 66f; Pobyedonosets 66. 

|| Rostislav 100 ; Saratov 100 ; Tri lerarcha 100 ; Sv. Elena 74 ; Maksim 
Ispovyednik 74 ; Sv. Petr 74 ; Mstislav 74 ; Taroslav 74 ; Gavriil 74 ; Vseslav 74 ; 
Prochor 66. The Gavriil does not appear in Veselago's list. The Maksim 
Ispovyednik was replaced by the Sofia Magdalina 74 early in August. 

IT Those marked in the previous lists, with the Boris 74, and Kir loann 
74, which seem to have joined the fleet. 


for Kronstadt with ten battleships,* while the rest were laid 
up at Revel. Denmark sent out a few frigates on convoy duty, 
but took no further steps. 

Next vear, however, the naval war in the west and south of 
' Europe brought about the usual result. Denmark and Sweden""] 
combined to protect their trade from molestation. 

A Danish squadron of eight battleships and two frigates was 
joined in the Sound on June 19th by a Swedish squadron of 
the same strength. Vice-Admiral Krieger, the Danish Com- 
mander, and Vice-Admiral Count Wachtmeister, the Swedish, 
drew lots to decide which of them should command for the first 
three months, and as the result of this Krieger took command. 
On August 20th he sent out four battleships and three frigates 
from the combined squadron to cruise in the North Sea. This 
detachment returned on October 10th, and on the same day the 
Swedish fleet left for Karlskrona. The two fleets were as 
follows : 

Danes. Neptunus 70, Kronprinds Frederik 70, t Tre Kroner 
70, t Kronprindsesse Maria 70, Pr. Sophia Frederica 70, Pr. 
Louise Augusta 60, Indfedsret 60, Holsteen 60, Thetis 40,t 
Havfru 40. t 

Swedes. Manlighet 62,t Ara 62,t Camilla 40, t and several 

The Danes had also commissioned a Reserve Squadron of 
seven battleships and a frigate, but only two of these ships left 
Copenhagen, and that merely for training purposes.* The 
Russian squadrons this year comprised 9 battleships at Kron- 
stadt, 8 at Revel, and 6 at Archangel, besides two flotillas 
of gunboats. The Kronstadt ships reached Revel on June 17th 
and the resulting fleet proceeded to Nargen. Detachments of 
four or five battleships were sent out cruising, and on Septem- 
ber 19th eight battleships returned to Kronstadt. The Arch- 
angel fleet reached Kronstadt early in October, after a visit to 

As far as Sweden and Denmark were concerned, the opera- 
tions of 1795 were very much the same as those of the previous 
year. The two squadrons of eight battleships and three 
frigates combined at Copenhagen on June 10th; four battle- 

* Those marked t in the Kronstadt list, and the Kir loann. 

t These ships cruised in the North Sea. 

t Praegtige 802 ; Odin 70 ; Sjaelland 70 ; Nordstjern 70t ; Elephant 70 ; Man 
60; Dannebroge 60; Cronborg 36. The two marked cruised in the Baltic in 

Kronstadt : Dvyenadtsat Apostolov 100; Sv. Nikolai 100; Sysoi Velikii 
74; Aleksandr Nevskii 74; Pobyedoslav 74; Svyatoslav 66; Prints Karl 66; 
Metcheslav 66; Emgeiten 66. Revel: Rostislav 100; Saratov 100; Sofia Mag- 
dalina 74; Sv. Elena 74; Vseslav 74; Petr 74; Sv. Petr 74; Boris 74. Arch- 
angel: Pamyat Evstafia 74; Aleksyei 74; Filipp 66; lona 66; Graf Orlov 66; 
Evropa 66. 

1793-1796. 297 

ships and two frigates of each, nation cruised together in the 
North Sea from the middle of August to the middle of Sep- 
tember, and on October 2nd the Swedes went home. The fol- 
lowing were the two fleets : 

Danes. Kronprindsesse Maria 70, Tre Kroner 70,* Sjael- 
land 70, Pr. Sophia Frederica 70,* Nordstjern 70, Dannebroge 
60, Indfodsret 60,* Holsteen 60,* Thetis 40,* Havfru 40, Triton 

Swedes. (No list available.) 

Russia, however, joined actively in the war against France, 
and sent a large squadron to join the English North Sea fleet, k 
This year also came the final partition of Poland by its three - 
neighbours, and to enforce her claims in this matter Ekaterina 
equipped a large fleet in the Baltic as well. Twelve battleships 
were commissioned to form the Kronstadt fleet and nine at 
Revel, but neither fleet went to sea, though a few ships were 
exchanged between the two ports. t In May Holland was 
forced to go over to the side of France, and a month later a 
Russian fleet was sent, under Vice-Admiral Chanykov, to co- 
operate with the English in a blockade of Dutch ports. 
Chanykov left Kronstadt on June 12th, picked up a few ships 
at Revel, and reached Copenhagen on July 12th. He was 
in command of the following twelve battleships and eight 
frigates : 

Pamyat Evstafia 74, Petr 74, Glyeb 74, Sv. Elena 74, lona 
66, Pimen 66, Graf Orlov 66, Parmen 66, Evropa 66, Retvizan 
66, Nikanor 66, Filipp 66, Venus 44, Kronshtadt 44, Archi- 
pelag 44, Riga 44, Michail 44, Revel 44, Narva 44, Rafail 44, 

From Copenhagen he sent the three frigates Riga, Michail, 
and Archipelag to convoy English homeward-bound ships, and, 
leaving Copenhagen on July 22nd, he anchored in the Downs 
on August 7th. The Russian fleet then came under the orders 
of Admiral Duncan, the commander of the small English 
North Sea squadron, t and on August 21st the combined fleet 
put to sea to cruise off the Texel, but a month later the Russian 
ships were sent to English ports for the winter. 

Next year they did little to influence the course of the war. 
Detacheu ships cruised with the English fleet, which consisted 
this year of eight battleships, but as a fleet the Russians did 

* Cruised in the North Sea. 

t Revel : Saratov 100 ; Trech lerarchov 100 ; Rostislav 100 ; Boris 74 ; Sofia 
Magdalina 74; Sv. Petr 74f; Vseslav 74f; Taroslav 74f ; Prochor 66 Kron- 
stadt: TSvsevii 100; Vladimir 100; Nikolai 100; Maksim Ispovyednik 74t; 
Sysoi Velikii 74t ; Prints Gustav 74 ; Konstantin 74f ; Pobyedoslav 74 ; Aleksyei 
74; Svyatoslav 66; Emgeiten 66:}: ; Prints Earl 66. Ships marked t were 
exchanged in July, and those marked + in September. 

t Venerable 74 ; Asia 64 ; Calcutta 54 ; Leopard 50. 

The lona 66 had to winter in the Elbe. 


nothing. The Pamyat Evstafia 74 left Copenhagen for Kron- 
stadt at the end of July, and early in October the rest of 
the squadron reached Copenhagen. Chanykov with the bulk of 
the fleet left for Kronstadt on October 17th, but Vice-Admiral 
Makarov, with the Petr 74, Evropa 66, FUipp 66, and four 
frigates sailed from Helsinger on November 4th, and reached 
the Nore again on the 26th. The Russian Baltic squadrons* 
had merely cruised in home waters, but the Swedes and Danes 
had continued their system of joint action. 

Their fleets this year were as follows : 

Danes : Kronprindsesse Marie 70, Pr. Sophia Frederica 
70, t Skj0ld 70, Sjaelland 70, Odin 70, Dannebroge 60, Ind- 
fedsret 60, Oldenborg 60,t Havfru 40,t Thetis 40, Store Belt 

Swedes : Rung Gustaf III. 70,t Prins Fredrik Adolf 62,t 
Jarramas 34,t Hook 12, t and others. 

The Swedes reached Copenhagen on June 9th, and Kaas, the 
Danish Vice-Admiral, took command of the combined fleet for 
the first part of their combined operations, while the Swedish 
Vice-Admiral, Nordenskjold, superseded him on August 12th. 
Four battleships and some smaller ships cruised in the North 
Sea from July 17th to September 6th, and in August the Danish 
Thetis 40 was sent to the Mediterranean. On September 9th 
the Swedes sailed for home, and a month later the Danish ships 
were laid up. 

The Tsarina Ekaterina II. died in November, 1796, and was 
succeeded by her son, Pavel. For the moment this made Russia 
less active against France, but this change did not last long. 
The three Russian battleships in English ports joined Duncan 
off the Texel on June 12th, 1797, but left him again on the 
23rd, and were back at Kronstadt on July 27th. The new 
Tsar visited the combined squadron of thirteen battleships 
from Kronstadt and ten from Revel, t but the Kronstadt ships 
were only at sea for two days at the end of July, and those from 
Revel returned at once to their home port. The Danish and 
Swedish combined fleets were reduced to three frigates from 
each country, and no battleships were commissioned. The 
Danish Najad, 40 was sent to the Mediterranean to relieve the 
Thetis 40. Difficulties arose with Tripoli, and on May 16th the 

* Kronstadt: Evsevii 100; Sv. Nikolai 100; Alekysei 74; Elisaveta 74; 
Netron menya 66; Panteleimon 66; Izyaslav 66. Revel: Rostislav 100; Trech 
lerarchov 100; Tsar Konstantin 74; Maksim Ispovyednik 74; Emgeiten 66. 

t Cruised in North Sea. 

t Kronstadt: Sv. Nikolai 100; Tchesma 100; Dvyenadtsat Apostolov 100; 
Knyaz Vladimir 100; Pobyedoslav 74; Pamyat Evstafia 74; Konstantin 74; 
Prints Gustav 74; Izyaslav 66; Prints Karl 66; Pooyedonosets 66; Netron 
menya 66; Retvizan 66. Revel : Rostislav 100; Saratov 100; Evsevii 100; 
Sysoi Velikii 100; Aleksyei 74; Boris 74; Maksim Ispovyednik 74; Sofia Mag- 
dalina 74; Elizaveta 74; Emgeiten 66. 

1796-1798. 299 

Najad with the brig Sarp 18 and a hired Maltese vessel of six 
guns fought a brisk action with six Tripolitan ships carrying 
.120 guns ; the Danes had the best of the fight, but took no 
prize, and an agreement was presently made by which Den- 
mark practically gave in to the Tripolitan demands. 

The two Danish, battleships, Oldenborg 60 and Ditmarschen 
60, were sent in the spring of 1798 on convoy work as far as St. 
Helena, but otherwise only a few frigates were commissioned 
in either Denmark or Sweden. Russia, on the other hand, was 
more active than ever, and mobilised as many as forty battle- 
ships. Yice- Admiral Makarov left Kronstadt on June 2nd with 
a new North Sea squadron. At Eevel his fleet was raised to a 
force of five battleships and a frigate, on June 30th it entered 
the North Sea, and a fortnight later it joined the English fleet 
off the Texel. The Kronstadt fleet of eleven battleships, under 
Admiral Kruse, put to sea on June 13th, and reached Eevel on 
the 15th. A week later it put to sea with the Eevel fleet of 
seven battleships, but these were left off Dagerort, while the 
other squadron went on to Kjoge Bay, and anchored there on 
July 6th. Four battleships were sent on a visit to Lubeck, but 
the rest of the fleet lay in Kjoge Bay till August 7th. On the 
13th it picked up the Eevel ships, and next day it reached 
Eevel; five battleships were chosen to form a second division 
of the North Sea squadron, and the other ships were laid up. 
Eear-Admiral Kartsev, commander of the new squadron, left 
Eevel on August 31st, and passed Helsinger on September 28th. 
Makarov's ships had sailed for various English ports in August 
or September, but a further squadron of five battleships from 
Archangel had cached Yarmouth on September 10th, and put 
to sea with the English fleet on October 1st. Kartsev' squadron 
suffered severely from bad weather, and most of his ships had 
to be repaired in Danish and Norwegian ports. Finally, on 
November 15th the Prints Gustav 74 had to be abandoned, but 
during the month the rest of the squadron arrived in English 
ports. The other Eussian squadron was more lucky ; it cruised 
off the Dutch coast till the middle of November, and returned 
to Yarmouth on the 14th of that month with the English ships. 

The following are lists of the various Eussian fleets : 

First North Sea Fleet. Mstislav 74, Boleslav 74, Elizaveta 
74, Emopa 66, Retvizan 66. 

Kronstadt Fleet. Sv. Nikolai 100, loann Krestitel 100, 
Prints Gustav 74, t Pamyat Evstafia 74, Aleksandr Nevskii 
74, Sv. Petr 74t Netron menya 66, lona 66, Izyaslav 66, t 
Filipp 66, Prints Karl 66. 

Eevel Fleet. Rostislav 100, Sofia Magdalina 74, t Boris 74, 
Aleksyei 74, t Maksim Ispovyednik 74, Sysoi Velikii 74, 
Emgeiten 66. 


Second North Sea Fleet. The ships marked t in the two 
preceding lists. 

Archangel Fleet. Vsevolod 74, Isidor 74, Syevernyi Orel 
74, Azia 66, Pobyeda 66. 

Besides the operations of the Russian fleets from the Baltic 
and the White Sea the Black Sea Fleet had found scope for 
activity. The Tsar Pavel at first feared that the French 
Egyptian expedition might be directed against him, and he 
therefore formed an anti-French alliance with Turkey. The 
French conquest of the Ionian Islands was naturally 'distaste- 
ful to both countries, and as soon as the French fleet had been 
annihilated by Nelson they sent a joint fleet into the Mediter- 
ranean. The Battle of the Nile was fought on August 1st, 
and on the 24th a Russian fleet of six battleships left Sevas- 
topol for Constantinople, under Vice Admiral Ushakov. 
After being joined by four Turkish battleships and some 
smaller ships, the fleet entered the Mediterranean on 
October 1st,* and soon took all the Ionian Islands. Corfu, the 
last French position, fell in March, 1799, t and Ushakov then 
turned his attention to the Italian fortress of Ancona, which 
was held by a French garrison. A detachment of one Turkish 
and two Russian battleships, with four frigates, appeared off 
the harbour and bombarded it on May 18th. but without 
effect, t After this the Allies contented themselves with a 
blockade of the Italian coast, and Ancona was taken in 
November by an Austrian Army. Ushakov's fleet visited 
Naples, Genoa, and other Mediterranean ports, and finally, in 
October, 1800, it returned to the Black Sea. 

Meanwhile in northern waters the Russian Navy had been 
to some extent active. Fourteen battleships had wintered in 
England, and these were the first ships to move. Early in 
May three battleshipsll and a frigate left Sheerness to join 
Ushakov in the Mediterranean, and eventually went into the 
Black Sea with the rest of his fleet. Later in the month five 
battleships went to Yarmouth, and in June this division 
cruised with the English on the coast of Holland. In the 
middle of July two battleships^!" and a frigate sailed for the 
Baltic, and on August 1st the rest of the Russian fleet left 
Yarmouth for the Dutch coast. Three battleships, the Mstislav 
74, Retvizan 66, and Evropa 66, joined Vice-Admiral 

* Two more Russian battleships joined in January, 1799. 

t The Leander, an English ship taken by the French in 1798, was captured 
by the Russians at the fall of Corfu, and eventually given back to the English. 

t Three French (ex Venetian) battleships took part in the defence. 

Seven frigates were left in the Mediterranean. Three were transferred 
to the Neapolitan Navy in 1801, and four returned to the Black Sea in 1802. 

|| Isidor 74 ; Azia 66 ; Pobyeda 66. 

IT Aleksyei 74; Izyaslav 66. 

1798-1800. 301 

Mitchell's squadron, and took part in the attack on the Dutch 
ships in the Ylieter on August 30th. Of the eight Dutch 
battleships which were taken, two, the Washington 70 and 
Beschermer 56 were in theory Russian prizes, but were trans- 
ferred to the English at once. The rest of the Russian fleet 
returned to Yarmouth, and on September 7th they were 
joined there by a squadron of five battleships,* five frigates, 
and two transports, under Admiral Tchitchagov. This fleet 
had left Revel on August 1st, with 17,000 troops, and on 
September 16th these were duly landed on the Dutch coast, 
but the Anglo-Russian expedition was a failure, and the troops 
had to be re-embarked. On November 18th Tchitchagov's fleet 
reached Portsmouth for the winter. A few ships of the 
original North Sea Fleet left Yarmouth at the same time as 
Tchitchagov, but by the middle of November they, too, were 
laid up in English ports. Another fleet of nine battleshipst 
cruised in the Baltic during July and August. Three battle- 
ships left Archangel in September, and two of these, the 
Yaroslav 74 and Moskva 74 reached England at the end of 
November, but the third, the Sv. Petr 74, had to winter at 
Bergen. + 

This year the Danes had a small squadron of five battleships 
in the Sound and the Kattegat. They also sent out various 
ships on convoy work, and one of these, the Oldenborg 60 was 
wrecked in Table Bay in November. Several other Danish 
ships came to blows with the English. A small English 
privateer, the Experiment 18 was twice engaged by Danish 
warships in the West Indies, and at the end of the year, on 
December 24th, 1799, the Havfru 40 opened fire on the boats 
of the English frigates Emerald 32 and Flora 36, near Gib- 
raltar, and forced them to abandon their search of her convoy. 

In 1800 the Russians were much less active than usual. 
Their sixteen battleships in English harbours left for the 
Baltic at the end of July, and the eleven battleshipsll at Revel 
and Kronstadt hardly left their own ports. On the other 
hand, a crisis arose between England and Denmark. The 
Freja 40, convoying six merchantmen, was met off Ostend by 
five English ships, the Prevoyante 40, Terpsichore 32, Nemesis 
28, Arrow 20, and Nile 10. Krabbe, the Danish captain, 
refused to allow his convoy to be searched, and fired on a 

* Aleksandr Nevskii 74 ; Michail 66 ; lona 66 ; lanuarii 66 ; Emgeiten 66. 

t Dvyenadtsat Apostolov 100; Petr 74; Glyeb 74; Boris 74; Aleksyei 74; 
Izyaslav 66; Netron menya 66; Prints Karl 66; Filipp 66. 

She stayed there all through 1800. 

Danmark 76; Kronprindsesse Marie 70; Skj0ld 70; Pr. Sophia Frederica 
70; Ditmarschen 60. 

|| Sv. Nikolai 100; Rostislav 100; Petr 74; Pamyat Evstafia 74; Aleksyei 74; 
Boris 74; Glyeb 74; Izyaslav 66; Netron menya 66; Filipp 66; Prints Karl 66. 


boat from the Nemesis. An action at once began, and after 
half-an-hour the Freja struck with a loss of six men. She 
was taken with her convoy into the Downs, but was left 
under the Danish flag. This action raised the whole question 
of the rights of neutrals. The English Government at once 
sent a special envoy, Lord Whitworth, to Copenhagen, and 
backed up his representations by a small squadron of seven 
battleships,* under Vice- Admiral Dickson. These ships 
reached the Sound on August 20th, and on the 29th an 
agreement was reached whereby the Freja was to be repaired 
by the English and released with her convoy; the whole 
question of the " right of search " was to be discussed at a 
conference in London, and meanwhile Danish ships were only 
to have convoy in the Mediterranean, where the activity of 
the Barbary corsairs made this necessary. Four Danish 
battleships! had been in the Sound since June, and on Dick- 
son's arrival four morej were sent out, while two blockships 
and other vessels were stationed for the defence of Copen- 
hagen. Hostilities were, however, avoided, and the English 
fleet returned home. Two Danish ships, the Sejer 64, and 
Thetis 40 were sent to the Mediterranean in October. 

Peace had been preserved for the moment, but it was not 
destined to last long. Russia was the moving spirit of the 
anti-English coalition that soon took shape, though it was 
Denmark that had to bear the brunt of the English attack. 
The Tsar Pavel I. had begun to feel an intense admiration 
for Bonaparte's military genius. Bonaparte took advantage 
of this, and by sending back to Russia the prisoners he had 
taken in Switzerland, he soon brought the Tsar to the side of 
France. Pavel had become Grand Master of the Knights of 
Malta, and had at first been furious at the seizure of that 
island by the French, but Bonaparte, seeing that Malta must 
soon surrender to the English, offered to transfer it to the 
Tsar. Pavel accepted gladly, but on September 5th, 1800, the 
island fell into the hands of the English, and the Tsar's plans 
were thus frustrated. Taking this as a personal insult, Pavel 
seized all English ships in Russian ports, and in December 
he revived the Armed Neutrality in conjunction with Den- 
mark, Sweden, and Prussia. The chief feature of the claims 
of these four countries was the abolition of the " right of 

* Monarch 74; Polyphemus 64; Ardent 64; Veteran 64; Olatton 54; Eomney 
54; Isis 50. The following ships were sent later to join Dickson: Cumber- 
land 74; Terrible 74; Resolution 74; Agamemnon 64; Eaisonnable 64; Man- 
mouth 64. 

t Pr. Sophia Trederica 70 ; Arveprinds Frederick 70 ; Skj0ld 70 ; Danmark 76. 

+ Neptunus 80; Justitia 70; Pr. Louise Augusta 60; Odin 70. 

Jylland 54 ; Mars 64. 

1800-1801. 303 

search.," and as this was a point on which England could not 
be expected to give way, the renewal of the Armed Neutrality 
was practically equivalent to a declaration of war against 
England by the Powers concerned. Accordingly, on 
March 12th, 1801, a fleet of twenty battleships left Yarmouth, 
for the Baltic, under Admiral Sir Hyde Parker.* 

At this time Russia had in theory forty-eight battleships in 
the Baltic, Denmark twenty-eight, and Sweden twelve, but the 
numbers actually available for service were very different. 
Russia set to work to commission eighteen, Denmark ten, and 
Sweden seven, but before even this reduced force could be con- 
centrated the English fleet had reached the Baltic. On March 
21st Parker anchored just outside the Sound. t A special envoy 
had been sent ahead in the Blanche 32 to endeavour to 
detach Denmark from her allies, but on the 23rd she returned 
with the news that the attempt had proved useless. Still, it 
was not until the 30th that the Englisn fleet passed the Sound. 
Parker had been informed by the Governor of Kronborg, in 
answer to his enquiry that he would resist the passage, and at 
7 a.m. the Danish guns opened fire. A few of the leading 
English ships replied, and the bomb-vessels fired into 
Helsinger, but no great harm was done on either side. The 
Swedish fortress of Helsingborg, having only a few inferior 
guns, did not fire, and the bulk of the fleet passed accordingly 
on that side of the straits. About noon the English fleet 
anchored near liven. 

As soon as it became obvious that the English fleet would 
reach the Baltic before the Allies could combine, the 
Danes had postponed the commissioning of their active 
battleship fleet and had devoted their attention to the equip- 
ment of a stationary force for the defence of Copenhagen. 
Eighteen ships of varying strength had been moored in a line 
stretching southwards from the Tre Krener battery along the 
coast of Amager Island; while in the actual harbour were 
two blockships or mastless battleships and the nucleus of the 
active fleet, two battleiships, one frigate, and fourteen small 
craft. The Danish defences were reconnoitred by Parker and 
his subordinates, Yice-Admiral Lord Nelson and Rear-Admiral 
Graves, in the afternoon of the 30th, and as a result of this 
inspection Nelson offered to attack from the south with ten 

* London 98; St. George 98; Defiance 74; Edgar 74; Elephant 74; Bellona 
74 ; Defence 74 ; Ganges 74 ; Monarch 74 ; Eamillies 74 ; Russell 74 ; Saturn 74 ; 
Warrior 74; Ardent 64; Agamemnon 64; Polyphemus 64; Raisonnable 64; 
Veteran 64 ; Glatton 54 ; Isis 50, seven frigates and twenty-three smaller 
vessels. The Zealous 74, Vengeance 74, and Brunswick 74 joined the fleet later 
in the year. 

t The Blazer 12 drifted to the Swedish coast and was captured, though 
eventually she was returned. 


battleships and all the smaller ships. Parker accepted this 
proposal and gave him another two battleships, so that Nelson's 
fleet, as finally arranged, consisted of the following ships : 
Elephant 74 (V.-Ad. Nelson), Defiance 74 (R-Ad. Graves), 
Edgar 74, Monarch 74, Bellona 74, Ganges 74, Russell 74, 
Agamemnon 64, Ardent 64, Polyphemus 64, Glatton 54, 

1 sis 50, Amazon 38, Desiree 40, Blanche 36, Alcmene 32, 
Arrow 30, ZtoT-t 30, Jamaica 26; two sloops, seven bombs, six 
gun-brigs, two fireships. 

With Parker were left the following eight battleships : 
London 98, St. George 98, Warrior 74, Defence 74, Saturn 74, 
Ramillies 74, Raisonanable 64, Feteran 64. 

The Danish line of defence was composed as follows, 
beginning from its southern end : 

Provesteen (blockship) 58, Wagrien (blockship) 52, Rends- 
borg (horse transport) 20. Nyborg (horse transport) 20, Jylland 
(blockship) 54, Svaerdfisk (pram) 18, Kronborg (mastless 
frigate) 22, Haj (pram) 18, Elv (sloop) 10, Dannebroge (block- 
ship) 60, Aggershuus (horse transport) 20, No. 1 (floating 
battery) 20, Sjaelland (battleship) 74, Charlotte Amaha (India- 
man) 26, S0hest (pram) 18, Holsteen (battleship) 60, Indfedsret 
(blockship) 64, Hjaelper (frigate) 16; the Tre Kroner 
battery 66. 

In the harbour mouth lay the following ships : 
Elephant (blo-ckship) 74, Mars (blockship) 64, Danmark 
(battleship) 74, Trekroner (battleship) 74, Iris (frigate) 40. 
Sarp (brig) 18, Nidelv (brig) 18, one cutter 6, eleven gunboats 

2 each. 

The channel between Amager and Saltholm, the ordinary 
" Drogden " channel past Copenhagen, is divided into two by 
a shoal known as the Middelgrund. The western channel here 
is called the Kongedyb and the eastern the Hollaenderdyb. 
Along the western edge of the Kongedyb ran the Danish line, 
which Nelson proposed to attack from the south. Accordingly, 
in the morning of April 1st, the English fleet left Hven and 
anchored near the northern end of the Middelgrund, while 
at 1 p.m., with the wind from the north-west, Nelson's ships 
got under way again, passed the Hollaenderdyb, and anchored 
at 8 p.m. jusit east of the southernmost point of the shoal. 
Captain Hardy, whom Nelson had brought with him from the 
St. George to the Elephant, went in a boat to investigate the 
channel, and at eleven o'clock he reported that the proposed 
attack was quite feasible. Nelson's plans were simple enough : 
the battleships were to go in in line ahead, and were to 
anchor by the stern on reaching their appointed stations. The 
Edgar, which was to lead the line, was to anchor abreast of 
the Jylland, the fifth ship in the Danish line. The next two 


[To face page 305. 

1801. 305 

ships were to pass the Edgar (passing to starboard) and anchor 
opposite the Kronborg and Dannebroge respectively. After 
this two battleships and a frigate were to attack the two 
southernmost Danes. The remaining battleships were then to 
take up their positions opposite the northern ships of the 
Danish line; two of them, the Russell and Polyphemus, 
were, in fact, to engage the Danish ships in the harbour 
mouth and the Tre Kroner battery, while the frigates, under 
Hiou, of the Amazon, were to assist in the attack on the 
northern ships of the main Danish line. The bombs were to 
take station to starboard of the battleships in the centre of 
the line, and the gun-brigs were to fire on the southernmost 
Danish ships. 

All that now remained was to wait for a fair wind, and, 
with Nelson's usual luck, this came at once. At 9.30 a.m. on 
April 2nd, with a south-easterly breeze, the English ships got 
under way and advanced to the attack. At 10.30 the Provesteen 
58 opened fire on the Edgar 74 and the action began. The first 
four ships of the English line took up their stations exactly 
enough. The Edgar anchored opposite the Jylland 54, the 
Ardent 64 passed her and engaged the Kronborg 22 and Svaerd- 
fisk 18, the Glatton went further and took up her position 
opposite the Hai 18, the Dannebroge 60, and the Elv 10, which 
was well behind the line, while the Isis 50 anchored so as to 
engage the Wagrien 52 and Provesteen 58. The Agamemon 
64 should have followed and should have also engaged the 
Provesteen, but she had been unable to weather the end of 
the Middelgrund, and had had to anchor again. Nelson there- 
fore signalled to the Polyphemus 64, which was originally to 
have been the last ship in the line, to take station astern of 
the Isis instead of proceeding to her pre-arranged station off 
the harbour mouth. The Bellona 74, which was to take station 
ahead of the Glatton, kept too far to starboard, and ran 
aground abreast of the Isis, and the Russell 74, following her 
closely, did the same; but Nelson, in the Elephant 74, seeing 
what had happened, went to port of these two ships and so 
indicated a safe course for the rest of his fleet. In the absence 
of the Bellona Nelson anchored somewhat astern of his intended 
station, and, in fact, all the rest of the English fleet had to take 
up positions rather to the south of those arranged. The last 
three battleships were the Ganges 74, Monarch 74, and 
Defiance 74 ; the first of these was hailed by Nelson and ordered 
to anchor as close as possible ahead of the Elephant, and she 
therefore took up her position a little south of the station 
originally intended for Nelson's flagship. The Monarch should 
have anchored opposite the Holsteen 60; but this would have 
put her too far ahead of the Ganges, so she stopped opposite 



the Charlotte Amalia 26 in such a position that she could help 
the Ganges to engage the Sjaelland 74. Finally, the Defiance, 
instead of attacking the Indfedsret 64, had to anchor, if any- 
thing, a little to the south of the Monarch's original station, 
opposite the Holsteen 60. 

The Russell was aground, and the Polyphemus employed 
elsewhere, so that there were no English battleships left to 
engage the Indfedsret and the Tre Kroner battery, much less 
the ships in the harbour mouth. Riou accordingly, with his 
five frigates, attempted to fill the place of the missing battle- 
ships. He anchored his own ship, the Amazon 38, opposite 
the Indfedsret 64, and the rest of his ships, anchoring by the 
stern, like the battleships, took up their positions in succession 
ahead of him. The result of this was that the Arrow 30 and 
Dart 30 found themselves required to take the place of the 
Russell 74 and Polyphemus 64, and engage not only the Tre 
Kroner battery, but also the Elephant 74 and Mars 64; but, 
naturally enough, they kept at long range, and were never 
really thoroughly engaged. The Desiree 40 took station as 
arranged to rake the Provesteen at the southern end of the 
Danish line, and the bombs from abreast of the Elephant and 
Ganges took some little part in the action ; but the Jamaica 26 
and the six gun-brigs could not weather the Middelgrund, 
and never got within range of the enemy. 

The action had begun at 10.30, and by about noon the last 
of the English ships was in position. From now onwards 
the battle became simply a matter of " downright fighting," 
as Nelson called it. Gradually the Danish fire was over- 
whelmed; but it was a slow business, and before much 
impression had been made there came the famous incident of 
Parker's signal. 

At the same time as Nelson's ships weighed to attack, 
Parker's eight battleships had also got under way, and had 
begun to beat up towards the northern end of the Danish line. 
Their progress was, however, slow, and it was evident mean- 
while that Nelson was finding more resistance than had been 
expected. The Agamemnon could be seen unable to get into 
action, the Bellona and Russell were flying signals of distress, 
and altogether it looked as if Nelson's fleet was doing badly. 
Accordingly, at about 1.15, Parker signalled to Nelson " Dis- 
continue the action." To what extent this signal was intended 
to be merely permissive, or to what extent, if so, Nelson was 
aware of this, is uncertain and will probably remain &o, but 
the fact remains that Nelson did not repeat the signal and the 
battle went on. The frigates, however, obeyed the order, and 
were probably saved thereby from destruction. They cut their 
cables and steered north-east towards Parker's division, but 

1801. 307 

just as they were drawing out of range Kiou, the captain of the 
Amazon, was killed. 

The rest of the fleet kept their positions and continued 
the action, and it was not long before the Danish defence 
began to weaken. Early in the action the Rendsborg 20 had 
her cables shot away and drifted ashore behind the Danish 
line, though she was still able to keep up the fight at long 
range. A little later, at 11.30, the Dannebroge 60 took fire. 
Commodore Fischer, the commander of the Danish fleet, left 
her for the Holsteen 60, but her captain, Braun, continued 
the action with great determination until he was wounded 
and had to give over the command. The fire spread, and at 
about 12.30, with 104 killed and wounded out of a crew of 
357 and only three guns able to fire, Lemming, her new 
commander, sent ashore as many men as his boats would hold 
and hauled down the flag. This left the Elv 10 and Agger- 
shuus 20 to face an overpowering fire, and they soon had to 
abandon their posts. The Elv cut her cables at one o'clock and 
got away into the harbour, and half an hour later the 
Aggershuus followed suit. This latter would, however, have 
been unable to escape if she had not been taken in tow by 
the Nyborg 20, which had been deprived of the support of 
the Rendsborg and had left the line in a sinking condition 
at 1.30. Both ships got into harbour, but the Nyborg sank 
there and the Aggershuus had to be put asJiore to save her 
from a similar fate. The Svaerdfisk 18 and Kronborg 22 had 
already surrendered, and the Jytland 54 was soon obliged to 
do the same. The retirement or surrender of these ships 
exposed the Hai 18 and the floating battery to a very heavy 
fire. At two o'clock the Hai struck her flag ; but Willemoes, the 
seventeen-year-old commander of the floating battery, cut his 
cables in the hope of drifting out of action. Instead of this 
he ran foul of the Sjaelland 74 and compelled her also to cut 
her cables. Together the two vessels drifted to the northern 
end of the line, and here the Sjaeland anchored again to prevent 
drifting down into Parker's division, while the floating battery 
managed to work round the Tre Kroner battery into the 
harbour. All the Danish ships from the fourth to the thirteenth 
in the line were thus out of action, and at about 2.30 the two 
southernmost ships, Wagrien 52 and Provesteen 58, with only 
two or three serviceable guns each, were forced to strike their 
flags. At about the same time the Rendsborg, ashore in the 
background, also surrendered. The five northernmost ships 
and the Sjaelland were naturally unable to resist the fire that 
was brought to bear on them on the withdrawal or surrender 
of the ships of the south. Danish accounts state that the 
Ganges, Monarch, and Elephant took up new stations to attack 



them, but there is no trace of this in the English logs, though 
they may very well have used their springs to bring their broad- 
sides to bear along the line of these last Danish ships. At 
any rate, the Danes were soon silenced. The Indfodsret 64, 
Charlotte Amalia 26, and Sehest 18 surrendered one by one, 
and at 2.30 Fischer left his second flagship, the Holsteen 60, 
and went to the Tre Kroner battery as the' ship struck. The 
Hjaelper 16 cut her cables and ran into the harbour, and 
finally, at about three o'clock, the Sjaelland 74 hauled down 
the last flag of the Danish line. 

The Tre Kroner batteries were still firing, and even the 
surrendered Danish ships resisted in many cases the attempts 
of the English to take possession. A little after two, therefore, 
Nelson sent in a letter to the Danish Crown Prince demand- 
ing to be allowed to take possession of his prizes, and 
threatening that unless he were allowed to do so he would 
have to burn them without removing their crews. The Crown 
Prince replied by sending his adjutant-general, Captain Lind- 
holm, to enquire Nelson's object in sending in a flag of truce. 
Nelson at once hoisted a white flag in the Elephant,* and 
wrote again saying that he consented to an armistice until 
he could remove or burn his prizes, and that he would on 
these conditions land the wounded Danes. At the same time 
he sent Lindholm for a more definite agreement to Sir Hyde 
Parker in the London, then four miles distant. Seeing the 
flag of truce hoisted on Lindholm's arrival on board the 
Elephant, the Crown Prince ordered a cessation of firing, and 
a little after three o'clock the action ended. 

The losses had been very great. Out of 5,234 men in the 
eighteen Danish ships engaged, 370 had been killed, 665 
wounded, and 205 were missing and had presumably been 
killed or drowned, while 1,779 were taken prisoners and 2,215 
escaped. In the same number of ships the English had lost 
255 killed and 688 wounded out of a total complement of about 
7,280. The heaviest loss suffered by any single ship was in 
the English Monarch, which lost 220 men out of 660, and 
next came the Danish Sjaelland, with 182 out of 533; but 
relatively speaking Willemoes' floating battery with a loss of 
forty-nine out of 129, suffered more severely than either of 
these. The loss in the Tre Kroner battery is not known, but 
was probably not great. In ships the Danes lost one burnt 
(the Dannebroge 60, which blew up at 3.30) and twelve 
captured, while of the southern line five ships escaped into 
the harbour. t No English ship was lost. 

A good deal of discussion took place after the battle as to 

* Garde Hist. ii. 387, from the logs of the Mars and Danmark. 
t The Nyborg sank in the harbour, but was refloated. 

1801. 309 

the relative forces of the two sides. The extreme statement 
on the Danish side was that 640 Danish guns fought against 
1,296 English, while Nelson himself estimated that the Danes 
had a superiority of 800 guns to 692. The whole question 
rests on the inclusion or omission of various ships and 
batteries that were only partially engaged, or perhaps not 
engaged at all. It seems fairest to count on the Danish side 
the 630 guns of the southern line of ships and to add to 
these the 66 guns of the Tre Kroner battery, but to omit the 
ships in the harbour mouth and the other batteries. On the 
English side the Agamemnon 64, the Jamaica 26, with the 
six gun-brigs and the two sloops, must be omitted, though 
the Bellona 74 and Russell 74 should undoubtedly be counted. 
With regard to the bombs it is harder to decide. They 
certainly opened fire, but only from their mortars, and they 
fired not on the Danish ships, but on the Arsenal in the back- 
ground. On the whole, it seems more reasonable to omit them, 
especially as the Danish gunboats have also been omitted, 
and they certainly were in action early in the 4 a y before 
retiring into the harbour again. The final result, then, is 
that 696 Danish guns fought against 956 English. Possibly 
the Mars 64 and Elephant 74 should be included on the Danish 
side, or the Arrow 30 and Dart 30 omitted on the English, 
but this is very doubtful, and at any rate it would still leave 
the English with a decided superiority. 

As soon as the action ended Nelson set to work to get 
his ships out of range of the Danish batteries. Parker's 
division was coming up slowly, and three ships the Defence 
74, Ramillies 74, and Veteran 74 were almost close enough 
to have joined in the action. Most of Nelson's ships got under 
way again safely and anchored with the Admiral's division 
at the northern end of the Kongedyb, but both flagships, the 
Elephant 74 and Defiance 74, went hard aground within easy 
range of the Tre Kroner battery. The Desiree 40 went to the 
assistance of the Bellona and Russell, and went aground in 
her turn, so that for the moment four battleships and a frigate 
of the English force were helpless. They were, however, 
protected by the flag of truce, and before evening, on Nelson's 
following Lindholm to the London, it was agreed that hostilities 
should be suspended for twenty-four hours, that the English 
should take possession of their prizes, and that the Danish 
wounded should be sent ashore. "All night the English crews 
were at work bringing out the prizes and refloating the 
grounded ships, and by daybreak on the 3rd the work was 
complete.* Negotiations then began, and eventually, on 
April 9th, an armistice was arranged for fourteen weeks OP. 

* The Desiree was not got off until the morning of the 4th. 


the terms that the Danes should during that period give no 
assistance to Sweden or Russia, and should allow the English 
to get water and supplies from the shore. The Danish prisoners 
were landed, but in case of a renewal of hostilities at the end 
of the armistice they were to count towards exchanging for 
any English who might be taken. 

Denmark was thus temporarily detached from the Armed 
Neutrality, and it remained to deal with Sweden and Russia. 
With this object Parker left Copenhagen for the Baltic on 
April 12th. He sent home the Monarch 74, I sis 50, and the 
Holsteen 60, the only one of the prizes that had been worth 
keeping,* and with the rest of his fleet he passed the Drogden 
Channel. The larger vessels had to unship their guns to a 
great extent and the passage was a slow business, but by the 
18th the fleet was in Kjoge Bay. 

The Swedes had agreed to send a squadron to help in the 
defence of Copenhagen, and had begun mobilisation in 

Their fleet was as follows! : 

Gustaf III. 70, Wladislav 64, Dristighet 62, Manlighet 62, 
Tapperhet 62, Forsigtighet 62, Wasa 60, Froja 40, Bellona 40, 
Camilla 40; two brigs, two cutters. 

On April 3rd Palmquist, the commander of this squadron, 
received the news that war had begun between Sweden and 
England, and was ordered to go to Copenhagen to join the 
Danes. Before he could sail came the news of the destruction 
of the Danish fleet on the 2nd, but even so he was ordered 
to sail for Copenhagen and attack the English. On the 13th 
he put to sea, and on the 15th off Bornholm he got in touch 
with the English cruisers. The destruction of his. little fleet 
seemed inevitable, but at this moment orders reached him to 
return, and that evening he arrived safely at Karlskrona and 
moored his ships in a line across the harbour. 

Parker had, as a matter of fact, started with the idea of 
proceeding to Revel to attack the Russian ships there before 
they could sail for Kronstadt, but finding that the Swedes were 
at sea he followed them to Karlskrona. Arriving off the 
harbour on the 20th, he sent in to enquire their intentions, 
and two days later he received assurances that the King of 
Sweden, though not prepared to abandon his allies, was ready 
to come to terms if a satisfactory agreement could be reached. 
Parker accordingly started for Revel, but on the 23rd he 
received a letter from the Russian Minister at Copenhagen 

* The Sjaelland 74 was unrigged, and was therefore not fit to cross to 
England, though she was only fourteen years old as compared to twenty-nine 
for the Holsteen. 

t Guns from Backstrom Aps. 21 and 24 ; lists for 1790 and 1809. 

1801. 311 

to inform him that the Tsar Pavel had been murdered on 
March 23rd, and that his successor, Aleksandr L, had ordered 
his fleet to abstain from all hostilities. On April 25th Parker 
anchored again in Kjoge Bay, and on May 5th he received 
orders to give up the command to Nelson and return home. 

The new commander wasted little time. He was. by no 
means certain of the Tsar's intentions, and he considered it 
essential to prevent the ships from Revel from reaching 
Kronstadt. He therefore weighed anchor on May 7th and 
steered for Bevel. Leaving his small craft off Bornholna, he 
sent the Edgar 74, Saturn 74, Russell 74, Raisonnable 64, 
Agamemnon 64, Glatton 54, and a frigate to cruise off Karls- 
krona, and wrote at the same time to Palmquist that the 
Swedish squadron would be attacked if it put to sea. With 
the rest of the fleet, twelve battleships,* one frigate, and two 
sloops, he proceeded to Bevel, and arrived there on the 14th, 
to find that the Bussian fleet had got away to Kronstadt a 
fortnight before. 

The Bussian Bevel fleet had consisted of the following 
eighteen battleships : 

Blagodat 130, Rostislav 100, Saratov 100, Evsevii 100, 
Syevernyi Orel 74, Sofia Magdalina 74, Aleksyei 74, Vsevolod 
74, Sysoi Velikii 74, Maksim Ispovyednik 74, Glyeb 74, Moskva 
74, Zatchatie Sv. Anny 74, Yaroslav 74, Izyaslav 74, lanuarii 
66, Archistratig Michail 72, Netron menya 66. 

On May 2nd it had left Bevel, and on the 6th it had reached 
Kronstadt, where a miscellaneous, squadron had been stationed 
to defend the approaches to the harbour. This squadron con- 
sisted of two unrigged battleships., nine frigates, two bomb 
vessels, four bomb cutters, twenty-three floating batteries^ and 
a few rowing vessels, but as it proved there was no need for 
these preparations. 

On arriving at Bevel, Nelson announced that he had come 
on a friendly visit, but the Tsar failed to see things in this 
light, and on the 16th Nelson was informed that the Tsar 
considered his presence as a threat and an insult. Nothing 
was to be gained by staying where he could only cause friction, 
and on May 17th he put to sea. Off Bornholm he was re- 
joined bv the rest of his fleet, and on the 24th he arrived 
for provisions at Bostock with some ships, while others went 
to Danzig or to Kjoge Bay, and a few remained off Bornholm 
under Bear-Admiral Totty, who had recently arrived from 
England with three battleships. Nelson had already applied 
to be relieved on the ground of ill-health, and on the 13th he 
heard that his application had been granted. He had arrived 

* London 98; St. George 98; Defiance 74; Defence 74; Bellona 74; Ganges 
74 ; Ramillies 74 ; "Warrior 74 ; Edgar 74 ; Elephant 74 ; Veteran 64 ; Ardent 64. 


in Kjoge Bay on the 6th, and there, on June 17th, Vice-Admiral 
Sir Charles Pole took over the command. Nelson left for 
home on the 18th in the brig Kite. 

The dissolution of the Armed Neutrality was now a question 
of diplomacy rather than fighting. Russia had now released 
all English merchantmen on June 19th, and had signed an 
agreement acceding to the more important English claims. 
An English fleet was no longer required in the Baltic, and 
at the end of July Pole was ordered home. He brought his 
fleet through the Great Belt against a head-wind, and 
thoroughly vindicated the possibility of passing that channel 
with the largest ships. Denmark and Sweden delayed some- 
what in coming to terms, but in October, 1801, and March, 
1802, they also agreed to the English demands.* 

* The Danish battleships, Norge 78 and Danmark 76, cruised in the Baltic 
in October. The Sejer 64, Najad 40, Havfru 40, and Freja 40 returned from 
the Mediterranean and were stationed at Christianssand. 

1801-1805. 313 




The next few years, though, important enough in European 
history, saw few naval operations in the Baltic. The Peace 
of Amiens, in March, 1802, gave Europe a year's rest, and it 
was therefore only natural that Baltic mobilisations should be 
small. Neither Denmark nor Sweden had any considerable 
fleet in commission, but Russia equipped eight battleships,* 
which went as far as Bornholm on a training cruise. In 1803 
war again began between France and England, and, in conse- 
quence, the Russian fleet was strengthened. Two fleets of 
thirteen battleships eacht were commissioned, and on May 30th 
the Revel fleet arrived at Kronstadt, but no further movements 
were undertaken. Next year only twelve Russian battleships 
were in commission in the Baltic. A fleet of ten battle- 
ships,:}: under Yice-Admiral Crown, left Kronstadt on July 19th, 
cruised off Bornholm for the first fortnight of August, and was 
back by September 2nd. Three battleships and two frigates 
of this squadron were detached on August 12th to cruise in 
the North Sea, but these ships were continually forced back 
by heavy weather, and never got much beyond Skagen. They 
returned to Copenhagen on September 23rd, left again on 
August 5th, and reached Revel on the 9th. After the return 
of these ships two battleships and two frigates left Kronstadt 
for the Levant under Captain-Commodore Greig to join the 
ships which had already been sent from the Black Sea to Corfu 
to support Austria against the French. Greig's ships were the 
Sv. Elena 74, Retvizan 66, Venus 44, and Aftroil 24. They 
arrived at Portsmouth early in November, left again towards 

* Blagodat 130; Sv. Petr 74; Elizaveta 74; Petr 74; Aleksyei 74; Mstislav 
74; Zatchatie Sv. Anny 74; Archistratig Michail 72. 

t Kronstadt: Sv. Nikolai 100; Saratov lOOt; loann Krestitel lOOf; Pamyat 
Evstafia 74t; Petr 74t; Boleslav 74; Mstislav 74; Aleksyei 74; Sv. Petr 74; 
lona 66f; Evropa 66; Panteleimon 66t; Michail 66. Revel: Blagodat 130; 
Eostislav 100; Vsevolod 74; Moskva 74; Olyeb 74; Taroslav 74; Elizaveta 74; 
Zatchatie Sv. Anny 74; Syevernyi Orel 74; Izyaslav 74; Archistratig Michail 
72; lanuarii 66; Netron menya 66. The ships marked t were sent to Revel in 

$ Taroslav 74 ; Sv. Petr 74 ; Boleslav 74 ; Zatchatie Sv. Anny 74 ; Izyaslav 74 ; 
Archistratig Michail 72f; Prints Karl 66f; Michail 66; Emgeiten 66f; 
lanuarii 66. The ships marked t went into the North Sea. 


the end of December, and finally reached Corfu in February, 

Two months later Russia joined England against France and 
Spain. Austria and Sweden also joined this new alliance, but 
Prussia tried to remain neutral. Save for the landing of 
troops at Stralsund to attack the French in Hanover, Sweden 
took no great part in the war, but the Russians were a little 
more active. A squadron of eleven battleships and ten frigates 
landed 18,000 men in Rugen to co-operate with the Swedes, 
and at the same time further detachments were sent to the 
Mediterranean. Three battleships were sent from the Black 
Sea, and in September Vice-Admiral Senyayin left Kronstadt 
with five others to take command in the Mediterranean. After 
the usual visit to Portsmouth he reached Corfu at the end of 
January, 1806, and soon began the capture of isolated French 
positions, but Napoleon's victories at Ulm and Austerlitz had 
upset the plans of the Allies on land, and soon compelled the 
Russo-Swedish force in Pomerania to retire to Stralsund.* 

In 1806 two important changes took place; war broke out 
between France and Prussia in October, and between Russia 
and Turkey in December. Before this, Senyavin's fleet had 
been reinforced by two battleships from the Black Sea, and 
another five soon joined him from the Baltic. Hoping to 
mediate between Turkey and Russia, or, failing this, to destroy 
or capture the Turkish fleet, the English sent a fleet of eight 
battleships to the Dardanelles. One ship was accidentally 
burnt, but the rest passed the Dardanelles on February 18th, 
destroyed a Turkish battleship and some smaller ships, and 
appeared off Constantinople. Now, however, Duckworth, the 
English Vice-Admiral, hesitated and delayed, and on March 3rd 
he repassed the Dardanelles with nothing accomplished. 
Senyavin appeared on the scene and suggested a combined 
attack, but Duckworth refused. The Russians, however, did 
well enough by themselves; they twice defeated the Turkish 
fleet, and on the second occasion, on July 1st, they captured 
a Turkish battleship. On land, however, Napoleon carried 
everything before him. Prussia was crushed, and the French 
armies advanced steadily eastward. A few small English 
ships helped in the defence of Danzig, but in vain; Danzig 
fell on May 27th, 1807, and one of the English ships, the 
Dauntless 18, was taken by the French. Nothing could stop 
the French now. The Russians were defeated again at Fried- 
land in June, and on July 7th and 9th the two treaties of 
Tilsit changed Russia and Prussia from enemies to allies of 

* Several Russian ships had to winter in foreign ports. The Oavriil 100 and 
Zatchatie Sv. Anny 74 had to be repaired at Copenhagen, and a battleship and 
a frigate wintered at Karlskrona. 

1805-1807. 315 

France. England had intended to give some help against the 
French by landing an army at Stralsund, in Swedish Pomer- 
ania, but this force was delayed, and did not reach B/iigen 
until July 16th, when peace had already been arranged. Still, 
King Gustaf IV. of Sweden thought he saw a chance of success 
in the support of this army of 10,000 men. He therefore 
renewed the war, but the English contingent was withdrawn 
almost at once, and the Swedes were soon crushed. At the 
end of August they evacuated Stralsund and retired to E/iigen, 
and on September 7th they had to give up that island also to 
the victorious French and thus relinquish the last of their 
possessions south of the Baltic. 

The reason for the withdrawal of the English troops from 
Stralsund had been that they were wanted for use against 
Denmark, It was supposed that the Danes intended to join 
the coalition against England and Sweden, and certainly it 
would have been possible for France and Prussia in combina- 
tion to force them to do so. Napoleon would thus have at his 
disposal the Russian and Danish Navies, and this the English 
Government resolved to prevent at all costs. Accordingly, on 
July 26th, Admiral Gambier left Yarmouth with seventeen 
battleships, and at the same time Cathcart was ordered to bring 
his troops from R/iigen to Copenhagen to join a further 17,000 
which were sent out with Gambier. The English fleet arrived off 
Gothenburg on August 1st, and four battleships, three frigates, 
and ten brigs were sent at once under Commodore Keats to 
occupy the Great Belt, to prevent any of the Danish troops 
in Holstein from reaching Sjaelland. On the 3rd, Gambier 
entered the Sound and anchord off Helsinger. During the 
next few days eight battleships and a frigate joined, but one 
battleship was sent to join Keats. The troops from E-iigen 
also arrived, and all was ready for the attack. Gambier' s 
fleet was now composed as follows : 

Main fleet : Prince of Wales 98, Pompee 74, Minotaur 74, 
Centaur 74, Spencer 74, Valiant 74, Mars 74, Defence 74, Maida 
74, Brunswick 74, Resolution 74, Hercule 74, Alfred 74, Goliath 
74, Captain 64, Ruby 64, Dictator 64, Inflexible 64, Ley den 
64, Agamemnon 64, and about twenty-five smaller ships. 

Keats' division : Superb 74, Ganges 74, Vanguard 74, Orion 
74, Nassau 64 (ex Danish Holsteen), and thirteen smaller 

The Danes had as yet no clue to the intentions of the Eng- 
lish force, but they had as a precaution begun to put Copen- 
hagen in a state of defence. As a matter of fact, it was not 
until August 8th that the English demands were presented. 
On that date five days after Gambier had entered the Sound 
Jackson, the English representative, explained to the Danish 


Crown Prince at Kiel the purpose of the expedition. He 
pointed out that Denmark could undoubtedly be forced to go 
over to the French side, and demanded that the Danish fleet 
should be handed over to England until the conclusion of 
peace between England and France. On these conditions Eng- 
land would protect Denmark from a French attack, but in. the 
event of a refusal the fleet would be taken by force and retained. 
Naturally enough the Crown Prince refused to accept such a 
humiliating proposal. The English demands were rejected at 
once, and the Crown Prince started for Copenhagen to organise 
the defence. On August llth he arrived, and next day King 
Christian VII. left for Jylland. To gain time for preparations 
the Crown Prince ordered Jackson to be delayed as much as 
possible on his journey to Copenhagen, and it was therefore 
not until the 13th that he was able to authorise Gambier to 
proceed to active measures. 

The Danish defences were hardly so formidable as in 1801. 
On shore were the Citadel, with twenty guns, and the Chris- 
tianus Sextus battery, with forty-six, west and east respec- 
tively of the entrance to the inner harbour, and on the eastern 
side of Amager Island were a few small batteries. There were 
also the two advanced batteries Tre Kroner and Provesteen, the 
first armed as in 1801 with sixty-six guns, and the second 
somewhat to the south, formed of three old battleships,* which 
had been sunk in 1802, and armed with eighty-nine guns. 
Besides these fixed works there were the following ships and 
gunboats in the harbour mouth: Mars 60 (blockship), St. 
Thomas 22 (blockship), Hai 20 (pram), Svaerdfisk 20 (pram), 
Kjaemp 20 (pram), fifteen gunsloops of 6 each,t eleven gun- 
boats of 8 each,:}: four bombs, and one gunboat of 5. There 
were also to the south, between Amager and the mainland, the 
Mercurius 18 and four small craft. 

The other ships at Copenhagen were in the dockyard, and as 
yet unready for service. 

At Helsinger was the Danish frigate FredricJcsvaern 36, and 
her position was naturally critical. Her captain, Gerner, 
slipped his cable soon after midnight on August 12th-13th, 
with the intention of moving to Copenhagen, but the wind 
was foul and he had to shape a course for Norway. The 
English would in all probability have allowed him to proceed 

* Elephant 70; Oresund 70; Pr. Wilhelmine Caroline 60. 

t Kallundborg, Helsingoer, Nestved, Saltholm, Fredrikssund, Stubbekj0bing, 
R0dby, Atsens, Kjerteminde, Holbek, Nysted, Svendborg, Faaborg, Middelfart, 

t Arendal, Aalborg, Wiborg, Nykjobing, Odense, Flensborg, Stege, Langesund, 
Christiansund, Stavaern. 

Called in English accounts the Fredrikscoarn. 

1807. 31T 

to Copenhagen, but his steering northwards was obviously an 
attempt to escape, and accordingly, at 2.30 p.m. on the 13th, 
Gambier sent in pursuit the Defence 74 and Comus 22.* The 
wind being very light, the Comus sailed much faster than the 
Defence, and at midnight on the 14th-15th she came up with 
the Fredriksvaern and summoned her to surrender. Gerner, 
of course, refused, and an action began. The Comus first 
raked her opponent and then boarded, and in less than an 
hour the Danish ship was taken. The Fredriksvaern lost 
twelve killed and twenty wounded, while the Comus had only 
one man wounded. 

On August 15th the English fleet moved to Vedbaek, half 
way between Helsinger and Copenhagen, and next morning the 
greater part of the troops were landed here unopposed, while 
the fleet moved again nearer to Copenhagen. On the 16th, also, 
the Danish flotilla began to move. Commodore-Captain Krieger 
left the harbour with six gunboats to attack some English 
merchantmen and storeships which were working northwards 
through the Drogden channel. The wind got up and forced 
him back, but next morning he managed to take and burn an 
English timber-ship. He was engaged by the English "Advanced 
Squadron " of three sloops, four bombs, seven gun-brigs, t 
four armed storeships, and ten ships' boats carrying mortars, 
but was supported by his own bomb-vessels and by the shore 
batteries, and escaped unharmed. The same day the English 
fleet took up its position about four miles north-east of the 
harbour mouth. In the morning of the 18th the Danish gun- 
sloops went northwards to prevent the landing of the English 
cavalry at Skovshoved, south of Vedbaek, but they were re- 
pulsed by the English flotilla with the aid of a battery which 
had been thrown up on the left flank of the English army at 
Svanemellen. Five gunsloops were sent to attack this bat- 
tery on the 19th, but were not supported by the Danish land 
forces, and had to withdraw. On the 20th, 1800, soldiers were 
sent against the battery, and nine gunsloops helped in the 
attack, but both by land and sea the Danes were repulsed. In 
the meantime a few shots had been exchanged on the 18th 
between the English bombs and the Provesteen and Christianus 
Quintus batteries, and on the 20th between the English and 
Danish bombs. On the 21st three English battleships went 
south through the Hollaenderdyb, and the same day some 
9,000 men were landed in Kjoge Bay. The English army now 
began to throw up new batteries in advance of the Svanemellen 

* She carried really 32 guns. 

t Hebe 18, Cruiser 18, Mutine 18 (sloops); Thunder 8, Vesuvius 10, Aetna 8, 
Zebra 12 (bombs) ; Kite 18 ; Fearless 14, Pincher 14, Urgent 14, Safeguard 14, 
Desperate 14, Indignant 12 (brigs). 


position, and on the 22nd two Danish prams, the Svaerdfisk 
20, and Kjaemp 20, moved out to prevent this. The English 
Advanced Squadron closed in, and at 10 a.m. on the 23rd a 
brisk action began. The English ships were attacked by the 
Tre Kroner battery and all the Danish flotilla, and eventually 
at 2 p.m. they had to retire. The Danes then attacked the 
English batteries, but were repulsed; the English ships lost 
four killed and thirteen wounded, the Danes seven killed and 
eleven wounded, and several ships on either side were some- 
what damaged. On the 26th another combined sortie was 
made on the northern side. Eight gunsloops and five gunboats 
were engaged, but the English batteries were too strong and 
the Danes had to retreat. One gunsloop, the Stubbekjobing, 
was blown up and several others damaged; the Danish flotilla 
lost thirty-two killed and eighteen wounded. On the 25th a 
few Danish small craft were sent to join the Merkurius 18 in 
Kallebostrand and attack the southern division of the English 
Army. They failed to accomplish much, and on the 27th a 
new English battery forced them to withdraw with six killed 
and five wounded. Three days passed without incident, but 
on August 31st the Danes again attacked the English positions 
north of the harbour. As before, they were repulsed, but the 
fire of the Danish forts did some damage to the English flotilla, 
and the armed storeship Charles was blown up. The English 
lost ten killed and twenty-one wounded, the Danes one killed 
and four wounded. 

By September 1st the English batteries were ready for a 
bombardment, and on that day Gambier and Cathcart sent in 
to demand a surrender. General Peymann refused, and at 
7.30 p.m. on the 2nd the bombardment began. The English 
bombs and gun-brigs moved in to join in the bombardment, 
but were driven off by the Danish gunboats. Firing stopped 
at 8 a.m. on the 3rd, but began again at 6 p.m., and went on 
through the night. Fires broke out everywhere, but for some 
time the Danes were able to keep these in check. At last 'he 
great timber-yard caught fire, but even then there was no sign 
of surrender. Accordingly, at 7 p.m. on the 4th, the bom- 
bardment was resumed and went on steadily. The fires in the 
city became more and more frequent and unmanageable, and 
at last, at 5 p.m. on September 5th, General Peymann sent to 
ask for a truce as a preliminary to capitulation. The English 
commanders insisted on the surrender of the Danish fleet as 
an essential of any arrangement, but stopped the bombard- 
ment, and sent their representatives to draw up an agreement, 
and in the morning of September 7th this was signed. The 
Danish fleet and its stores was ceded to England, and all hos- 
tilities were to cease. The English were to take possession of 

1807. 319 

the citadel and dockyard, but were to withdraw as soon as they 
had removed their prizes, and were allowed six weeks for this 

The following were the ships thus surrendered : 

Battleships : Christian VII. 90, Neptunus 80, Waldemar 
80, Pr. Sophia Friderica 70, Justitia 70, Arveprinds Friderich 
70, Kronprinds Frederik 70, Fyen 70, Odin 70, Tre Kroner 70, 
Skjeld 70, Kronprinds esse Maria 70, Danmark 76, Norge 78, 
Pr. Caroline 66, Seier 64, Mars 60,* Ditmarschen 60.* Three 
74's on the stocks were destroyed. 

Frigatesf: Perl 46, Freja 40, Iris 40, Rota 40, Havfru 40, 
Najad 40, Nymph 36, Fern** 36, Frederiksteen 26, TVitow 22,* 
5. Thomas 22,* LiZ/e #eZ 20, Fj/ZZa 20, j^i^er 16, Elv 16, 
Gluckstadt 12. 

Brigs, etc.: 5arp 18, Glommen 18, Nidelv 18, Delphin 18, 
Mercurius 18, Allart 18, Coureer 18, Brevdrager 14, Flyvende 
Fisk 14, 0m 10. 

Gunboats : Odense, Arendal, Wiborg], Langesund, Aalborg, 
Christiansund, Stege, Flensborg, Nasko'v, Stavaern, Nykjobing, 
8 each. 

Gunsloops : Roeskilde, Helsing0er, Frederiksund, Saltholm, 
Nestved, Kallundborg, Holbek, Nysted, R0dby, Kierteminde, 
Svendborg, Assens, Middelfart, Faaborg, 6 each. 

Prams, etc.+ : Svaerdfisk 20, Lindorm 20, Hai 20, Kjaemp 
20, Battery No. 1 24, Macrel 4, Wildand 4, two bomb- vessels, 
one " gunyawl." 

On October 20th the last of the English troops were re- 
embarked, and on the following day the fleet, with its prizes, 
sailed for England. The Neptunus 80 went aground on Hven 
and had to be burnt, and, finally, heavy weather made it neces- 
sary to abandon all save three of the gunboats and gunsloops, 
but the rest of the fleet reached the English coast in safety. 

The Danish Navy had almost ceased to exist. It had two 
battleships in Norway and a few small craft either there or in 
southern waters, but in spite of the recovery of a few vessels 
which the English abandoned its total strength was now only 
thirty ships, and over half of these were very small. England, 

* These ships were destroyed as useless. The Mars and St. Thomas were 
blockships, the Ditmarschen was in dock. The Triton was burnt on the Swedish 

t The Fredriksvaern 32 was also taken to England. 

J These are not mentioned in the English accounts, and, as a matter of fact, 
most of them were recovered by the Danes. Of the four prams three had been 
sunk, and two of these were refloated, while the fourth was abandoned and 
retaken; the Hai could not be refloated. The floating battery, the two 4-gun 
yachts and one bomb-vessel were also recovered. The three gunsloops, Nestved, 
Holbek, and Nysted went ashore in Norway and were retaken, and the gun- 
sloop Faaborg and gunboat Nykj0bing were recovered near Copenhagen. 


however, gained little by her new acquisitions : fifteen battle- 
ships reached English ports, but only four of these* were 
considered worth fitting for sea, and the rest were never em- 
ployed. Some of the frigates and brigs were used, but on 
the whole the Danish ships proved of little value to their 
captors. In spite of their losses the Danes were by no means 
prepared to accept the situation, and they therefore prepared 
to resume the war directly after the English had left Sjaelland. 
They formed an alliance with France, and by building an 
immense number of gunboats and other small craft they were 
soon in a position to cause England a good deal of trouble. 

A few other incidents had, however, taken place during the 
English invasion of Sjaelland. The island of Heligoland had 
been taken from Denmark by the English Quebec 32, supported 
by the Majestic 74, on September 5th. It remained in English 
hands for eighty years, but was ceded in 1890 to Germany in 
return for concessions in Africa. The French capture of 
Stralsund made it necessary to prevent help reaching Copen- 
hagen from thence, and Keats was therefore ordered to send 
some ships from the squadron in the Belt to establish a blockade. 
There were, as has been seen, two Danish battleships which 
escaped confiscation by being in Norwegian waters instead of 
at Copenhagen. One of these, the Prins Christian Frederik 66, 
was serving as a training ship, and reached Christiansand with 
the brig Long 18 on August 10th. The crew of the battleship 
were transferred to the Prinsesse Louisa Augusta 60, which 
was laid up there, and this ship was ordered to sail with the 
Loug to Copenhagen for repairs, while the Prins Christian 
Frederik was laid up in her turn at Christiansand. The two 
ships were ready to sail on August 12th, but were delayed for 
two days by head winds. On the 14th news arrived of the 
presence of a large English fleet in the Sound, and on the 16th 
the Danish ships, instead of proceeding to Copenhagen, went to 
Frederiksvaern, a fortified harbour 100 miles N.E. of Chris- 
tiansand. Every effort was now made to fit out the Prins 
Christian Frederik and the nine gunboats which were in 
Frederiksvaern. On September 6th, on hearing that an Eng- 
lish battleship had been sighted, Commodore-Captain Sneedorff 
left Frederiksvaern with the Pr. Louisa Augusta and Loug to 
attack, but was driven back by heavy weather without sighting 
the enemy. The English, however, soon appeared off Chris- 
tiansand, and were in time to prevent the Pr. Christian 
Frederik from leaving for Frederiksvaern. On September llth 
the Spencer 74 arrived off the harbour with a frigate and three 
smaller ships. An attack was expected, and batteries were 
prepared, while three gunsloops and two gunyawls were sent 

* Christian VII. 90; Norge 78; Danmark 76; Pr. Caroline 66. 

1807. 321 

from Frederiksvaern to help in the defence, but the English 
made no move, and it was not until September 27th that Cap- 
tain Stopford, who had been joined by another battleship, sent 
in to demand the surrender of the Danish ships. A refusal 
was, of course, returned, and two days later the Pr. Christian 
Frederik managed to escape unnoticed to Frederiksvaern. 

Expecting an English attack, the Danish ships prepared to 
leave Frederiksvaern for a safer harbour, and on October 7th the 
two battleships, the brig, and a few gunboats moved to 
Frederikstad, on the other side of the mouth of Christiania 
Fjord, 40 miles further east, to join the other ships there, but 
off Frederiksvaern they found the English brig Nightingale, 
and at dawn on October 25th the three gunsloops attacked her ; 
the wind, however, freshened, and the English ship escaped. 
Now that the English fleet had left the Sound, the few remain- 
ing Danish ships were ordered to attack any detached English 
ships which they could find. The Long 18 accordingly left 
Frederikstad for Frederiksvaern on November 5th, and on the 
18th the Pr. Louisa Augusta 60 and Pr. Christian Frederik 66 
also put to sea. The former ship soon proved unseaworthy, 
and had to go to Frederiksvaern for repairs on November 23rd. 
At once Sneedorff was ordered to take his three ships to attack 
an English battleship in the Sound, and on the 30th he put to 
sea again, but the Long was out of reach at Christiansand, and 
he therefore went on with the two battleships only. In the 
night of December 2nd-3rd these two ships found themselves 
among the ships of an English convoy. Not knowing the force 
of the convoying warships, they slipped away, meaning to 
attack if possible next morning, but at daybreak the convoy 
was out of sight. They then chased an English brig without 
success, and on December 4th they reached Copenhagen. After 
a cruise as far as Falsterbo the Pr. Louisa Augusta was laid 
up on December 12th, but the Pr. Christian Frederik went 
back to Norway with a convoy and cruised with the Loug off 
the Norwegian coast all through the winter. 

The only other action of this year took place in Kallebo- 
strand, inside Amager. The Danish gunsloop Faaborg 6 was 
attacked by two English brigs on November 15th. One brig 
was damaged early in the action and withdrew, but the other 
closed in and damaged the Faaborg enough to necessitate her 
being run ashore. The enemy shewed signs of intending to 
board, but other Danish ships sent men to help, and the brig 
eventually retired. In spite of the war with Denmark, the 
only English ships which were left for the winter were the 
Vanguard 74 and a few small craft, and these for the most 
part stayed at Gothenburg. 

The war in the Baltic soon spread to include Russia and 



Sweden. On November 18th, 1807, the Tsar declared war on 
England, and at the end of February 1808 a Russian army 
entered Finland to attack Sweden, England's ally. On 
February 29th Denmark also declared war on Sweden, and 
French troops were allowed to enter Danish territory for the 
purpose of a combined attack on Skane. The duties of the 
English Navy under these circumstances were many and 
various. It had to keep the Sound open for merchantmen, 
sever communications between Denmark and Norway, occupy 
the Belt to prevent the passage of French troops on their way 
to attack Sweden, support the Swedish fleet against the Rus- 
sians, and blockade the French ports on the German coast. 
The fleet sent was, however, by no means excessively large for 
its duties. It was composed as follows : 

Victory 100, Centaur 74, Superb 74, Implacable 74, Bruns- 
wick 74, Mars 74, Orion 74, Goliath 74, Vanguard 74, Dictator 
64, Africa 64, Stately 64, Nassau 64 (ex Danish Holsteen), five 
frigates, many small craft 

Gothenburg was chosen as the rendezvous, and the English 
ships sailed thither as they got ready. The bulk of the fleet 
reached Gothenburg in April, and on May 17th there arrived 
an English army of 10,000 men under Sir John Moore. These 
troops were intended to help in the defence of Sweden, but 
owing to misunderstanding between Gustaf IV. and Sir John 
they were never even disembarked, and left again for home at 
the beginning of July. The fleet, however, showed consider- 
able activity, and its operations must now be considered; but 
for this purpose it will be easier to consider separately the two 
parts of the war, firstly that in which England and Sweden 
were opposed to Denmark, and secondly that in which they 
were opposed to Russia. 

The Danes were feverishly building gunboats in every pos- 
sible harbour, and, in fact, completed during the year nearly 
150 of these small craft. The object before them was to enable 
the French troops in Holstein to cross the Belt to Sjaelland, 
and then attack Skane, but the presence of the English fleet 
proved an insuperable obstacle. Early in the year the Pr. 
Christian Frederik 68* nearly succeeded in taking the English 
frigate Quebec 32, on her way to Gothenburg with the subsidy 
paid by England to Sweden. Two English battleships, Stately 
64 and Nassau 64, were therefore sent on in advance of the 
main fleet to check the Danes' activity, and early in March 
these reached Gothenburg and joined the Vanguard 74, which 
had wintered there. At the same time the Pr. Christian 
Frederik was recalled to cruise in the Belt, and on March llth 
she anchored at Helsinger. The Loug 20* was left in Nor- 

* Two guns had been added to the armament of each of these ships. 

1808. 323 

wegian waters, and on March 14th she engaged the English 
brig Childers 14. The English claim to have had the better 
of the encounter, but lost eleven men out of a crew of fifty-six, 
and were unable to effect anything decisive. 

English cruisers had appeared in the Great Belt, and on 
March 18th the Pr. Christian Frederik was ordered to proceed 
thither to clear a passage for the French troops. She started 
on the 21st, and the same day the Vanguard 74, Stately 64, and 
Nassau 64 reached Helsingborg from Gothenburg. On hearing 
from the Swedes of the Danish ship's departure the two English 
64's started in pursuit, while the Vanguard was left in the 
Sound. At 1.30 p.m. on March 21st the Pr. Christian 
Frederik, when off Sjaellands Rev, a point fifty miles west of 
the Sound, sighted two English frigates steering into the Belt 
from the north. Both sides kept on their course towards the 
Belt, and at six o'clock they anchored near Refsnaes, twenty- 
five miles south-west of Sjaellands Rev, the Danish ship being 
about five miles north of the two English. At eight o'clock 
next morning the frigates began to beat up towards the Dsne 
and Jessen, her commander, retired northwards, with the in- 
tention of drawing them away from the Belt and then attack- 
ing. At first this plan went well enough. The three ships 
beat northwards with a wind from the N.N.E., and the Eng- 
lish ships were joined by a sloop, but at about 2 p.m., when 
near Sjaellands Rev the Pr. Christian Frederik sighted the 
Stately and Nassau approaching from the north. After hold- 
ing a council of war Jessen decided to retreat towards the 
Sound, and at 5.30 the Pr. Christian Frederik weathered 
Sjaellands Rev while the enemy were still three miles off. 
Now, however, the wind veered, and made it difficult to lie 
the course for the Sound, while the position of the English 
ships made tacking inadvisable. Jessen therefore kept close 
along the coast of Sjaelland ready to run ashore if necessary. 
At 7.30 the Pr. Christian Frederik opened fire on the Nassau, 
and a little later that ship came up to starboard, while the 
Stately took up her position on the port quarter of the Danish 
ship. Both sides suffered severely, and about nine o'clock the 
English ships hauled off for a few minutes for repairs. They 
soon returned, and now the Quebec 32* also joined in the 
action. The Nassau lay as before, to starboard of the Pr. 
Christian Frederik, the Stately on her port bow, and the 
Quebec on her port quarter. Naturally the Danes could not 
hold out long against such odds, and at 10.30 Jessen surren- 
dered. He was then close to the shore, and hoped that the 
English ships would go aground; but they went about and 

* Danish accounts give her 44 guns and the battleships 68 each. English ships 
nearly always carried more than their rated armament. 

x 2 


escaped, though the Pr. Christian Frederik, in spite of an 
anchor let go by her captors, went hard and fast on the rocks. 
She had suffered heavy loss, and had, in fact, 64 killed and 
129 wounded out of a crew of 576 a loss of just one-third of 
her total complement. The Stately had 4 killed and 31 
wounded; the Nassau 3 killed and 17 wounded. Among those 
killed on the Danish side was Willemoes, the hero of the 
Floating Battery No. 1 in 1801. Next morning the Prins 
Christian Frederik was found to be hard aground, and all 
attempts to move her were in vain. The Danes ashore were 
bringing up artillery, and accordingly in the evening of 
March 23rd the English burnt her and withdrew. 

A month later, on April 23rd, the English ships Daphne 20, 
Tartarus 18, and Forward 12 destroyed a Danish storeship off 
Fladstrand, in Jylland, and in the night of the 25th-26th their 
boats cut out five other Danish storeships from under the guns 
of the fort. On the 28th a force of twenty-four Danish gun- 
boats from the Norwegian coast attempted an attack on Strom- 
stad just south of Frederikshald, but were repulsed after two 
hours 3 fighting by four Swedish gunsloops, one mortar boat, 
and three guns ashore. The Danes lost eleven men, and the 
Swedes nineteen. A little later in the year the Swedish force 
was joined by twenty gunboats from Gothenburg, and at the 
end of May some thirty Swedish vessels attacked six Danish 
gunboats among the islands south of Christiania Fjord, but 
were no more successful than the Danes had been at Stromstad. 
About the same time, on May 23rd, five Danish gunboats left 
Frederiksvaern to attack the Swedish frigate Froja 40, but the 
wind rose, and the frigate got away easily enough. 

The English sloop Falcon 16 did some good work at the 
northern end of the Great Belt. On April 29th her boats 
destroyed fourteen Danish boats in the islands of Endelau and 
Thuno. On May 3rd she chased back into harbour a large 
Danish schooner, and on the 7th her boats discovered two 
Danish vessels laden with warlike stores under the guns of 
Lundholm, in the island of Samso; one Danish ship was cap- 
tured and the other destroyed. On May 15th the English 
frigate Tartar 32 (carrying in reality 40 guns) appeared off 
Bergen under the Dutch flag. Her object was to attack the 
Dutch frigate Guelderland, which had been there for repairs, 
but she had left a fortnight before. The Tartar, however, 
worked in towards the town, and during the nifrht sent in her 
boats to attack the shipping in the harbour. They were dis- 
covered and forced to retreat. The frigate then advanced, 
but was attacked by the schooner Odin and three gunboats 
carrying two guns each. Her captain, Bettesworth, was killed 
at once, and after an hour the Tartar took advantage of an off- 

1808. 325 

shore wind to escape. She lost twelve men, while the Danish 
loss was only four. On May 24th the English hired cutter 
Swan 10 met and engaged a Danish privateer of eight or ten 

uns off Bornholm. After twenty minutes the Dane blew up. 
he Swan suffered no loss. 

Now there began a series of English reverses. On June 4th 
the Ticlder 14 was attacked in the Great Belt by four Danish 
gunboats. A calm enabled the Danish vessels to take up posi- 
tions where the brig could not reply ; but she held out for four 
hours, and then surrendered with 37 killed and wounded out 
of a crew of fifty. The Danes had one officer wounded. On 
June 8th two English frigates made an unsuccessful attack on 
Christiansand, and had to withdraw after two hours' fighting. 
Next day an English convoy of seventy merchantmen left 
Malmo, under the escort of the bomb-vessel Thunder and the 
brigs Charger, Piercer, and Turbulent 16. At 5 p.m., when 
the convoy was off Saltholm, the wind fell, and at the same 
moment it was attacked by twenty-one Danish gunboats and 
seven mortar boats from Copenhagen. Twelve of the mer- 
chantmen and the Turbulent were cut off from the rest of the 
convoy, and the brig was soon boarded and taken. The Danes 
now went after the Thunder, and opened fire on her at about 
six o'clock, but the wind rose again, and finally, fearing an 
attack by the Swedish gunboats in Malmo,* they ceased firing 
at about 10.30, and withdrew with their prizes. Five of the 
merchantmen went aground and were burnt, but the rest, with 
the Turbulent, were taken into Copenhagen. On June llth, 
in the Great Belt, the boats of the Euryalus 36 and Cruiser 18 
cut out a Danish gunboat carrying two 18-pounders and 
destroyed two transports, but this success was soon counter- 
balanced by other defeats. On the 19th, off Christiansand, the 
Danish Loug 20 attacked the Seagull 16. After an hour's 
action four Danish gunboats joined in, but even so the Seagull 
held put for nearly another hour before striking. She had 
lost eight killed and twenty wounded, while the Loug had lost 
one killed and thirteen wounded, but the gunboats had not 
been hit. The Seagull was taken inshore and sank, but was 
afterwards refloated. 

On June 15th an indecisive action took place at the mouth 
of Kiel Fjord between three Danish gunboats and an English 
brig and three gunboats. On the 20th two Danish gunboats 
were attacked between Fyen and Langeland by two English 
brigs. One of the brigs went aground, but the action went on 
for four hours and <a half. At last the Danes ran out of ammu- 

* According to the Danish story there were twenty-one gunboats there. 
Mankell says there were twenty-nine in Malmo and Landskrona. It is strange 
that they made no attempt to help the English. 


nition and retired. Next morning they returned with two more 
gunboats, but the brig- had been refloated, and they found no 
enemy. In the night of June 25th-26th six Danish gunboats on 
their way to the southern end of the Great Belt were attacked 
by an English battleship, but after an hour she withdrew. On 
July 1st the Exertion 12 ran aground in the Belt, and was 
promptly attacked by a Danish schooner and two gunboats, but 
drove them off. A month later, in the evening of August 2nd, 
the Tigress 14 was captured by sixteen Danish gunboats after 
a short action near Agerso, in the Belt, and taken into Nakskov, 
with a loss of eight men. The same gunboats had on July 25th 
captured four Swedish merchantmen from a convoy in charge 
of a Swedish brig. 

There was, as a matter of fact, a very considerable English 
force in the Belt at this time. Napoleon's Spanish troops had 
been told off for the invasion of Sweden, and were in conse- 
quence quartered in Denmark. Hearing of the rising in Spain 
against Napoleon, they were anxious to proceed thither to help, 
and here the English fleet was able to be of use. The Spaniards 
were, however, split up into several detachments, and it was 
not easy to unite them. Hear- Admiral Keats entered the Belt 
with the three 74-gun battleships Superb, Brunswick, and 
Edgar, besides many smaller ships, and he soon began to make 
the necessary arrangements. As the first step the three regi- 
ments in Fyen under the Marquis dela Romana seized the town 
of Nyborg on August 9th. They then proposed to go by sea 
to Langeland, but were kept back by two small Danish ships, 
the Fama 14 and Soorm 8. These two ships were, therefore, 
attacked and taken the same evening by the English brig Kite 
16, the bombs Hound and Devastation, three gunboats, and two 
armed boats. This left the Spaniards free to move, and on 
the llth they were embarked in fifty-seven small merchantmen 
and taken to Langeland. Some of those in Jylland also 
reached Langeland, but others, and particularly those in 
Sjaelland, failed to get away, and were disarmed and sent to 
France as prisoners. Still, some 7,600 men were thus enabled 
to escape, and, embarking in English transports on August 
22nd, they reached Gothenburg safely on the 27th, and pro- 
ceeded thence to Spain. 

On August 18th the English battleship Africa 64 was 
attacked off Copenhagen by twelve gunboats, and had to retreat 
into Malmo. On September 3rd, at 10 p.m., twenty-one 
Danish gunboats attacked the English brigs Kite 16 and 
Minx 13, at anchor off Sprogo, in the Great Belt. The Minx 
escaped at once, but the Kite suffered severely, and lost fifteen 
men before getting away to the protection of an English battle- 
ship. On the other hand, the Cruiser 18, attacked on October 

1808. 32T 

1st by twenty Danish, gunboats near Gothenburg, managed to 
drive them off and took one of them, but a little later an Eng- 
lish battleship nearly fell a victim to the Danish small craft. 
The Africa 64 left Karlskrona on October 15th. with, the bomb 
Thunder and two brigs, escorting a convoy of 137 homeward- 
bound merchantmen. Arriving at the southern end of the 
Flinterenden channel early on the 20th, the Africa anchored, 
while the three other ships, supported by the Swedish gun- 
boats, accompanied the merchantmen to Malmo. Four mer- 
chantmen ran aground on the way, and one was taken and 
the other three burnt, but the rest of the convoy reached 
Malmo in safety. The Danish gunboats had put to sea on 
hearing of the approach of the convoy, and at 12.40 p.m. nine- 
teen gunboats and three mortar boats were seen approaching 
the Africa. The wind gradually fell, and at 2.55, when the 
action began, the Africa was unable to move. The Danes were 
thus able to attack ker from the bow and stern, where 
she could bring few guns to bear against them. She 
suffered severely, but kept up the action until 6.45, 
when, on the approach of darkness and the freshening of the 
breeze, the Danes left her and returned to Copenhagen. She 
had lost nine killed and fifty-three wounded, and was so much 
damaged that she had to go to Karlskrona to refit. The Danes 
had twenty-eight killed and thirty-six wounded. The only 
other action of 1808 in this part of the theatre of war took 
place off the Norwegian coast on November 26th, when the 
Long 20, Seagull 18, and Hemnaes 14 met a Swedish convoy, 
and the Seagull took the Grip 4, a new Swedish cutter on her 
first voyage. 

In the war of Sweden and England with Russia the opera- 
tions were on a larger scale, and were carried out by fleets and 
flotillas rather than by detached ships. On land the war went 
all against Sweden ; the Swedish army retreated from one posi- 
tion to another, and the divisions of the coast flotilla at 
Warkaus, Christina and Abo had to be burnt to prevent their 
capture by the Russians. Seventy-one ships of the rowing fleet 
were lost in this way, but worse was to come. On April 6th 
Cronstedt, the commander of the fortress of Sveaborg, agreed 
to surrender on May 5th if not relieved before then ; this agree- 
ment was duly carried out, and the Russians thus captured 
ninety -one ships.* 

* Mankell's figures. Veselago (Hist. Russian Fleet) says 81, but his " List of 
Russian Ships " gives 101. Some of these were probably only transports. There 
were three hemmemas, seven turumas, a brig, twenty-five gunsloops, fifty-one 
gunyawls, and four gun-vessels ; and of these, two hemmemas, twenty gunsloops, 
and forty-nine gunyawls were ready for service, and were at once commissioned 
by the Russians. 


The first important naval movement consisted in a Russian 
attack on Gothland. A force of French and Russian troops 
1,600 strong left Libau on April 21st in nine merchantmen 
and reached Gothland next day. Visby fell on the 24th, but 
the Russians were not left long undisturbed. The Swedish 
squadron of three battleships, two frigates, and three small 
craft, which had left Karlskrona on March 29th to cruise in 
the Southern Baltic under Rear-Admiral Cederstrom, was 
hastily recalled. It embarked 1,900 soldiers on May llth, and 
landed them in Gothland on the 14th. Rear-Admiral Bodisko, 
the Russian commander, agreed to leave the island without 
fighting, and on the 18th he did so. Cederstrom was back at 
Karlskrona on May 20th. At the same time the Russians were 
driven out of the Aland Islands. They had reached them over 
the ice in March, and had occupied the eastern islands with a 
force of 600 men. As soon as the ice allowed three small 
ships left Stockholm with 450 men to retake these islands; on 
May 10th the Russians were defeated, and the greater part of 
their force made prisoners. 

The loss of the Swedish flotillas in Finland made it necessary 
to send the battleship fleet eastward to protect Stockholm. On 
June 3rd, therefore, a fleet of ten battleships and six frigates 
left Karlskrona under Rear-Admiral Cederstrom. He reached 
Hango on the llth, and at once sent a detachment to Jung- 
frusund, twenty-five miles to the north-west, but in both cases 
he was too late to intercept the Russian gunboats. He then 
cruised in the Gulf of Finland, and finally took his fleet to 
Oro Roads, ten miles south of Junp-frusund, where he was 
superseded on July llth by Rear-Admiral Nauckhoff. As a 
matter of fact, he had only just missed the Russians. Fifteen 
gunboats left Sveaborg on June 2nd, thirteen on the 9th, and 
on the 23rd they reached Bockholms Sund, the entrance to Abo. 
On the way they must have been very near the Swedish flotilla, 
which had left Stockholm in three detachments early in June, 
assembled at Korpo Berghamn, thirty miles S.W. of Abo, on 
the 13th, twenty-two ships strong, carried out an unsuccessful 
landing on the 19th five miles from Abo, and returned to 
Korpo Berghamn on the 22nd. The Russians sent out half 
their force to reconnoitre, and on the 28th the Swedes moved 
to attack. The Swedish force had been reinforced on the 23rd 
and 24th by four galleys and four gunsloops, and was now 
under the orders of Admiral Hjelmstjerna ; but eight gun- 
sloops had been sent to Jungfrusund, so that its available 
force remained as before. The Russians who were at Hanga, 
twelve miles S.W. of Abo, had twelve gunsloops and two gun- 
yawls, and were attacked at 2 p.m. on June 30th by fifteen 
Swedish gunsloops and four galle'ys. Aided by the rising wind, 

1808. 329 

they beat off the Swedes and retired during the night to Bock- 
holms Sund. Hjelmstjerna moved in half-way towards Abo and 
established a blockade. He was joined on July 1st by four 
more galleys, and on the 4th the King, Gustaf IV., arrived 
on the scene. He at once ordered a reconnaisance, and eight 
gunsloops were therefore sent in towards the Russians. 
Selivanov, the Russian commander, came out with his full 
strength of twenty-two gunsloops and six gunyawls, and at 
six p.m. an action began between these ships and the Swedish 
force of six galleys and eighteen gunsloops. The Russians 
soon had to retire, but did so in good order, and finally reached 
the protection of their shore batteries. These inflicted a good 
deal of damage on the enemy, and at 11.30 the Swedes with- 
drew. Twenty-five men were lost on the Russian side, twelve 
on the Swedish. 

The next operations took place further east, and were 
brought about by the movements of a third Russian detach- 
ment, which left Sveaborg on June 25th. This force con- 
sisted of one hemmema, one brig, one yacht, two gunsloops, 
forty gunyawls, and twenty-four transports, and was under 
the orders of Captain Geiden (Hayden). Reaching Jung- 
frusund, Geiden found his way blocked by a force of three 
battleships, one frigate*, and eight gunboats, and therefore 
decided to try and work round the northern side of the large 
island of Kimito, which lies north of Jungfrusund. Kimito 
lies in the entrance to the town of Salo, and divides the channel 
into two very narrow passages, which run respectively south 
and south-west from the northern end of the island. Geiden 
left his larger ships near Jungfrusund, and arrived with the 

Smboats on July 14th at Stromma, on the eastern passage, 
ere Peter the Great had blockaded the channel a century ago, 
and it took two days to remove the obstructions ; but at last, on 
July 15th, the Russian force reached the northern end of 
Kimito, and prepared to move out again by the western 
channel. Here, however, they found their way blocked by 
the eight Swedish gunsloops from Jungfrusund, which had 
reached Tallholmarne, on the western passage, on July 12th, 
and had at once begun to block the channel. Russian troops 
arrived, and batteries on either side made the Swedish position 
difficult, but Solfverarm, the Swedish commander, stuck to his 
post, and on the 19th he was reinforced by four gunsloops 
from the west. On the 21st, at 3 a.m., the Russians advanced. 
The work of blocking the channel was not quite finished, and 
after three and a half hours the Swedes had to retreat, but 
took up another position about two miles further west. They 

* Adolf Fredrik 70, Fddernesland 62, Ara 62, Bellona 40. (The Tapperhet 62 
joined later.) 


had lost forty-six men and the Russians twenty. On July 23rd 
Hjelmstjerna arrived with eight galleys and twenty-seven gun- 
sloops at Holmo, six miles west of Solfverarm's new position at 
San do Strom. He at once sent Jonsson with ten gunsloops to 
join Solfverarm and take over the command, and at the same 
time he sent four gunsloops to watch the Russians in Bockholms 
Sund and four to cover a landing in Kimito. Jonsson did his 
best to hold the position at Sando Strom. The island of Sando 
lies about two-thirds of a mile west of the narrow passage of 
Sando Strom, and between the two is the islet of Rofvarholm. 
This formed the centre of the Swedish position, and was for- 
tified with four guns, while twelve ships were stationed in a 
line running south towards Kimito and eight north-eastwards to 
the mainland. On Sando were sixty soldiers, and between that 
island and Kimito were the remaining two gunsloops. The 
Russians, however, were able to post troops and construct bat- 
teries at both ends of the Swedish line, and thus obtained a 
very considerable advantage. They were joined on July 31st 
by nine gunsloops and four yawls, which had left Sveaborg on 
the 6th, and on August 2nd, at 3 a.m., they began to advance. 
Supported by their land forces, they worked through the Sound 
and outflanked the southern end of the Swedish line. Jonsson 
was mortally wounded, and at eight o'clock Solfyerarm began 
to retreat. An hour later Hjelmstjerna arrived with six galleys 
and the action began again, but the Russians would not leave 
the protection of their batteries, and at 11.30 the Swedes with- 
drew for good. Twelve of their gunsloops and 22 Russians 
were completely disabled, while the loss in men on the Swedish 
side was 173 and on the Russian 330. Besides this the Swedes 
suffered severely on land, owing to the late arrival of their 
landing force in Kimito. The Russians were able to give their 
whole attention to this new enemy, and the Swedish force of 
1,000 men had to re-embark with a loss of seventy-four killed 
and wounded, and 144 men and six guns captured. 

After these defeats the Swedish flotilla had no alternative 
but to retreat. On August 3rd it left Holmo, and moved 
twenty miles west to Korpo Strom, where it was joined by its 
outlying detachments. On the 9th it reached Sma Sattunga, 
a group of islands just east of the Aland Islands, and here it 
remained, sending its twelve disabled gunsloops to Lemland 
for repairs. The Russians, on the other hand, joined the 
squadron at Bockholms Sund, and this division then proceeded 
to Nystad, forty miles to the north west, while the ships from 
Kimito took up a position in the skargard, twenty miles south 
west of Abo. On August 3rd a fifth division from Sveaborg 
reached Jungfrusund, and joined the ships there. It consisted 
of twenty-three ships, and its arrival brought up the Russian 

1808. 331 

force there to a strength of two hemmemas, two floating bat- 
teries, one brig, three yachts, one " geolette " (or " galet "), 
nine gunsloops, and eight gunyawls. Novokshenov, the new 
Eussian commander, began active operations on the night of 
August 16th-17th, when he sent one floating battery, three gun- 
sloops, and three gunyawls against the Swedish detachment of 
two battleships and two frigates. He was repulsed after an 
hour's action, but the following night he tried again with all 
his force except the two hemmemas, the brig, and two of the 
yachts. His idea was to take the Swedes in the rear, but the 
same night twenty-four Swedish boats were sent to attack the 
ships he had left. The hemmema Styrbjorn and the brig were 
captured, but the return of Novokshenov forced the Swedes to 
retreat, and the hemmema had to be abandoned. The Eussians 
lost 180 men in this action. On the 18th, Rear- Admiral 
Myasoyedov took over the command of the Russian flotilla, and 
on the 25th the withdrawal of the Swedish sailing ships enabled 
him to move westward and join the ships near Abo. 

The Swedish sailing ships had to be recalled to join the fleet, 
which up to now had been lying quietly at Oro. Towards the 
end of July the position as far as the sailing fleets were con- 
cerned was somewhat as follows. At Oro and Jungfrusund 
was a Swedish fleet of eleven battleships* and five frigates. In 
Kronstadt a Eussian fleet of nine battleships (two three- 
deckers), eleven frigates, and eighteen smaller craft was slowly 
being prepared for sea, while in Danish waters was an English 
fleet of eleven battle ships. t Some of the English ships had 
been as far as Danzig and Pillau, but the beginning of August 
saw them concentrated in the Belt to help in the removal of the 
Spanish troops. On July 26 the Eussian fleet left Kronstadt 
under Admiral Chanykov and on August 9th it reached Hango. 
Ships were sent out cruising, and brought in a Swedish brig 
and five transports, but for the moment nothing of importance 
was attempted. On August 16th Admiral Saumarez sent off 
two English battleships to join the Swedes. These were the 
Centaur 74, the flagship of Eear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood, and 
the Implacable 74, under Captain Martin. On the 19th these 
ships sighted and chased three Eussian frigates, and on the 
20th they joined the Swedes in Oro Eoads. Two days later the 
Eussian fleet moved from Hango and took up its position just 
south of the Allies ; the Swedish commander therefore recalled 
his ships from Jungfrusund and prepared for sea. On the 24th 
these ships rejoined and on the 25th the combined fleet weighed 
anchor and put to sea to attack the Eussians. 

* One had joined from Karlskrona. 

t The Stately 64 and Nassau 64 had been sent home with sick. 


The two fleets were as follows* : 

Russians. Blagodat 130, Gavriil 100, Syevernaya Zvyezda 
74, Borei 74, Orel 74, Zatchatie Sv. Anny 74, Vsevolod 74, 
Archistratig Michail 72, Emgeiten 66, Geroi 48, Bystryi 44, 
Argus 44, Feodosii Totemskii 44, Stchastlivyi 44, 6 small 
frigates, &c. 9 battleships with 738 guns, 5 big frigates with 
224 guns. 

Allies. t Swedish : Gustaf IV. 78, Gustaf III. 70, Adolf 
Fredrik 70, Wladislaw 64, Forsigtighet 62, Manlighet 62, 
Tapperhet 62, Fddernesland 62, Am 62, Dristighet 62, 4/ 
Chapman 44, Bellona 40, Euredice 40, Camilla 40, 2 smaller 
frigates, &c. English : Centaur 74, Implacable 74. 12 battle- 
ships with 802 guns, 4 big frigates with 164 guns. 

They were therefore roughly equal in strength, but Admiral 
Chanykov retreated at once. He is said to have intended to 
attack next day, but he gave little sign of this, and continued 
to work to windward with a wind about E.N.E. The Swedish 
ships sailed badly, and the two English battleships soon drew 
ahead, but even the Swedes gained on the Russians. The 
chase began at about 8 a.m. on August 25th, and by the 
evening the Implacable and Centaur were five miles ahead of 
the foremost Swede, while at four o'clock in the morning of 
the 26th the Implacable was two miles to windward of the 
Centaur and about ten miles from the Swedes. The Russians 
were also in disorder, and one of their ships, the Vsevolod 74 
was much to leeward of her fleet. At 5.20 a.m. she opened 
fire on the Implacable as the ships passed on opposite tacks. 
The Implacable tacked in her wake, and at 6.45 as the Russian 
again tacked she was badly cut up by the English raking fire. 
Tacking again, the Implacable came alongside the enemy to 
leeward at 7.20, and in half an hour the Vsevolod struck. At 
this moment, however, the Russian fleet bore up to her rescue, 
and at the same time Hood, in the Centaur, signalled to recall 
the Implacable. She therefore abandoned her prize, and the 
Vsevolod was taken in tow by a frigate. The Implacable had 
lost 32 men and the Vsevolod 128. About this time the Russian 
Syevernaya Zvyezda 74 damaged her foretopmast, and this, 
together with the crippled state of the Vsevolod, induced 
Chanykov to take refuge in Rager Vik or Port Baltic. At 
about eleven o'clock the Russian fleet entered the harbour, but 
the approach of the Centaur and Implacable had forced the 
frigate to cast off the Vsevolod, and she therefore had to anchor 

* Russians from a list in " Letters of Sir T. Byam Martin," p. 39, corrected 
from Veselago's " List of Russian ships." Swedes from a list ibid, p. 48, and 
James IV. 299, corrected from Backstrom, Aps. 21 and 24. 

t The Prins Frederik Adolf 62 was sent to Karlskrona with sick on the fleet's 
leaving Oro. 

1808. 333 

just outside. In the afternoon the Russian fleet sent its boats 
to tow the disabled ship into the harbour, but Hood, seeing 
this, pushed in with the Centaur, drove off the boats, and ran 
across the bow of the Vsevolod just as she was reaching- the 
harbour. Lashing the bowsprit of the Russian ship to her 
mizzen, the Centaur open fire at 8 o'clock. Both ships went 
aground almost at once, but the action went on without inter- 
ruption. Attempts at boarding were made in vain on both 
sides, and at 8.40, after the Implacable had also fired on her 
for ten minutes, the Vsevolod surrendered. The Implacable then 
succeeded in hauling the Centaur off, and was finally towed out 
by the boats of the two ships. The Russian fleet made sail, 
but soon returned to its anchorage, and the two English ships 
were thus left undisturbed to remove their prisoners and destroy 
the prize. At six o'clock in the morning of the 27th the Eng- 
lish set fire to the Vsevolod, and a few hours later she blew up. 
In this second action the Centaur lost thirty men and the 
Vsevolod 124* 

The only Swedish ships which were anywhere near during 
this action were the Tapperhet 62 and the frigates, but during 
the course of the following day (August 27th) the rest came 
up and anchored. Three days later Admiral Saumarez ar- 
rived with the Victory 100, Goliath 74, Mars 74, Africa 64, 
and some smaller ships. On September 1st he went in close 
to the harbour mouth with the Victory and Goliath, and as a 
result of his observations decided to attack. All preparations 
were made, but during the night the wind shifted to the south 
and the attack had to be postponed. The wind, however, kept 
in that quarter for a week, and gave the Russians time to 
make such preparations for defence that an attack became 
impossible. The English bombs threw a few shells into the 
harbour, and a fire-ship attack was attempted, but little harm 
was done, and the Allies had to content themselves with a 
blockade, which they kept up for a month. 

In the meantime there was more fighting in the Finnish 
skargard. Hjelmstjerna, at Sma S&ttunga, had received eight 
new gunsloops to replace the twelve which were under repair, 
and he sent Brandt with the thirty-five gunsloops that this 
gave him to attack the Russians at Nystad. Arriving on 
August 30th at Lyperto, fifteen miles from Nystad, Brandt 
heard that the Russians were in Gronvikssund, ten miles south- 
east of him. At once he went towards them and at noon was 
engaged. The Russians, under Selivanov, had thirty gun- 

* She had received 100 fresh men from other ships. English accounts give her 
" killed, wounded, and missing " as 180. According to the Russians (Nav. Chron. 
XXI. 101) 56 men swam ashore, and these were probably the missing. 


sloops and gunyawls,* and were in a good position, with the 
majority of their boats covering the channel east of the little 
island of Isoluto and the remainder to the west. The Swedish 
force tried first to advance through the eastern channel, but 
was soon checked, and a detachment of ten gunsloops which 
was sent to try the western passage was also received with a 
heavy fire. A long action followed, and at last, at 7 p.m., 
the Russians retreated. The Swedes pursued for an hour and 
a half, and then returned to Gronvikssund. Two ships were 
lost on either side, and most of the rest were badly damaged! ; 
the Swedes had 242 men killed and wounded, the Russians 
forty-five killed and many wounded. 

The Russian flotilla went to Abo for repairs, but the Swedes 
only went as far as Fisko, some fifteen miles west of Gron- 
vikssund, and were there joined by seven newly-repaired gun- 
sloops. They then tried to take advantage of their victory by 
landing a force of 2,000 men north of Abo, but though the 
troops left Bomarsund in the Aland Islands on September 9th 
they were delayed by heavy weather, and this gave the Rus- 
sians time to get ready for them. To cover the landing, Brandt 
returned to Gronvikssund on the llth, and five days later 
Admiral Rayalin, the new commander of the Swedish flotilla, 
took thirty-four gunsloops to Palwasund, six miles nearer 
Abo. The first ships of the other Russian squadron from near 
Abo were already in Palwasund, but Rayalin drove them out 
and took up a strong position. The landing took place on the 
17th at Lokalax, twelve miles to the north, but the Swedes 
were soon repulsed, and had to re-embark on the 18th under 
cover of four gunsloops. On the same day a battle was fought 
near Palwasund. Rayalin had taken up a position a .little 
south of the sound, among a number of small islands, with 
twenty-four boats west of the island of Laito and ten to the 
east. Myasoyedov, the Russian leader, had sixty-nine ships, 
six large vessels, and sixty-three gunboats ;+ he told off detach 
ments to outflank the Swedes on both sides and attacked at 
6 a.m. with about twenty boats. He was, of course, repulsed, 
but his reserves came to his help, and at the same time 
another Russian detachment came from behind the islands to 
the east and attacked the Swedish left wing. At about nine 
o'clock this part of the Swedish line had to retire, and by ten 

* Swedish accounts say 44. The figures given are from Veselago's " Short 
Notes on Russian Naval Battles." In his " History of the Russian Fleet " he 
says 24. 

t Each side claims that the other lost about 10 ships. 

$ According to the Swedes he had about 90 gunboats, but Veselago (Notes 
on Naval Battles) puts his whole force at 69 ships. Russian accounts give the 
Swedes 70 ships. 

1808. 335 

o'clock their whole force was in retreat. It re-formed north of 
Palwasund, but the Russian flanking parties appeared, and 
Rayalin ordered a retreat to Gronvikssund. One Swedish gun- 
sloop was blown up and about 100 men killed and wounded, 
while the Russians are said to have lost 200 men. 

In spite of the failure of his last landing, the Swedish king 
now ordered another attempt to be made, this time with 3,600 
men at Helsinge, a little south of Lokalax and six miles north 
of Gronvikssund. The channel to Helsinge leads through 
Kahiluotosund, four miles east of Gronvikssund, and it became 
necessary to occupy both these positions. Still the Swedish 
flotilla was brought up to a strength of sixty-two .ships, and it 
was therefore possible to hold Gronvikssund with thirty-three 
gunsloops and send eighteen gunsloops and a mortar-boat to 
Kahiluoto. There are here four passages, but two were easily 
blocked, and of the other two the eastern passage between 
Leiluoto and Asamaa was protected by eight gunsloops, and 
the last, between Kahiluoto and Koivima, was held by ten 
gunsloops and the mortar-boat. The landing took place on 
September 26th, but failed as before, and on the 28th the 
troops were re-embarked and returned to the Aland Islands. 
The Russians had meanwhile collected a force of about 100 
ships in Palwasund. On September 26th they advanced as far 
as Lopo, close to Gronvikssund, and the same day Myasoyedov 
sent about forty gunboats against Kahiluotosund. These at- 
tacked the westernmost passage, but only one boat could pass 
at a time, and the concentrated fire of the Swedish ships was 
enough to make this impossible. For a week the E-ussians 
tried in vain to force a passage, but, finally, on October 2nd, 
they gave it up and returned to Lopo. Next day the Swedish 
force left Kahiluotosund, where it was no longer required, and, 
rounding the islands to the north, it rejoined its main body 
on October 4th. On the same day the Russians left Lopo, and 
on the 5th they reached Rimito, twelve miles south-west of 

No more actions were fought this year. Hjelmstjerna arrived 
with four galleys on October llth and relieved Rayalin in the 
command of the Swedish flotilla, and a little later preparations 
for winter were begun. On October 21st a division of twenty- 
eight Swedish gunsloops left Gronvikssund for Degerby, in the 
Aland Islands; a few days later the Russians went back to 
Abo for the winter, and on November 3rd Hjelmstjerna left 
for home with the last of the Swedish flotilla. He went near 
enough to Abo to make sure that the Russians were no longer 
at sea, picked up the four remaining galleys at Sma Sattunga, 
and reached Degerby on the 5th. The whole flotilla then 


started for Stockholm, but suffered severely from heavy weather 
and lost three gunsloops on the way.* 

The blockade of Rager Vik by the combined Anglo-Swedish 
fleet went on until September 30th, but on that date, in view 
of the impossibility of attacking with any hope of success, and 
of the sickly state of he Swedish squadron, the blockade was 
raised and the fleet sailed for Karlskrona, where it arrived on 
October 8th. The Russians, of course, took the opportunity 
of returning to Kronstadt, but two of their ships' were wrecked 
on the way, one, the Geroi 48, in Rager Vik itself, and the 
other, the Argus 44, near Revel. The greater part of the Eng- 
lish fleet left Karlskrona on October 25th, passed through the 
Great Belt, stayed at Gothenburg from November 29th to 
December 3rd, and reached the Downs on December 8th, but 
a few ships were left either at Karlskrona or Gothenburg to 
give convoy to homeward-bound merchantmen. One of these, 
the Africa 64, was engaged, as has been seen, by Danish gun- 
boats, but in a general way they were unmolested in this 
duty. The last convoy of the year was, however, thoroughly 
unfortunate. The English ships Sahette 36 and Magnet 18, 
with two Swedish sloops, left Karlskrona on convoy work on 
December 23rd. They met with heavy weather, and only the 
Salsette escaped, and she only reached Karlshamn in March, 
after being frozen up near Bornholm for over two months. 

Two other points require notice this year. The first is the 
fate of the Russian Mediterranean fleet. The Treaty of Tilsit 
left this fleet in an awkward position, since it was more or less 
obvious that war between Russia and England must soon come. 
Senyavin therefore hastened to get his ships back to Russian 
ports; five battleships belonging to the Black Sea Fleet were 
sent back through the Dardanelles, and the remaining thirteen 
were ordered to proceed to the Baltic. Senyavin himself left 
Corfu with nine battleships and two frigates, passed Gibraltar 
on October 20th, 1807, and entered the harbour of Lisbon on 
November 9th to repair damages sustained in the heavy weather 
which he had met. Four battleships, the Uriil 76, Moskva 74, 
Sv. Petr 74, and the Turkish prize Sed-el-Bachr 84, were at 
Venice, and these never attempted to leave the Mediterranean ; 
they cruised for some time in the Adriatic, and finally sur- 
rendered to the Austrians. In 1809, on the capture of Trieste 
by the French, they were transferred to France, and the 
Moskva and Sv. Petr were taken to Toulon to join the French 
fleet there, but neither of the other ships seem to have been 
used by their new owners. t Senyavin's ships were no more 

* Four had been left at Degerby and eight others were left in Furusund in 
the Stockholm skargard. 

t The two at Toulon were unfit for service by 1811. (N. C. xxv. 426.) The 
Legkii 38 and three smaller ships were also transferred to France. 

1808-1809. 337 

fortunate. As soon as they were known to be in the Tagus 
they were blockaded by an English squadron which had just 
returned from escorting the Portuguese Eoyal Family on its 
flight to Brazil. War soon followed, and on September 3rd, 
1808, Senyavin agreed to hand over his ships to England, to 
be retained until the conclusion of peace between England and 
Russia. The crews were to be allowed to return to Russia, 
and in the following year they reached Revel in English trans- 

Senyavin's fleet was as follows*: Rafail 80, Yaroslav 74, 
Sv. Elena 74, Selafail 74, Tverdyi 74, Silnyi 74, Retvizan 66, 
Moshtchnyi 66, Skoryi 60, Kildyun 32. 

These snipe were duly taken to England, with the exception 
of the Rafail, which was found unseaworthy and was sold at 
Lisbon, t but only the Silnyi and Moshtchnyi ever returned to 
Russia, and that not till 1813. The rest were sold in England 
in that year, as they were not fit for the voyage.* 

The second point of interest was the manning of French 
battleships in the Scheldt by Danish crews. By agreement 
between France and Denmark the two new battleships Pul- 
stuck 86 and Dantzick 86 were to be transferred to Denmark. 
Crews were therefore recruited from Danish merchantmen, and 
officers were sent from Copenhagen in 1808 to bring the ship& 
home. The Scheldt was, however, blockaded by an English 
force, and the French authorities- used this as an excuse for 
keeping the ships for their own use. In 1809 the Danish crews 
were ordered to go by land to Brest to man two new ships there, 
but they refused, and the proposal was dropped. Their cap- 
tains were arrested, but were replaced by two other Danish 
officers, and in 1811 crews were sent from Denmark for two 
more French battleships of the Scheldt fleet, the Albanais 82 
and Dalmate 82. None of the ships in the Scheldt went fur- 
ther than the mouth of the river, and in 1813 the Danish crews 
were recalled to Denmark. 

The war of 1809 did not produce many important actions at 
the western end of the Baltic. The English fleet arrived off 
Gothenburg on May 4th, but the greater part of it went east 
to act against Russia, and the small force left in Danish waters 
contented itself for the most part with convoy work. There 
were, however, a number of small actions which must be men- 
tioned. On March 1st the Danish Aalborg 6 was captured in 
the Skaggerack by two English ships in a heroic attempt to 

* The Venus 44 was sent from Lisbon to Palermo before the blockade. She 
was eventually transferred to the Neapolitan fleet. 

t The Yaroslav was at first left behind, but reached England later. 

+ The Spyeshnyi 44 on her way to join Senyavin was at Portsmouth on the 
outbreak of the war and was captured. 



protect a convoy. On April 5th an English sloop came into 
the harbour of Fladstrand, in Jylland and lowered her boats 
to capture some ships laden with corn, but was attacked by the 
Danish gunboats and driven off after an action lasting an hour 
and a half. At the end of this month, or early in May, three 
Danish privateers were taken in the Western Baltic; one, the 
Edderkop 2, by the boats of the Majestic 74*; and two, the 
Fire Brodre 4 and Makrel 2, by the Earnest. On May llth a 
Danish cutter of six guns was driven ashore on the coast of 
Jylland and destroyed by the boats of the Melpomene 38; 
while four days later the Tartar 32 captured a Danish privateer 
of four guns in the Eastern Baltic, on the coast of Courland. 
On May 18th the Danish island of Anholt, in the Kattegat, 
was captured by a small English detachment consisting of the 
Standard 64, Owen Glendower 36, three sloops, and a gunboat ; 
an English governor was at once appointed, and the island 
remained in English hands until 1814. On the 19th the Eng- 
lish battleship Ardent 64 landed about eighty men for water 
in the island of Romso, in the Great Belt, and this force was 
surprised and captured by the Danes. On May 23rd the Mel- 
pomene 38 was attacked off Omo, in the Great Belt,t by twenty 
Danish gunboats. The action began at 11 p.m., and after 
an hour the frigate cut her cable and made sail. There was, 
however, very little wind, and it was not until 1.15 that she 
could get away. She had thirty-four men killed and wounded, 
and was very badly damaged. The main English fleet passed 
through the Belt at the end of May, and this kept the Danes 
quiet for a little while, but it was necessary for convoys through 
the Belt to have as many as three or four battle-ships to pro- 
tect them. On May 31st the English sloop Cruiser 18 took 
the Danish privateer Christianborg 6 off Bornholm; she also 
took the French privateer Tilsit 10. Another Danish priva- 
teer, the Levigerna 6, was taken about this time by the Superb, 
and in North Sea the English small craftj took three small 
Danish privateers, the Courier 5, Sol Fugel 6, and Snap 3. 

The Swedes had a considerable force of gunboats in Danish 
waters, but made little use of them. At Malmo, in April and 
May, were thirty-one gunboats and three other vessels, while 
twenty-four others were at Gothenburg. On June 14th Hjelm- 
stjerna left Malmo with the gunboats there to join the Stock- 
holm flotilla, and on the 20th the Gothenburg vessels arrived 
to replace them. Twelve more gunboats were then mobilised 

* The Superb 74 was then off Ystad under Rear-Admiral Keata. 

t The Temeraire 98, St. George 98, and Superb 74 were in the Belt; the 
Stately 64 in the Sound. 

$ Some of these were the sloops Mosquito and Briseis, the gunboats Bruiser 
and Patriot, and the hired cutter Alert. 

1809. 339 

at Gothenburg, but neither of these squadrons made any move, 
and on November 25th they were laid up. Peace was con- 
cluded between Denmark and Sweden on December 10th. 

On August 10th the English brig Allart 18 (a Dane taken 
in 1807) was taken near Frederiksvaern by eight Danish gun- 
boats after an hour's action, in which each side lost five men. 
Two days later the English ships Lynx 18 and Monkey 12 cap- 
tured three small Danish vessels, one of which carried eight 
guns, but another loss soon followed. The Minx 13, acting in 
place of the lightship off Skagen, was attacked on September 2nd 
by eight Danish gunboats. At 9 a.m., on the approach of 
the enemy the brig slipped her cable and stood out to sea, 
but the wind dropped, and at 5 p.m. she was engaged. She 
held out until 7.45, and then struck with twelve killed and 
wounded out of a crew of forty-seven. She was taken into 
Aalborg and eventually sold. 

The Swedes, as has been seen, took, practically speaking, 
no part in the war against Denmark this year, but in self- 
defence they had to act vigorously against Russia. The situa- 
tion was, however, complicated by the deposition of Gustaf IV. 
on March 9th, and his succession by his uncle Carl Duke of 
Sodermanland. The new ruler tried to come to terms with 
Napoleon, but failed, and had therefore to beg for the con- 
tinuation of English support against Russia. A great Russian 
Elan for the invasion of Sweden in the winter had only just 
ailed. Three armies were to advance simultaneously : one 
over the ice by way of the Aland Islands, one further north 
by the Qvarken Islands, and the third round the north of the 
Gulf of Bothnia. The first army got as far as the Aland 
Islands, but the ice broke up and left it there; the second 
crossed the Gulf and took Umea, and the third, marching via 
Tornea, defeated and captured the remains of the Swedish army 
from Finland, at Kalix. Seven Swedish gunboats had to be 
burnt in the Aland Islands and twelve at Umea to prevent their 
capture. Both the Swedish and Russian flotillas were strength- 
ened during the winter, but the removal of the seat of war from 
Finland did away with much of the reason for their meeting, 
and as a result few actions took place between them. About 
100 gunsloops and gunyawls were assembled near Stockholm at 
the end of May, while on June 5th a Russian squadron of two 
hemmemas, six floating batteries, three brigs, five yachts, one 
bomb, fifty-one gunsloops, and sixty-four gunyawls, left Abo 
for the Aland Islands. 

Admiral Saumarez, with the greater part of the English 
fleet, left Gothenburg on May 24th, and reached Karlskrona on 
June 4th.* With ten battleships he put to sea again on the 

* The Implacable 74 arrived on the 10th after a visit to Danzig. 



20th and steered ea&tward. Two battleships, the Minotaur 74 
and Bellerophon 74, were already in the Gulf of Finland,* 
and in the night of June 19th-20th the latter ship sent in Her 
boats to attack some Russian small craft off Hango ; the vessels 
were, however, found useless, and were abandoned. Eight 
Russian gunboats and four batteries opened fire, but one of the 
batteries was stormed and its guns spiked, and the English 
force re-embarked with only five men wounded. On June 
29th Admiral Saumarez reached Hango, and here he divided 
his fleet into several small squadrons, proceeding himself with 
four battleships and a frigate to the island of Nargen, in 
Revel Bay.f On June 30th the Implacable 74 and Melpomene 
38 chased a Russian frigate into the skargard at Aspo, near 
Fredrikshamn, and in the night of July 7th-8th these two 
ships, with the Bellerophon 74 and Prometheus 18, sent in 
their boats against the eight Russian gunboats and fourteen 
merchantmen at Porkala. Six of the gunboats and twelve 
merchantmen were captured, and one gunboat and one mer- 
chantman sunk. The English lost seventeen men killed, in- 
cluding Lieutenant Hawkey, the leader of the attack, and 
thirty-seven wounded; the Russians had sixty-three killed and 
127 captured, including fifty-one wounded. Twenty-five Rus- 
sian gunboats left Kronstadt on July 14th, intending to pro- 
ceed west with seven storeships to join the squadron in the 
Aland Islands. On the 22nd, near Pitkopas, an English battle- 
ship attacked the rear of this force, but the rest of the Russians 
turned on her, and she had to put out to sea again. However, 
on the 25th, the boats of the Princess Caroline 74, Minotaur 
74, Cerberus 32, and Prometheus 18, attacked the four after- 
most gunboats and the transports near Svensksund, and took 
three gunboats and one storeship. The English lost sixty men, 
the Russians 150, and of these eighty-seven were killed and 
wounded. The Russian battleship fleet, which consisted this 
year of thirteen battleships, including four three-deckers, had 
taken up a position for the defence of Kronstadt at the end 
of May, but never left the harbour in spite of the fact that 
only tnree Swedish battleships were in commission, and that 
it was therefore quite equal to the forces of the Allies. The 
English fleet continued in its various detachments, and was 

* They had been at Karlskrona on June 10th. 

t The following were the battleships of the English Baltic Fleet -.Victory 
100; St. George 98; Temeraire 98; Plantaganet 74; Princess Caroline 74; 
Minotaur 74; Bellerophon 74; Implacable 74; Saturn 74; Euby 64; Superb 
74; Majestic 74; Stately 64; Ardent 64; Standard 64. The St. George and 
Temeraire had been originally told off for service in the Belt, but went east 
with Saumarez, and apparently the ships left in Danish waters were the last five 
in the list. The first four battleships, with the Owen Glendower 36, were 
at Nargen in the middle of July. 

1809. 341 

disposed as follows at the end of July. Five battleships were 
at Nargen, two at Aspo, one at Porkala, one at Torsari, and 
one near Osel. 

The Swedish plan of action for the summer was to land an 
army north of Umea and cut off the Russian army there. An 
army of 6,300 men was provided for this purpose, and a strong 
fleet of sailing and rowing vessels told off for its support. 
On July 15th the gunboats from Malmo reached Dalaro, and 
at the beginning of August Over-Admiral Puke arrived there 
from Karlskrona with three battleships* and some smaller 
ships. Both fleet and flotilla were concentrated at Tjocko, in 
the northern part of the Stockholm skargard, and from there 
they moved to Hernosand, about 100 miles south of Umea. 
The rowing vessels left Tjocko on August 3rd, the battleships 
on the 8th ; the troops were embarked on the 13th, and on the 
15th the expedition put to sea. It consisted of three battle- 
ships, five frigatest, and several small craft of the sailing fleet, 
with six galleys, forty gunsloops, and eight bomb-vessels. In 
the evening of August 16th the fleet reached Eatan, thirty 
miles north of Umea, and next morning the troops were landed. 
Six gunsloops were sent on the 18th to destroy the floating 
bridge at Umea, but were received with a heavy fire and had 
to withdraw. The Russians were therefore able to move 
northwards against the Swedish army, and on the 19th they 
defeated it and drove it back to Eatan. Here the Swedes 
retreated on to a small peninsula where they could be covered 
by their flotilla, and accordingly six galleys, twenty-four gun- 
sloops, and two bomb-vessels took up a position to prevent the 
Eussian advance. The Eussians tried in vain to storm the 
Swedish position, and on the 21st the Swedish army was> re- 
embarked; the flotilla lost over 100 men in these operations. 
At the same time another Swedish army had been advancing 
from the south, supported by two galleys and eighteen gun- 
sloops. This army reached Umea on August 22nd, but the 
Eussians were already on their way north. A frigate and ten 
gunsloops were sent to Pitea, 120 miles north of Umea, to 
destroy the bridge there and cut off the Eussians' retreat; 
but the attempt, which was made on the 25th, was unsuccessful, 
and the Eussians got away without further fighting. An 
armistice soon followed, and on September 17th the Treaty 
of Fredrikshamn put an ^ end to the war as far as Sweden was 
concerned. Swedish Finland, the Aland Islands, and all 
Swedish territories east of the Gulf of Bothnia were ceded to 

* His flagship was the Adolf Fredrik 70. 

f Two of these had engaged the Russian frigate Bogoyavlenie Qospodne 38 
near Qvarken on June 23rd, but had been beaten off after a long action. 


Russia, and the eastern boundary of Sweden thus assumed 
its present form. 

Even before the conclusion of peace the Swedish fleet had 
begun to retire from the Gulf of Bothnia. It left Holmo, off 
Umea, on September 9th, and proceeded to the Stockholm 
skargard, where the greater part of it was laid up, while ten 
gunsloops went on to Landskrona, in the Sound. The English 
fleet remained at Nargen until September 28th, and then 
started for England. 

Admiral Saumarez reached Karlskrona with three battle- 
ships on October 5th, but the rest of the fleet went home at 
once either direct or via Gothenburg. Saumarez himself 
visited Gothenburg in December, and arrived in the Downs at 
the end of the month. 

The year 1810 produced but few actions in or near the 
Baltic. A Treaty of Peace was signed between Sweden and 
France in January, and as one of the conditions of this all 
English ships had to be excluded from Swedish ports. Six 
months later the English representative was ordered to leave 
Stockholm and a state of war formally began, but the English 
fleet took no steps against either Sweden or Russia, and confined 
its attentions to Denmark. Sweden's difficulties were increased 
by the death, on May 28th, of Prince Christian, the Danish 
prince who had been chosen as heir to Carl XIII., the former 
Duke of Sodermanland. It was essential that a new Crown 
Prince should be chosen at once, and on August 18th, after 
some hesitation and uncertainty, the choice fell on Bernadotte, 
Prince of Ponte Corvo, one of Napoleon's most successful 
generals. In expectation of an English attack seven battle- 
ships were commissioned at Karlskrona and moored in a 
position to defend the harbour, while on May llth thirty-two 
gunsloops left Stockholm for Karlskrona and were laid up 
there in October. Twenty-three gunsloops and four other 
vessels were sent in October from Malmo to Gothenburg, and 
three of them were wrecked off Yarberg on the way. 

The operations of the English fleet in Danish and Norwegian 
waters led to a few interesting actions. On April 13th the 
English gunboat Grinder was taken near Anholt by four 
Danish gunboats. On the 26th two Danish gunsloops captured 
three armed boats which had been sent ashore near Amrum 
by an English brig, and on the following day a brisk action 
was fought between four gunboats and an English frigate 
near Skagen, and was only ended by the springing up of a 
light breeze and the consequent reinforcement of the frigate by 
an English battleship. On May 12th, off Lindesnaes, in 
Norway, the English frigate Tribune 36 sighted and chased 
the Danish brigs Sams0 20 and Seagull 16. At 2.30 p.m. the 
Danes hove to inside the rocks, and were joined by the A hen 20 

1809-1811. 343 

and Allart 18. At 3.15 the four Danish brigs put to sea, and 
at 4.30 an engagement began ; but at 6.45 they withdrew again 
and retreated into the skargard, where several gunboats were 
lying ready to support them. On May 23rd seven gunboats 
attacked the Raleigh, Princess of Wales, and Alban off 
Skagen; one gunboat was blown up, and the rest retired.* 
On July 7th the boats of the Edgar 74 and Dictator 74 cut out 
three Danish armed luggers at Grenaa; but in contrast to this 
the Danish brigs Sams0 20, Alsen 20, Kiel 18, Allart 18, and 
Seagull 16 took no less than forty-eight English merchantmen 
in the Skaggerack on July 9th, though the Forward, the 
English convoying brig, managed to make good her escape. 
On July 22nd the Belvidera 36 and Nemesis 28t discovered 
three Danish vessels at anchor near Bergen, and next evening 
they sent in their boats to attack; the two Danish schooners, 
Balder 8 and Thor 8 were taken and a gunyawl burnt. On 
September 12th, at 2.30 p.m., two Danish gunisloops attacked 
the cutter Alban 12 off Skagen. After three hours four Danish 
gunyawls joined in the action, and the Alban struck. On 
October 10th Saumarez left Hano, near Karlskrona, with a 
homeward-bound convoy of about 1,000 sail. Bernadotte was 
just then wishing to cross the Belt on his way to Sweden, 
and on October 14th, by permission of the English admiral, 
he passed right through the English fleet of seven battleships 
and six other warships. Reaching the neighbourhood of 
Gothenburg on October 18th, Saumarez sent off his convoy, 
but remained there with the fleet for some time in expectation 
of an attempt by the Franco-Dutch fleet from the Scheldt or 
the Russians from Archangel to enter the Baltic 4 Nothing- 
came of either of these ideas, and on November 28th the 
English fleet sailed for home. 

Next year the position was much the same. England was 
officially at war with the three Baltic Powers, but only acted 
against Denmark. The first event was a Danish attack on 
Anholt. Twelve gunboats, a lugger, some small craft for 
scouting, and twelve transports left the coast of Jylland with 
650 soldiers and four guns on March 26th, and at 3 a.m. 
on the 27th the troops were landed. The English had, how- 
ever, heard of the proposed expedition early in February, 
and the very day before the Danes landed the Tartar 32 and 
Sheldrake 16 had arrived from England to help in the defence. 
As soon as the Danes were discovered the Tartar approached 
the gunboats, and they at once retreated from their position 

* Danish accounts say that six gunboats attacked a brig and drove her off. 

t According to Danish accounts they carried 46 and 36 guns. 

$ In the Scheldt were eight battleships ready for sea. At Archangel were six 
new Russian battleships, while at Kronstadt eight battleships had been in com- 
mission this year. 


near the English fortifications to the place where the troops 
had been landed. An armed schooner, the Anholt, opened fire 
on the Danish troops, and they, thinking themselves deserted, 
promptly surrendered. The English thus took 543 prisoners, 
twenty-three of them wounded. A few of the survivors were 
re-em oar ked in the transports or the gunboats, and the Danish 
flotilla went off in full retreat at about 4 p.m. Eight gun- 
boats and most of the transports steered for the coast of 
Jylland, and four gunboats, the lugger, and one transport ran 
for the Swedish coast. The Tartar went after the first division 
and took two transports, while the Sheldrake took one gunboat 
and the lugger and sank another gunboat. 

On April 23rd three Danish gunboats attacked and sank 
the two English cutters Hero and Swan 10 near Udevala, on 
the Swedish coast north of Gothenburg; but, on the other 
hand, the Danish cutter Alban 12 (formerly English) was 
taken on May llth by the Rifleman 8 after a twelve hours' 
chase, near the Shetland Islands. The English battleship 
fleet had arrived off Gothenburg on May 2nd, and here 
Saumarez remained in the Victory 100 all through the summer, 
acting more as a diplomat than an admiral, though part of his 
fleet of eleven battleships* was stationed in the Belt and part 
in the Baltic at Hand, near Karlskrona. In the evening of 
June 29th the brig Safeguard 13 was attacked off the coast 
of Jylland by four Danish gunboats, and at midnight, after 
three and a half hours' fighting, she surrendered. She had lost 
eight men, the Danes two. A few days later, in the night of 
July 4th-5th, a Danish force of seventeen gunboatst and ten 
small fireships attacked an English convoy at anchor in the 
Great Belt. The attack was directed at the northern end of 
the convoy, which was guarded only by the Sheldrake 16, 
while at the other end were the Cressy 74, Defiance 74, and 
Dictator 74. The Sheldrake cut her cable and drifted towards 
the battleships, and the Danes were able to set on fire a 
number of the merchantmen, but the breeze suddenly freshened 
and the gunboats had to retire. A fog came on and helped to 
cover their retreat, But the three gunboats and one gun- 
yawl were captured. On July 31st the English brig Brev- 
drageren 12 (formerly Danish) and the cutter Algerine 10 
sighted off the south coast of Norway the three Danish brigs 
Langeland 20, Long 20, and Kiel 16. The two English ships 
naturally retreated, but about 11 a.m. on August 1st, seeing 
that the Langeland was well ahead of her consorts, they turned 
and attacked her. At noon the action began, and an hour 

* Victory 100; St. George 98; Dreadnought 98; Vigo 74; Cressy 74; Orion 
74; Defence 74; Hero 74; Defiance 74; Dictator 74; Ardent 64. 
t Four gunsloops, three gunboats (English prizes), ten gunyawls. 

1811-1812. 345 

later, as the Long came up the Algerine retreated. The Brev- 
drageren,* however, made use of a, lucky slant of wind to get 
away half an hour later, and though the Danes went in pursuit 
they never caught her, and at nine o'clock they gave up the 
chase. A very similar affair took place on September 2nd, 
when the English sloops Chanticleer 10 and Manly 12 were 
engaged by the Lolland 18, Alsen 18, and Samse 18 near 
Arendal. The Chanticleer first attacked the Sams0, but soon 
withdrew altogether, pursued by the Sam.s0 and Alsen. The 
Manly engaged the Lolland from ^4 a.m. onwards, and after 
about two hours the two other Danish brigs also joined in this 
action. Against such odds the Manly could do nothing, and 
she soon struck her colours. 

The year ended with a series of disasters for the English 
fleet. A convoy of 120 merchantmen left Hano on Novem- 
ber 9th under the escort of a number of warships. In the 
night of the 15th-16th, while at anchor off Laaland, the St. 
George 98, flagship of Rear-Admiral Reynolds, dragged her 
anchors and went ashore. Her masts were cut away and she 
lost her rudder, but next morning she was refloated and put 
under jury rig; a number of the merchantmen were lost at 
the same time. The St. George reached Vinga, near Gothen- 
burg, on December 2nd, and on the 18th the fleet left for 
home in three divisions. The Victory, Dreadnought, Vigo, 
and Orion formed the first, the St. George, Cressy, and Defence 
the second, and the Hero, with the merchantmen, the third. 
The first division reached England in safety, but the other two 
were not so lucky. The St. George and Defence were lost a 
little beyond Skagen on December 24th, and the Hero off the 
Texel on the 25th. From the St. George only six men were 
saved out of 850, from the other two ships 12 each.t 

The most important event of 1812 was of course the outbreak 
of war between France and Russia on March 19th. As a 
natural result there followed on June 18th the conclusion of 
peace between England on the one hand and Russia and 
Sweden on the other. Part of the English fleet reached Vinga 
in April, and Admiral Saumarez with the rest arrived on 
May 3rd. The English fleet then consisted of ten battleships, 
and two of these were sent under Rear- Admiral Martin to co- 
operate with the Russians, while the rest either remained at 
Gothenburg or cruised in Danish and Norwegian waters. 

The first large ship of the new Danish fleet, the Najad 42, 
had gone in February to join the Norwegian squadron. In 
the evening of July 6th she was at anchor near Arendal 

* The English had kept the article " en " at the end of her name, 
t The Grasshopper 18, which was with the Hero, was driven over the shoals, 
and surrendered to the Dutch. 


with the Lolland 18, Samse 18, and Kiel 18, when a force of 
four English ships appeared and sailed straight into the 
skargard to attack. The ships were the Dictator 64, Calypso 18, 
Podargus 14, and Plainer 14. The Podargus went ashore, and 
Stewart, the captain of the Dictator, left the Flamer to help 
her and went on with the Calypso. The two smaller English 
ships were engaged by Danish batteries, and the Flamer also 
went aground; but eventually they got off and worked out 
again, though they were attacked by a number of gunboats. At 
about 7.30 the Dictator and Calypso were close to the enemy 
when the latter ship also went aground. Danish gunboats 
appeared, but the Dictator pushed on, and at 9.30, with his 
bows aground, Stewart opened fire on the four Danish ships. 
A little later the Calypso rejoined, and the Najad was soon 
completely destroyed. The Samso escaped, but the other brigs 
struck; one gunboat was sunk.* Next morning the two 
English ships and their prizes were attacked on their way out 
of the skargard by the Danish gunboats, and the Lolland 
and Kiel had to be abandoned, though the Dictator and Calypso 
got away to sea easily enough. The losses in the action were 
heavy, and were distributed as follows : 

Danes. Najad, one hundred and twenty-seven killed, 
eighty-eight wounded ; Lolland, one killed, two wounded ; Kiel, 
three killed, seven wounded; Samse, two killed, five wounded. 
Total : one hundred and thirty-three killed, one hundred and 
two wounded, four prisoners. 

English. Dictator, five killed, twenty-four wounded; 
Calypso, three killed, one wounded, two missing; Podargus, 
nine wounded; Flamer, one killed, one wounded. Total, nine 
killed, thirty-five wounded, two missing. 

On August 2nd the boats of the Horatio 44, captured two 
small Danish vessels of three guns each near Tromso, but on 
the 19th the English fleet lost yet another brig, the Attack 13. 
She was engaged in the Kattegat by fourteen Danish gun- 
boats at 11.20 p.m. on the 18th; at 1.40 a.m. she got away 
from her enemies, and started to join the brig Wrangler, 
which had been attacked by another division of fourteen gun- 
boats. The wind, however, dropped, and at 2.10 the Danes 
opened fire again. The Attack fought well, but at 3.30, with 
fourteen men killed and wounded, she had to surrender. The 
Wrangler escaped. 

At the other end of the Baltic but little of interest had 
taken place. Martin had passed the Belt on June 10th with 
the Aboukir 74 and Orion 74, and on the 20th he was off 
Danzig, which was then in French hands. Here he met a 
Russian frigate, and at Libau, on July 1st, he found a Swedish 

* She was refloated later. 

1812-1813. 347 

frigate. On July 5th lie arrived off Dunamtinde, near Riga. 
Here he fitted out some gunboats to help in the defence of 
Riga, and on August 12th a Russian frigate arrived with 
thirty-three gunboats, under Rear-Admiral Moller. On 
August 22nd Martin put to sea, escorting thirteen Russian 
transports; on September 3rd the fleet reached Heel, near 
Danzig, and the troops were put ashore. On the 16th Martin 
left to rejoin Saumarez. 

The advance of the French made it necessary to see about 
measures for saving the Russian fleet, and the Tsar accord- 
ingly decided to send it to England. Ten battleships under 
Admiral Tate were to sail from Kronstadt, and at Gothenburg 
they were to meet eight from Archangel, under Yice- Admiral 
Crown. The latter, however, missed his instructions, and 
brought his ships to Sveaborg, where he arrived on 
October 21st. The two fleets were composed as follows : 

Archangel Fleet. Nord-Adler 74, Prints Gustav 74, Netron 
menya 74, Trech lerarchov 74, Svyatoslav 74, Vsevolod 66, 
Saratov 66, Pobyedonosets 64. 

Kronstadt Fleet. Chrabryi 74, Smyelyi 74, Trech 
Svyatitelei 74, Borei 74, Syevemaya Zvyezda 74, Pamyat 
Evstafia 74, Orel 74, Yupiter 74, Tchesma 74, Mironosets 74, 
five frigates. 

Tate's squadron left Kronstadt at the end of October, and 
Crown with six ships sailed from Sveaborg on November 8th. 
The Vsevolod of his squadron had separated from him in the 
North Sea, and wintered in Norway; while the Saratov went 
aground on leaving Sveaborg, and had to be destroyed.* 
Escorted through the Belt by the English, the Russian ships 
were repaired at Gothenburg, and eventually arrived at the 
Nore on December 13th. 

Driven by circumstances Napoleon had invaded Pomerania, 
which had been restored to Sweden in 1810; the year 1813, 
therefore, saw the outbreak of another war between Sweden 
and France, and the consequent outbreak of hostilities, though 
without declaration of war, between Sweden and Denmark. 
The last-named country was, however, treating for peace with 
England, and as a result very few actions took place this year 
between English and Danish ships. Such as did occur were 
nearly all on the west coast of Holstein or in the Elbe. In the 
night of March 20-21st the Danish hired ships, Junge Traut- 
mann and Liebe, carrying two guns and some howitzers each, 
were captured by the boats of the English brigs, Blazer and 
Brevdrageren. On September 3rd an action took place at 
Busum, just north of the mouth of the Elbe. Six Danish gun- 
sloops had come from the Baltic by the Slesvig-Holstein canal, 

* Apparently the Prints Gustav never came to England. 


but were unable to reach Gliickstadt, because of the English 
blockading squadron. Another gunsloop arrived from Rends- 
borg, and brought the Danish force up to seven gunsloops, 
while the English had ten gunboats and seven armed ship's 
boats. The action lasted four and a half hours, and ended 
with the retreat of the English; the Danes lost twenty-three 
men. Later in the year the advance of the allied troops under 
the Swedish Crown Prince (Bernadotte) forced the Danish gun- 
boats on either side of the peninsula to retire northwards. 
Those on the west concentrated at Fohr, and those on the east 
in the Little Belt.* 

Swedish flotillas were employed this year in three distinct 
districts, the Norwegian frontier, the Sound, and the coast 
of Pomerania. In the first no actions took place. Twenty- 
four gunsloops, two bomb-vessels, and two gun-vessels left 
Gothenburg in May, but this flotilla did not advance as far as 
the frontier until October 27th, and it was back at Gothenburg 
early in December. In the Sound there were twelve " gun- 
schooners," and various detachments w'ere sent to join these. 
Two new hemmemas left Karlskrona at the end of April for 
the Sound, but one of them sank off Falsterbo on her way 
thither. Twelve gunsloops from Stockholm and twelve from 
Karlskrona arrived, in May or June, and about the same time 
two battleships and two frigates were also sent to the Sound. 
The gunsloops lay for the most part at Landskrona and Malmo 
ready to support the schooners which did most of the convoy 
work. On July 24th a Swedish cutter was attacked off Born- 
holm by four Danish gunboats, but drove them back to port 
after an hour's fighting. On September 2nd fourteen Danish 
gunboats from Helsinger attacked a convoy of 49 ships under 
the protection of the Camilla 40 and three gun-schooners. At 
first the schooners had to retire, but twelve gunsloops and two 
schooners put out from Helsingborg, and the Danes then with- 
drew. On October 5th four Danish gunboats and four armed 
boats attacked a Swedish schooner and two cutters, and were 
driven off. On the 6th the Danes, who had been reinforced by 
eight more gunboats were attacked by seven gunsloops from 
Helsing^borg ; at first the Swedes were repulsed, but they were 
soon reinforced, and finally the Danes had to withdraw. On 
November 28th the Danish flotilla attacked an English convoy 
in the Sound, but were driven off by the two frigates escorting 
it and by eight Swedish gunsloops from Helsingborg. In 
Pomerania no very important actions took place. Six galleys 
from Stockholm reached Stralsund on May 8th, and six gun- 
boats from Karlskrona on the 10th and 17th. These latter 
were sent to Stettin in August to help the Russians in the 

* The old brig Tanning was captured by the allies at Husum. 

1813-1815. 349 

siege of that town. On October 5th the Swedish vessels 
engaged and silenced a French battery at Damm, but the 
Prussians failed to support them. After Napoleon's defeat at 
Leipzig on October 28th Stettin surrendered, and the Swedish 
gunboats went back to Stralsund. A Eussian flotilla of 63 
gunboats and thirteen other vessels under Rear-Admiral Greig 
blockaded Danzig all the summer, and bombarded the forts at 
the mouth of the Vistula on September 2nd, 4th, and 16th; two 
gunboats were blown up in these operations. Danzig sur- 
rendered on November 25th. 

Denmark could hold out no longer, and had to conclude 
peace with the allies at Kiel on January 14th, 1814. Eussia 
and England insisted on the cession of Norway to Sweden, and 
the Danes had to give in. The Norwegians, nowever, refused 
to accept these terms, and it became necessary for Sweden to- 
employ force against them. A fleet was accordingly assembled 
at Stromstad to support the invading army, and by the end of 
July this consisted of four battleships, five frigates, one brig, 
three luggers, two schooners, twelve gun-schooners, sixty guii- 
sloops, and six bomb-vessels. This force moved on July 26th 
to attack the Norwegian flotilla of forty-seven gunsloops and 
four gunyawls, which was stationed in the islands just east 
of Christiania Fjord, but the Norwegians retreated in time, 
and took up another position to the west of the Fjord. On 
August 3rd 5,500 men were landed in the island of Kragero 
close to Frederikstad ; next day a bombardment began, and 
the town surrendered. The Swedes now turned their attention 
to Frederikssten, the citadel of Frederikshald, but on August 
14th the Convention of Moss put an end to the war, and united 
Norway definitely with Sweden. 

The Great War was, practically speaking, at an end. The 
allies had entered Paris on March 31st, and Napoleon had 
signed his act of abdication on April Ilth. The " Hundred 
Days " brought about no naval operations in the Baltic, and, 
therefore, the Convention of Moss marked the end of the war 
in that part of Europe. Five of the Eussian battleships in 
England served early in the year on the Dutch coast, but on the 
conclusion of peace the whole fleet returned to Eussia, accom- 
panied by the only two ships of Senyavin's fleet of 1807 which 
were fit for the journey, the Silnyi 74 and Moshtchnyi 66. The 
state of the three Baltic Navies in 1815 shows clearly enough 
the effect of the war on Denmark. Eussia had twenty-six 
battleships, the seventeen that had returned from England, 
the two others of Crown's Archangel fleet, and seven others 
just completed at Archangel or Petersburg; Sweden had 
thirteen, and Denmark one, the Phoenix 60, launched in 1810. 


CONCLUSION, 1815-1850. 

The end of the Napoleonic wars saw the last purely sailing- 
ship fighting in the Baltic or adjacent seas. Sailing-ships 
served in the Slesvig-Holstein war of 1848-1850, but steam was 
already well established, and the sailing battleship was a mere 
survival. There are, however, several points that need con- 
sideration in finishing up an account of sailing-ship wars in 
these waters, and these will now be dealt with. 

The Danish Navy never recovered its position; an establish- 
ment of six battleships, eight frigates, eight corvettes, and 
eighty gunboats was laid down in 1815, but this was only 
reached for a very few years, between 1840 and 1848. The 
battleships built during this period were as follows : 

Phoenix 60, built 1810, condemned 1832; Dcmmark 66, built 
1817, blockship 1848; Dronning Marie 84, built 1824, frigate 
1849; Waldemar 84, built 1828; Frederik VII., built 1831; 
Shjeld 84, built 1833 ; Christian VIII. 84, built 1840, lost in 
action 1849; Danebrog 72, built 1850, armoured frigate 1863. 

The Swedish Navy at the same time gradually became 
weaker. Of the thirteen battleships which it possessed in 1815 
four were still in service in 1841, and six others had been built. 
The ships condemned were the Gota Ley on (1817), Wladislaw 
(1819), Adolf Fredrik, Gustaf III., Fredrik Adolf, Tapperhet, 
and Gustaf IV. (1825), and Wasa (1830), while the Ara was cut 
down to a frigate in 1839. The new ships built were as 
follows : 

Carl XIII. 85, built 1819, condemned 1865 ; Carl Johan 85, 
built 1824, steamship 1852; Prins Oscar 76, built 1828; Gustaf 
den Store 76, built 1832; Skandinavien 76, built 1840; Stock- 
holm 84, built 1856, altered to steamship before completion. 

Neither the Swedish nor the Danish Navy, therefore, 
reached any considerable strength during the rest of the sail- 
ing-ship epoch. The Russian fleet, however, expanded rapidly, 
and was soon second only to the English. No less than sixty-five 
battleships were built in the Baltic between 1815 and 1855, and 
though most of these had only a short life, the fleet was kept at a 
high total. English accounts give it twenty-seven battleships in 
commission in 1838, and the Baltic fleet at the outbreak of war 
with England in 1854 is said to have consisted of thirty battle- 
ships. Six of its battleships were removed from the list in a 
somewhat remarkable way, five being sold to Spain in 1818 and 
one to Greece in 1830. These were as follows : 

Sold to Spain. Lyubek 74, renamed Numancia; Drezden 74, 

1815-1850. 351 

renamed Alejandro I.; Nord-Adler 74, renamed Espana; 
Neptunus 74, renamed Fernando VII.; Trech Svyatitelei 74, 
renamed Velasco. 

Sold to Greece. Emmanuil 64. 

No fighting took place in the Baltic before the outbreak of 
the Slesvig-Holstein war in 1848, but a Russian squadron was 
sent to the Mediterranean in 1827, and took part in the battle 
of Navarino and the consequent Russo-Turkish war. On June 
23rd, 1827, the following squadron left Kronstadt : 

Azov 80, Tsar Konstantin 74, Aleksandr Nevskii 74, lezekiil 
80, Sysoi Velikii 74, Knyaz Vladimir 74, Gangut 84, Sv. 
Andrei 74, Emmomuil 64. 

On August 7th it reached Portsmouth, and from here the 
Azov, Gangut, lezekiil, and Aleksandr Nevskii were sent on 
into the Mediterranean, while the other ships returned to 
Russia.* On October 13th the Russian squadron of four battle- 
ships and five frigates joined the combined Anglo-French fleet 
of seven battleships and five frigates under Admiral Codring- 
ton, and on October 20th the Turkish fleet was annihilated at 
Navarino. A Russo-Turkish war followed, but few naval 
operations took place, and the Russian ships soon returned to 
the Baltic. 

Steam had already begun to find a place in the Russian 
Navy. A small steamer, the Skoryi, had been built in 1817, 
and Sweden launched the Oden in 1828; but it was not until 
1842 that the Danes followed suit with the HeUa. Still, 
steamers were employed in the war of 1848-50 side by side with 
sailing-ships. This war began with a revolution in Slesvig- 
Holstein, and was soon extended by the intervention of Prussia 
in favour of the Duchies. Neither Slesvig-Holstein nor Prussia 
had any navy, and though a few small steamers were fitted out 
these had no influence on the course of the war. The only 
actions were those between Danish ships and batteries on shore, 
and in one of these the Danish Navy lost two of its best ships. 
The Christian VIII. 84, Gefion 46, and two steamers were sent 
into Eckernforde Fjord to cover a landing on April 5th, 1849. 
They were engaged by two batteries armed with twelve guns, 
and, an action lasting the whole day, ended in the capture of 
the two sailing-ships. The battleship had to be destroyed, but 
the frigate was transferred later to the new German Navy 
under the name of Eckernforde. The Danes Had 105 men killed 
and 61 wounded in this disastrous action. 

Peace was restored in 1850 by the withdrawal of Prussia, 
but four years later the Baltic was again the scene of fighting. 
Here, however, this account must end. The sailing-ship had 

* The Emmanuil presumably went to the Mediterranean also, since she was 
sold to Greece in 1830. 



had her day, the great Russian Baltic fleet attempted nothing 
against the English and French, and the introduction of steam 
and iron put an end for ever to the sailing-ship epoch. Even 
after the Crimean War the Russian Navy was probably the 
strongest in the Baltic, but a new Power was shortly to appear. 
In 1864 the Prussian Navy was able to face the Danes, and 
ever since Germany has been gradually advancing as a sea 
Power. The Russian Navy was at one time a close second to 
the German, but the disasters of the Russo-Japanese war have 
almost destroyed the Russian Baltic fleet, and at the moment 
the Swedish Navy is probably superior to the Russian in the 
Baltic, though, of course, in no way to be compared with the 
German, which is now the second fleet in Europe. 




SHIPS LOST, 1563-70. 

Jomfru. . , 

Mars 173 
Hvita Fallc 
Elefant 65 
Sankt Goran . 
Forgylta Ley on 

Soldan . . 
Langa Bark 
Ul/ve . . 
Nya Viborgsbark 

Skotska Pincka 56 
Fliegende Geist 
Hector 38 

Hercules 81 . . . , 

Hjort 46 

Hector 38 

By ens Leffue 56 

Morian 47 . . 

David 42 

Skotske Pink 56 ; 

Flygande Serpent 8 . 




Hamborger Jegere 

Enkhusiske Jungfrau . 

Danske Folk 

Jegermesther 90 ; 

Danske Christopher . 







H&yenhald . . . 


Griff e .. .. , 

Engelske Fortuna 

Hertug Olufs Pincke . 

Bj0rn . . . . , 


Captured by Danes 


while building, 4/9/1563 

99 > J 


Burnt in action . 


Blown up to prevent capture . . 
Wrecked in Kalmar Sound 



(ex Livonian.) Captured by Danes . 


Burnt in action 


Sunk in action 


Captured by Danes 


Lost at sea . . ... 




99 ... 


Captured by Danes at Varberg 

April, 1568 

Burnt by Danes at Varberg . . 

April, 1568 

(ex Danish.) Captured by Danes 

Aug., 1569 

Captured by Danes 


(ex Danish.) Sunk 


Captured by Swedes 




99 ..... 


99 ..... 


99 ..... 


99 ..... 




99 ..... 

Aug., 1564 

Burnt to avoid capture, Riigen 


99 99 


99 99 


99 99 


Interned, Pomerania 

May, 1565 


May, 1565 

Captured by Swedes 


Sunk in action . . 


Wrecked off Gothland 





















Lost at sea . . < 

July, 1570 

Captured by Swedes 

July, 1570 



Lybaka Bojort 25 . . Captured by Swedes 1562 

Spdckhdk . . .. 1563 

Lybske Necka 21 1563 

Hafs/ru . . . . 1563 

Jonas 4 .... 1563 

Lange Bark . . . . Sunk in action 30/5/1564 

Lybske Svan 50 . . Captured by Swedes 1564 

Gyllenedufva 48 . . , 1564 

Vandakapa . . . . . . . . . . 1564 

Lybske Kristopher 26 1564 

Roda Lejon . . . . 1564 

Uggla 1564 

Lybska Hjort 40 .. 1564 

Lilla Bojort .. .. 1564 

SvartaKo .. .. 1564 

Lybska Maria . . . . . . . . 1564 

Flygande Drake 14 .. 1564 

Klosterko .. .. 1564 

Misericord 10 .. . . 1564 

Lybaka David . . . . 1564 

Lybske Morian . . 1564 

Lybska Engel . . . . 1564 

Lilla Sankt Goran . . 1664 

Lam 1564 

Lybska Pincka 25 .. 1564 

Lybska Ko 12 . . . . 1564 

Roda Ko . . . . 1564 

Lybska Stangekrejare 8 .. .. .. 1564 

Syrig . . . . . . Interned, Pomerania . . . . ' . . May, 1565 

Lybsche Trotz . . . . May, 1565 

Fuchs Captured by Swedes, Riigen . . . . May, 1565 

Engel . . . . . . Accidentally burnt . . . . . . May, 1565 

Sunk in action 7/7/1565 

Morian . . . . Wrecked off Gothland 28/7/1565 

Josua 28/7/1565 

Havfru .. .. 28/7/1565 


Roda Hund 44 . . Captured by Swedes 1563 

Bruna Lejon 40 . . ...... 1563 

Roda Orippa 37 1563 

Forgylda Lejon . . . . . . . . 1563 

Sankt Goran . 1563 

SHIPS LOST, 1571-1613. 


Roda Lejon 40 . . Wrecked near Aland 1572 

StoraFordel .. .. Wrecked, Finland 1672 

Finska Memnon 46 . . Wrecked, Narva (refloated and con- 1574 




Wrecked, Narva 1574 


Captured by Russians and wrecked . . 1575 

Nya Galeja 

Wrecked, Finland . . 1575 

Rose (galley) . . 

Wrecked, Bornholm . . 1576 


Wrecked, Elfsnabben . . 1576 

Roda Pinko, 

Wrecked .. .. 1578 


Captured by Russians . . 1578 

Lilla Svan 21 .. 

Accidentally burnt . . Aug., 1578 

Gyllende Vasa 

Sunk outside Kalmar . . 1579 


Sunk, Gene . . . . 1583 


Wrecked, Oland . . 1586 


Burnt by Russians off Narva . . 1591 


Wrecked, Gothland . . 1602 

Bid Folk 

. . 1608 

Mjolkepiga 18 . 

Captured by Danes .. 22/6/1611 


Captured by Danes near or 24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 

at Kalmar. 

S. Peter 

24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 

Jonas . . 

24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 

Smdlands Hjort 

24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 


24/6/1611 or 3/8/1611 

Summa Summarum 6 

Captured by Danes at Kalmar .. 3/8/1611 

Forgylda Stjerna 

Captured by Danes in Kalmar Sound Aug., 1611 

Roda Lejon 

Captured or sunk Sept., 1611 


Captured by Danes at Elfsborg . . 24/5/1612 


. . 24/5/1612 

Bid Orm 

. . 24/5/1612 


. . 24/5/1612 

Jonas . . 

. . 24/5/1612 


. . 24/5/1612 

Sunk in action, Barosund . . . . June, 1612 

(galley) .. 

Captured by Danes near Stockholm . . Aug., 1612 

Several small craft . . 

Destroyed by Danes near Stockholm Aug., 1612 

Three fireships 

Captured by Danes near Stockholm . . 5/9/1612 



Lost at sea 1599 

Stjern 22 

Captured by Swedes 30/7/1611 



Several ships 

Captured by Swedes at Abo . . . . 1597 

Several ships and boats 

Captured by Swedes in Aland . . 1598 

Forty armed merchant- 

Captured by Swedes at Stegeborg . . 19-21/9/1598 


Hvita Orn 


z 2 



Engelska Drake . . Captured by Swedes at Stegeborg . . 19-21/9/1598 

These last were returned to Sigismund 
and the : 

Hvita Orn .. .. Wrecked at Kalmar Oct., 1598 

39 . . . . Oct., 1598 

Refloated by Swedes and named 


Several ships . . . . Captured by Swedes at Helsingfors . . Sept., 1599 
48.. .. Wrecked .. .. 1599 

Three ships 

Captured by Swedes 


SHIPS LOST, 1620-40. 


Several small craft 
Engel 18 
Mars 18 
Hektor . . 
Orfeus 28 
Perseus 28 
Hannibal 22 . . 
Elefant 30 
Ostgota Lejon 18 
Trekronor 28 . . 
Oranienbom 28 
Stjerna 28 
Salvator 12 

Vasa 32 
Kristina 36 
Eiksnyckel 22 . . 

Captured by Poles off Riga 
Wrecked, Domesness . . 


Wrecked, Domesness 

Wrecked near Pillau 


Captured by Poles 

Blown up to prevent capture 

Capsized near Stockholm 

Wrecked near Danzig . . 

Wrecked near Landsort 

Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1625 
Sept., 1626 
Sept., 1626 


Salvator 26 

Maria Rekompens 26 . . 

Hans von Wissmar 18 

Wissmars Meerman 18 

St. Mikael 18 

Tiger 12 

Meerweib 12 .. 

Delfin 12 

St. Jakob 10 . 


Captured by Swedes at Wismar 

.. 1631 

.. 1631 

. . 1631 

.. 1631 

.. 1631 

Captured by Swedes at 1631 

(ex Swedish ?) 

Captured by Swedes at Wismar 


Forldngare 10 . . 
Hvita Hund 8 
Fenix 7 
Noahs Ark 6 


Captured by Swedes at Wismar 



SHIPS LOST, 1643-45. 


Papegoja 12 


Two ships, thirty small 


Three small craft 
Six small craft, two 

Seven small craft 
For tuna 18 
Stormar 32 
Vestervik 26 .. 
Two fireships 
Arent or Adelaar 22 . 

Orn 40 

St. Jakob 34 .. 
Two ships, thirty small 



Prinds 6 

Patientia 48 
Oldenborg 42 
Tre Lover 46 
Stormar 32 
Neptunus 28 
Nelleblad 24 
To 0ver 22 
Fides 20 
Kronfisk 20 
Havhest or 07^ 14 
Lindorm 38 
Delmenhorst 28 
H&jenhald 8 . . 

(galley) 2 

.Rose (galley) 10 
Samsons Oallej 9 
<S. Peter 22 . . 
Jutekrejare (fireship) 

Scuttled in Kiel Fjord 

Captured by Danes 

(ex Danish ?) Captured by Danes at 

Aalborg and recaptured. 
Captured by Danes, Ystad 


(ex Danish.) Wrecked 


(Hired Dutch.) Wrecked 

Sunk in action 


Captured by Swedes while building, 


Captured by Swedes at Kiel 
Fitted by Swedes, captured by Danes 

and recaptured by Swedes at 


Captured by Thij sen's fleet, Lim Fjord 
Captured by Thij sen's fleet, near 


Captured by Thijsen's fleet, Bornholm 
Captured by Swedes 

Burnt in action 

Run aground in action and wrecked 

" > > 

Captured by Swedes near Gothenburg 
Captured by Swedes near Drager 
Captured by Swedes near Malmo 
Captured by Swedes 









May, 1644 


June, 1644 


July, 1644 
July, 1644 

Aug., 1644 
13/10 1644 




SHIPS LOST, 1652-60. 

Kronfiak 16 

(ex Danish.) Lost at sea Sept., 1655 

Forgylda Lejon 

Wrecked . . . Oct., 1655 


... Oct., 1655 

Andromeda 44 

... Nov., 1655 

Svenske Lam (M.) 

Captured by Danes . 1657 

Svenske L0ve (M.) 


Svenake Grib (M.) 


Two small craft 

Captured by Danes in Little Belt Nov., 1657 

Wrangels Jagt 10 

Captured and burnt by Danes off 23/8/1658 




Jonas (M.) 20 " 

Captured by Danes off Copenhagen 


Fortuna 8 



Morgonstjerna (M.) 44 

Sunk in action 


Pelikan 40 

(ex Danish.) Captured by Dutch 


#oe(M.)40 .. 

Captured by Dutch 


Delmenhorat 36 

(ex Danish. ) Captured by Dutch 


Leopard 36 

Burnt to avoid capture 


Svard 44 

Wrecked in harbour, Landskrona 


Gotland (M.) or Z/aw . . 

Captured by Danes at Trondhjem 


Kalmarkastell (M.) 32 

Wrecked at Marstrand 

Jan., 1659 

Samson 32 

Wrecked in harbour, Landskrona 


uan 36 

Captured by Danes 


-Perm; (M.) 30 

Sunk in action 


Fama (fireship) 

Wrecked, Bornholm 


Konung David (M.) 19 

Captured by Dutch 

Aug., 1659 

tfopp (M.) 20 .. 

Captured by Danes and Dutch, Little Nov., 1659 


Sorte ffwnd 10 

(ex Danish.) Captured by Danes and Nov., 1659 

Dutch, Little Belt. 

Foeg'tore 4 

Captured by Danes and Dutch, Little Nov., 1659 


Flyvende Hjort (P.) 6 
Gribbe 12 
Delmenhorat 44 
Falk 16 

Pelikan 36 . . 
Snarensvend 30 

80blad 12 


St. J or gen (fireship) . . 
Jaegere (fireship) 
Dynkerker Bojort (fire- 

Hvide Bj&rn 40 
Gran Ulv 36 . 


Wrecked off Gothenburg 
Captured by Swedes 
Captured by Swedes at Kors0r 

Wrecked ' 

Captured by Swedes at Nyborg 

Captured by Swedes 

Captured by Swedes, Helsinger, and 

sunk by fort. 
Captured by Swedes 

Lost at sea 

Captured by Swedes at Ebeltoft 

Nov., 1657 
Feb., 1658 

Aug., 1658 
Aug., 1658 
Sept., 1658 



Johannes 20 .. 
F&nika 40 

Brederode 59 .. 

(galiot) . . 

Munnickendam 32 
Prins Wilhelm 28 
Wapen van Enckhuysen 

Hollands Tuin 12 

Antelope 56 


(ex Swedish Jonas ?) 
Swedes at Ebeltoft. 
Captured by Swedes 

Captured by 


Captured and sunk in action with 

Sunk in action 
Captured by Swedes 

Blown up in action 
Captured by Swedes 

Wrecked on coast of Jylland . . 










SHIPS LOST, 1675-95. 


Elefant 20 
Saltsack 12 


. 16/10/1675 

Falk 40 

Captured by Danes at Wismar 

. 13/12/1675 

Vestervik 44 .. 

Accidentally burnt 

. 9/4/1676 

Constantia (M.) 48 .. 

Burnt to avoid capture . . ' . 

. 23/4/1676 

Caritas (M.) 32 

Captured by Danes . . . . . 

. 23/4/1676 

Konung David (10) 

Captured by Dutch and burnt . 

. 26/5/1676 

Leopard (fireship) 22 

Captured by Brandenburgers . . 

. 26/5/1676 

Krona 126 

Capsized and blown up in action 

. 1/6/1676 

Svdrd 94 

Burnt in action 

. 1/6/1676 

Neptumis 44 .. 

Captured by Dutch 

. 1/6/1676 

Enhorn 16 

. . . 

. 1/6/1676 

Jernvdg (M.) 24 

Captured by Danes 

. 1/6/1676 

Ekhorre 8 

. . . . 

. 1/6/1676 

Bddkrita (fireship) 

Burnt to avoid capture 

. 1/6/1676 

Apple 86 

Wrecked, Dalaro 

. 5/6/1676 

Jdgare 22 

Accidentally burnt 

. 21/8/1676 

Sundsvall 32 .. 

Wrecked, Riga . . . . . 

. Oct., 1676 

Maria . . 

Captured by Brandenburgers . 

. 12/11/1676 

Kalmarkastell (M.) 72 

Captured by Danes and destroyed 

. 1/6/1677 

Amarant 46 

Captured by Danes 

. 1/6/1677 

Hafsfru (M.) 46 


. 1/6/1677 

Wrangels Pallats 44 . . 


. 1/6/1677 

Engel Gabriel (M.) 32.. 


. 1/6/1677 

Diana 6 


. 1/6/1677 

Venus 4 

,, ... 

. 1/6/1677 

Mars 72 

,, ... 

. 1/7/1677 

Drafce 64 

,, ... 

. 1/7/1677 

Cesar 60 

,, ... 

. 1/7/1677 

Svenska Lejon 52 

. 1/7/1677 

Flygande Varg (M.) 56 

,, ... 

. 1/7/1677 

GVono .Drafce 8 


. 1/7/1677 



Grip 8 
HieronymuB 72 
Merkurius 66 
Kalmar 62 
Ekorre 12 
Rose . . 
Spe* . . 
Bauer (M.) 

Burnt in action 
Captured by Dutch 

Burnt in action 
Captured by Brandenburgers 

Burnt to avoid capture 

Nov., 1677 
Oct , 1678 

Kronolund . . 

Oct., 1678 



Jan., 1679 



Lax 50 

JVycfceZ 84 
*7Za Konung David 10 

Captured by Danes 
Burnt in action 

Nov., 1679 
Dec., 1679 

Kjtibenhavn 50 
Enighed 62 
.tfbrsfce L0w 86 
.Los* 30 
Gyldenlewe 56 .. 

Westfrisia 80 .. 
Hollandia 76 


Run aground or burnt 
Sunk as blockade, Kalmar 
Wrecked, Bornholm 
Accidentally burnt 
Captured by English but released later 


Captured by Swedes 

July, 1676 

Sept., 1679 


Nov., 1683 
Nov., 1683 

TFapew wan Jkfowni- 
kendam 72. 
TFoerden 70 . . 


Nov., 1683 
Nov., 1683 

Tijdverdrijf 52 

Nov., 1683 

Prina te Paard 52 

Nov., 1683 

Nov., 1683 

(?owda 42 

Nov., 1683 

Carolua II. 


Captured by Swedes 4/8/1677 


Captured by Brandenburgers . . . . 18/9/1680 

Mjohund 6 
Folk 6 . . 
Flundra 4 
Vivat 12 (or 4) 

SHIPS LOST, 1700-21 


Captured by Russians, Archangel 

Captured by Russians, L. Peipus 

July, 1702 



Two boats 
Gadda 10 (or 6) 
Astrild 8 (or 5) 
Carolus 12 
Wachtmeiater 14 
Ulrika 10 
Dorpat 10 
Victoria Vatblat 10 
Vivat 10 
Elephant 8 
Narva 8 
Horn 4.. 
Nummers 4 
Shliperibach 4 
Sfro/eZcZ 2 
Shrttte 2 
Two boats 
Jungfrau Maria 

Santa Anna . . 
flw. Petr 

Prorok Daniel 
Four galiots . . 
Oland 50 

Esper 4 

Tre Kronor 86 . . 
Prinsessa Ulrika 80 
A schooner 

(P.) 11 .. 

Svenske Sophia 20 
Flyvende Mercurius 
Ulv 2 . . 
Sorte .4dZer 8 . . 
Guldenstern 4 . . 
A boat 

Kreft 25 (or 14) 
Two boats 8 each 
Goto e;on (P.) 18 
Poc/ia(P.) 16.. 
.Rev 8 . . 
Viborg 36 
Elefant 18 

<3ra 16 
Trana 16 
Grip 16 
aaa 12 
G&Wa 12 
Hvalfisk 2 
Flundra 6 
M ort 4 

Guldende Ulv 4 
Three privateers 

Captured by Russians, L. Ladoga 
Captured by Russians, R. Neva 

Captured by Russians, L. Peipus 

Captured by Russians, Narva 
(Russian name ?) Captured by 
Russians, Narva. 

Captured by English, 6/8/1704; re 

leased ; wrecked. 
Captured by Russians off Viborg 
Run aground and burnt, Kjoge Bay 

> j 

Captured by Russian prisoners 
Captured by Russians, North Sea 
Captured by Danes 

Captured by Russians 


Captured by Danes 

Captured by Russians, Stettin 

Wrecked ' 

Captured or destroyed by Russians 

Captured by Danes 
Captured by Russians, Osel 


































Enhdrning (P.) 18 
Esperance (P.) 11 
Stockholm Oallej (P.) 10 
Pr. Hedvig Sophia 75 . . 
Nordstjerna 76 
Sodermanland 56 
Ooteborg 50 
Hvita Orn 30 .. 
Falk 26 
Three frigates 
Four frigates . . 

- (P.) 4 .. 
Putsweck 4 
Snapop 2 
Rode Hommer 8 
Hummer 8 
Landeorth 14 .. 

- 36 

Stenbock 24 
Proserpina 14 
Ulysses 6 
Lucretia 12 
PoKwo; 5 

Ilderim 36 

Fortuna 8 

Triumphant (P.) 8 . 
Hvalfisk (P.) 12 
Du Gala Oallej (P.) 8 . 
Andromeda (P.) 10 . 
Island or Islands- 

fahrere 28. 
- 16 


-(P.) 14 .. 
Several small craft 
Two small craft 

La Revange (P.) 8 
_ g 

Od Pd 20 (pram) 

14 (galley) 
Viktoria 10 (galley) 
Louisa 4 (galley) 
Lucretia 12 (galley) 
Pollux 5 (half galley). 
Luhr 22 (half galley) . 

Norske Merkurius 8 
Lykkens Post 6 
Hvita Orn 6 . . 
Calmar 58 

Captured by Russians . 

Captured by Danes and destroyed 
Captured by Danes 

Run ashore and burnt, Riigen 
Destroyed (?) near Stralsund . 
Captured by Russians . . 

Captured by Allies, Stralsund ; Danish 

Navy as Stralsund. 
Captured by Danes, Dynekil 

Destroyed, Dynekil 

Captured by English ; sold to Danes ; 

renamed Pommern. 
Captured by Danes 
Captured by Danes off Gothenburg . . 










Sept., 1715 

Nov., 1715 







Jan., 1716 

Oct., 1716 

Captured by Danes 
Captured by Russians . . 


May, 1717 
May, 1717 
. . May, 1717 
. . May, 1717 
. . May or June, 1717 

Accidentally blown up, Karlskrona . 
Captured by Russians 

Destroyed by Danes (?) Idefjord 
Captured by Danes 

,, . . 

Destroyed to prevent capture, Strom- 

(ex Danish) 

(ex Danish ; ex Swedish) 

Destroyed to prevent capture, Strom - 

Captured by Danes 

Sunk to avoid capture, Marstrand 









July, 1719 

July, 1719 
July, 1719 
July, 1719 
July, 1719 
July, 1719 
July, 1719 



Stettin 58 

Halmstad 54 .. 

Fredrika 52 .. 

Warberg 52 . . 

Pr. Fred. v. Hessen (M) 


Oref Mdrner (M) 49 . . 
Stdbell (M) 49.. 
Charlotta 38 .. 
William Galley 14 . . 
Oe pd 18 (pram) 
Castor 6 (galley) 
Diana 4 
Two fireships . . 
Prins Carl 7 . . 

Carolus XII (M) 49 . . 
Mdrner (P.) .. 
TFrede 22 (galley) 
Johannes den Gamle . . 

A transport . . 
Wachtmeister 48 
Karlskrona Wapen 30 
Bemhardus 10 
Stora Phoenix 34 
Vainqueur 30 .. 
Kiskin 22 
Danska Orn 18 

Six galleys 

Hummer 32 
Postillion 20 . . 
Dannebroge 82 
Svermer 16 
Sfew*flr 50 
Flyvende Dragon 16 
- 16 
A hospital ship 
Heyre 24 

Forgyldte Abhorre 4 
Frederick III. 56 
Lindorm 6 . 

Orn 20 

Pocfca 16 
Louisa 7 (galley) 
Lucretia 13 (galley) 

Andrikt 12 
PoKwcc 5 (gaUey) 
A boat 

Sunk to avoid capture, Marstrand . . 

Captured by Danes, Marstrand 
Sunk, but raised by Danes, Marstrand 

Captured by Danes 

Sunk to avoid capture (?) 

(ex Danish.) Captured by Danes, 

Burnt by Danes, Gothenburg 

(ex Danish. ) Burnt by Danes, Gothen- 

> > 

Captured by Russians . . 

Captured by Russian galleys, Aland 

(ex Danish.) Captured by Russian 

galleys, Aland. 
Burnt to prevent capture by Russians 


Captured by Swedes in the Elbe 

Wrecked, west coast of Jylland 

Burnt in action . . 

Wrecked, Anholt 

Lost at sea 

Wrecked, west coast of Jylland 

Captured by Swedes 


Sunk in action . . 

Wrecked, Jylland 

Wrecked, Bergen 

Wrecked, Norway 

(ex Swedish Goto Lejon.) Wrecked 

North Sea. 
Captured by Swedes 
(ex Swedish P. ) Run aground in action 

and destroyed. 

Wrecked, Anholt 

Captured by Swedes, Gothenburg 

(ex Swedish.) Captured by Swedes. 


Wrecked, Jylland 

(ex Swedish. ) Captured by Swedes . . 
Captured by Swedes 








June, 1721 





Oct., 1711 


June, 1712 







April, 1715 



Sept., 1717 
Sept., 1717 



Snarensvend 12 
Qiotteborg 42 .. 
Prinds Christian 1 


Prinds Carl 7 (galley) 
Langemar (battery) . . 
Spydstag (battery) . . 
Johannes den Oamle 

A boat 12 

Falk . . 

Sv. Ilya 28 
Vyborg 50 
Bulinbruk 52 . . 
Sazan (galley) . . 

-(galley) .. 

Two galleys . . 
Five galleys . . 
Six galleys 
Transport Royal 20 
For tuna 48 
Antonii 50 
Lizet 16 
Printses 18 
London 58 
Portsmut 52 . . 
Two galleys . . 
Forty-three galleys 

Endracht 32 . . 
Nishtat 56 

Auguate 60 
Monk 50 

Burnt to avoid capture 

(ex Swedish.) Wrecked, Iceland 

Captured by Swedes 



(ex Swedish ?) Captured by Swedes 

Wrecked on Lake Ladoga before com- 


Run aground and burnt 

Captured by Swedes on way to Russia 

Aground and captured by Swedes, 

Broken up in transport overland, 

Lost in Abo skarg&rd 

Lost on expedition to Sweden 

Lost on west of Finland 

Wrecked near Gothenburg 

Wrecked, Revel . . 

,, . . . . . . . . 

Wrecked, Norway 

Wrecked, West Baltic 

Wrecked near Kronstadt 

Sunk in action with Swedish frigates . . 
Burnt after action with Swedish 


Captured by Swedes on way to Russia 
Wrecked, Osel 


Wrecked on Danish coast 
Wrecked near Yarmouth 

Mar., 1718 




May, 1709 

Sept., 1712 





Sept., 1714 

Oct., 1714 

Oct., 1714 

Nov., 1715 









July, 1720 



SHIPS LOST, 1722-87.* 

Sverige 80 
Svarta Orn 34 
Gland 60 
Several boats . . 
Sophia Albertina 62 


Wrecked on Spanish coast . . . . 1738 

Wrecked on Finnish coast . . . . 1741 

Wrecked on Bornholm . . . . 1742 

Captured by Prussians near Stettin . . 6/9/1761 

Wrecked on Dutch coast . . . . 1781 

* The lists are probably fairly complete for the wars of 1733 4, 1741-3, 1756-63, and the